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<
1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 dertobi123 1.190 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml,v 1.189 2003/11/30 12:06:52 swift Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
5 swift 1.149 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
6 swift 1.177
7 swift 1.149 <author title="Chief Architect">
8 swift 1.177 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Author">
11     Chris Houser
12     </author>
13     <author title="Author">
14     Jerry Alexandratos
15 swift 1.149 </author>
16 swift 1.158 <author title="Ghost, Reviewer">
17 swift 1.177 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
18 swift 1.149 </author>
19 swift 1.180 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
20     John P. Davis
21 swift 1.149 </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23 swift 1.177 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
24 swift 1.149 </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26 swift 1.177 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
27 swift 1.149 </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29 swift 1.177 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
30 swift 1.149 </author>
31     <author title="Editor">
32 swift 1.177 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
33 swift 1.149 </author>
34     <author title="Editor">
35 swift 1.177 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
36 swift 1.149 </author>
37     <author title="Editor">
38 swift 1.177 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
39 swift 1.149 </author>
40     <author title="Editor">
41 swift 1.177 Colin Morey
42 swift 1.149 </author>
43     <author title="Editor">
44 swift 1.177 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
45     </author>
46     <author title="Editor">
47     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
48 swift 1.149 </author>
49     <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
50 swift 1.177 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
51 swift 1.149 </author>
52     <author title="Editor">
53 swift 1.177 <mail link="avenj@gentoo.org">Jon Portnoy</mail>
54 swift 1.149 </author>
55 antifa 1.150 <author title="Editor">
56 swift 1.177 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
57 antifa 1.150 </author>
58 erwin 1.175 <author title="Editor">
59 swift 1.177 <mail link="erwin@gentoo.org">Erwin</mail>
60 erwin 1.175 </author>
61 swift 1.149 <author title="Reviewer">
62 swift 1.177 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail>
63 swift 1.149 </author>
64     <author title="Reviewer">
65 swift 1.177 <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>
66 swift 1.149 </author>
67 swift 1.154 <author title="Reviewer">
68 swift 1.177 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
69 swift 1.154 </author>
70 swift 1.164 <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
71 swift 1.177 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
72 bennyc 1.162 </author>
73 swift 1.149
74     <abstract>
75     These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
76     Linux 1.4, release version (not _rc versions). The Gentoo Linux installation
77     process supports various installation approaches, depending upon how much of
78     the system you want to custom-build from scratch.
79     </abstract>
80    
81     <license/>
82 swift 1.141
83 dertobi123 1.190 <version>2.6.29</version>
84     <date>December 13, 2003</date>
85 swift 1.149
86     <chapter>
87     <title>About the Install</title>
88     <section>
89 swift 1.176 <title>Introduction</title>
90 swift 1.149 <body>
91    
92     <p>
93 swift 1.176 Welcome to Gentoo Linux! Gentoo Linux can be installed in many different ways.
94     Those who are looking for a rapid install can use pre-built packages, while
95     those who want the ultimate in customizability can compile Gentoo Linux
96     entirely from the original source code. The method you choose is up to you.
97 swift 1.149 </p>
98    
99     <p>
100     One significant change in relation to the official 1.4 release is
101     our new 2-CD installation set, which can be ordered from <uri
102     link="http://store.gentoo.org">The Gentoo Linux Store</uri>, in
103 swift 1.177 addition to being available on our <uri
104     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>.
105 bennyc 1.165 We currently have 2-CD installation sets for x86 (486 and above),
106     i686 (Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Athlon/Duron and above), Pentium III,
107     Pentium 4 and Athlon XP. To see what 2-CD set is right for you, read
108     the detailed descriptions of each product in the <uri
109 swift 1.149 link="http://store.gentoo.org">store</uri>. The store descriptions
110     contain fairly comprehensive CPU compatibility information.
111     </p>
112    
113 swift 1.167 <p>
114     You can find and download the ISOs for the LiveCDs from most of our
115 swift 1.176 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
116     LiveCDs for the x86 architecture are located inside the
117 swift 1.167 <path>releases/x86/1.4/livecd/</path> subdirectory.
118     </p>
119    
120 swift 1.176 </body>
121     </section>
122     <section>
123     <title>The Installation CDs</title>
124     <body>
125    
126 swift 1.177 <p>
127     So, about the 2 CD set -- here's what's on each CD. The first
128 swift 1.149 CD ("CD 1") is called "Live CD Installation" and is a bootable CD-ROM,
129     meaning that you can put "CD 1" in your drive and run Gentoo Linux
130     directly from the CD. You can then use this CD-based version of
131     Gentoo to install Gentoo Linux 1.4 to your hard disk. In addition
132     to containing a bootable Gentoo Linux environment, CD 1
133     contains everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly, even
134     without a connection to the Internet. In addition, several
135     pre-compiled packages are also included on CD 1, such as the
136     ever-important XFree86 X server. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image
137 swift 1.167 file for CD 1, its name will contain <path>-cd1</path>.
138 swift 1.149 </p>
139    
140     <p>
141     In contrast, the second CD ("CD 2") isn't bootable and contains
142     lots of pre-built packages for your system. Included on this CD are
143     optimized versions of packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice,
144     Mozilla, Evolution and others. CD 2 is <e>optional</e> and is
145     intended for those people who are interested in installing Gentoo
146     Linux very quickly. The packages included on CD 2 typically take
147     about 36 hours to compile from source on a typical modern
148     single-processor system. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image file for CD
149 swift 1.167 2, its name will contain <path>-cd2</path>.
150 swift 1.149 </p>
151    
152     <note>
153     A complete Gentoo Linux 2-CD set contains the Gentoo Reference
154     Platform, which is a complete pre-built Gentoo Linux system including GNOME,
155     KDE, Mozilla and OpenOffice. The Gentoo Reference Platform ("GRP")
156     was created to allow rapid Gentoo Linux package installations
157     for those who need this capability. The "compile from
158     source" functionality, which is the cornerstone of Gentoo Linux,
159     will always be a fully-supported installation option as well. The
160     purpose of the GRP is to make Gentoo Linux more convenient for some
161     users, without impacting Gentoo's powerful "compile from source"
162     installation process in any way.
163     </note>
164    
165     <p>
166     In addition to our 2-CD set, we also have a very small "basic"
167     Live CD that you can use to boot your system. Once your system has
168     booted, you can configure a connection to the Internet and then
169     install Gentoo over the network. The advantage of this "basic" CD is
170     that it is small and thus the ISO CD-ROM image file can be
171     downloaded quickly. If you're an advanced user who wants to install
172     the most up-to-date version of Gentoo Linux available and have a
173     fast network connection, then you may prefer this option. If you
174     have an ISO CD-ROM image file for our "basic" Live CD, its name will
175 swift 1.167 contain <path>-basic</path>.
176 swift 1.149 </p>
177 swift 1.176
178     </body>
179     </section>
180     <section>
181     <title>Requirements</title>
182     <body>
183    
184 swift 1.149 <p>
185     To use any Gentoo Linux CD-based installation method, you will
186     need to have a 486+ processor and ideally at least 64 Megabytes of
187     RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully built with 64MB of RAM +
188     64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully slow under
189     those conditions.)
190     </p>
191    
192 swift 1.176 </body>
193     </section>
194     <section>
195     <title>Choosing an Installation Method</title>
196     <body>
197    
198 swift 1.149 <p>
199     Once you boot one of our Live CDs, you have even more options.
200     Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot;
201     tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system
202 swift 1.176 you want to compile yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you
203 swift 1.149 want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The
204 swift 1.176 <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for building the entire system from a
205     bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The <e>stage3</e> tarball already
206 swift 1.149 contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for
207     you. If you are interested in doing a "GRP" install, then the
208 swift 1.176 stage3 tarball must be used.
209 swift 1.149 </p>
210    
211     <p>
212     <b>If you're not doing a GRP install, should you start from a stage1, stage2, or
213 swift 1.176 stage3 tarball?</b>
214     </p>
215    
216     <p>
217     Here is some information that should help you
218 swift 1.149 make this decision.
219     </p>
220    
221     <p>
222     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total
223     control over the optimization settings and optional build-time
224     functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes
225     stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing.
226     It is also a great installation method for those who would like to
227     know more about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
228     </p>
229 swift 1.142
230 swift 1.149 <p>
231     Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing
232     this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we
233     chose for your particular stage2 tarball.
234     </p>
235 swift 1.142
236 swift 1.149 <p>
237     And choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
238     Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
239     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were
240     carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
241     stability). Since major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's
242     specifically optimized for various popular processors, starting
243     from a stage3 can offer the best of all worlds -- a fast install
244     and a system that is well-optimized.
245     </p>
246 swift 1.142
247 swift 1.149 <p>
248     <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider using a
249     stage3 tarball for installation, or a stage3 with GRP.</b>
250     </p>
251 antifa 1.106
252 swift 1.149 <note>
253     <b>Advanced users:</b> If you use a stage3 install, you should not
254     change the default CHOST setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If you need
255     to make such a change, you should start with a stage1 tarball and build up
256     your system with the desired CHOST setting. The CHOST setting
257     typically looks something like this: <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>.
258     </note>
259 antifa 1.106
260 swift 1.149 <impo>
261     If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
262     report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
263     needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (e.g. the KDE
264     team) the <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
265     </impo>
266 antifa 1.106
267 swift 1.149 <note>
268     The installation instructions in the LiveCD may not be as up-to-date as our
269 swift 1.177 Web documentation at
270     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri>.
271 swift 1.149 Refer to our Web documentation for the most up-to-date installation
272     instructions.
273     </note>
274 antifa 1.106
275 swift 1.176 </body>
276     </section>
277     <section>
278     <title>The Installation Process</title>
279     <body>
280    
281 swift 1.149 <p>
282     Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
283     CD(s) and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create
284     partitions, create our filesystems and extract either a stage1, stage2 or
285     stage3 tarball. If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take
286     the appropriate steps to get our system to stage3. Once our system is at
287     stage3, we can configure it (customize configuration files, install a boot
288     loader, etc.), boot it and have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. After
289     your basic Gentoo Linux system is running, you can optionally use "CD 2" of
290     our 2-CD set and install any number of pre-built packages such as KDE, GNOME,
291     OpenOffice, Mozilla, or others that you'd like on your system.
292     </p>
293 antifa 1.105
294 swift 1.149 <p>
295     Depending on what stage of the build process you're starting from, here is
296     what is required for installation:
297     </p>
298 antifa 1.106
299 swift 1.149 <table>
300 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="0.75in"/>
301     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
302     <tcolumn width="1.25in"/>
303     <tcolumn width="3.5in"/>
304 swift 1.149 <tr>
305 swift 1.177 <th>Stage Tarball</th>
306     <th>Internet Access Required</th>
307     <th>Media Required</th>
308     <th>Steps</th>
309 swift 1.149 </tr>
310     <tr>
311 swift 1.177 <ti>1</ti>
312     <ti>Yes</ti>
313     <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
314     <ti>
315     Partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, final
316     config
317     </ti>
318 swift 1.149 </tr>
319     <tr>
320 swift 1.177 <ti>2</ti>
321     <ti>Yes</ti>
322     <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
323     <ti>Partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, final config</ti>
324 swift 1.149 </tr>
325     <tr>
326 swift 1.177 <ti>3</ti>
327     <ti>No if using <e>CD 1</e>, Yes otherwise</ti>
328     <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
329     <ti>
330     Partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync (not required if using <e>CD 1</e>),
331     final config
332     </ti>
333 swift 1.149 </tr>
334     <tr>
335 swift 1.177 <ti>3+GRP</ti>
336     <ti>No</ti>
337     <ti><e>CD 1</e>, <e>CD 2</e> optionally</ti>
338     <ti>
339     Partition/filesystem setup, final config, install CD 1 pre-built packages
340     (optional), reboot, install extra pre-built packages like KDE and GNOME
341     (if using "CD 2")
342     </ti>
343 swift 1.149 </tr>
344     </table>
345 antifa 1.105
346 swift 1.149 <note>
347     Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about ATA RAID on the bottom
348     of this document before proceeding.
349     </note>
350 antifa 1.105
351 swift 1.149 </body>
352     </section>
353     </chapter>
354 antifa 1.105
355 swift 1.149 <chapter>
356     <title>Booting</title>
357     <section>
358     <body>
359 antifa 1.105
360 swift 1.149 <warn>
361     Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the available boot
362     options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong keyboard settings, unstarted
363     pcmcia services etc..
364     </warn>
365 antifa 1.105
366 swift 1.149 <p>
367     Start by booting your Live CD of choice. You should see a fancy
368     boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you
369     can hit Enter to begin the boot process, or boot the LiveCD with
370     custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options
371     and then hitting Enter. For example: <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>.
372     If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with more than one
373     processor ("SMP"), then you should type <c>smp</c> instead of
374     <c>gentoo</c> at the prompt. This will allow the LiveCD to see all
375     the processors in your system, not just the first one.
376     </p>
377 swift 1.177
378 swift 1.149 <p>
379     Consult the following table for a partial list of available kernels and
380     options or press F2 and F3 to view the help screens.
381     </p>
382 antifa 1.105
383 swift 1.149 <table>
384 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
385     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
386 swift 1.177 <tr>
387     <th>Available kernels</th>
388     <th>Description</th>
389     </tr>
390     <tr>
391     <ti>gentoo</ti>
392     <ti>Standard gentoo kernel (default)</ti>
393     </tr>
394     <tr>
395     <ti>nofb</ti>
396     <ti>Framebuffer mode disabled</ti>
397     </tr>
398     <tr>
399     <ti>smp</ti>
400     <ti>Loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti>
401     </tr>
402     <tr>
403     <ti>acpi</ti>
404     <ti>Enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti>
405     </tr>
406     <tr>
407     <ti>memtest</ti>
408     <ti>Boots the memory testing program</ti>
409     </tr>
410 swift 1.149 </table>
411 antifa 1.105
412 swift 1.149 <table>
413 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
414     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
415 swift 1.177 <tr>
416     <th>Available boot options</th>
417     <th>Description</th>
418     </tr>
419     <tr>
420     <ti>doataraid</ti>
421     <ti>Loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti>
422     </tr>
423     <tr>
424     <ti>dofirewire</ti>
425     <ti>Modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc.)</ti>
426     </tr>
427     <tr>
428     <ti>dokeymap</ti>
429     <ti>Enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti>
430     </tr>
431     <tr>
432     <ti>dopcmcia</ti>
433     <ti>Starts pcmcia service</ti>
434     </tr>
435     <tr>
436     <ti>doscsi</ti>
437     <ti>Scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti>
438     </tr>
439     <tr>
440     <ti>noapm</ti>
441     <ti>Disables apm module load</ti>
442     </tr>
443     <tr>
444     <ti>nodetect</ti>
445     <ti>Causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti>
446     </tr>
447     <tr>
448     <ti>nodhcp</ti>
449     <ti>Dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti>
450     </tr>
451     <tr>
452     <ti>nohotplug</ti>
453     <ti>Disables loading hotplug service</ti>
454     </tr>
455     <tr>
456     <ti>noraid</ti>
457     <ti>Disables loading of evms modules</ti>
458     </tr>
459     <tr>
460     <ti>nousb</ti>
461     <ti>Disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti>
462     </tr>
463     <tr>
464     <ti>ide=nodma</ti>
465     <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti>
466     </tr>
467     <tr>
468     <ti>cdcache</ti>
469     <ti>
470     Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram. This uses 40mb of RAM, but
471     allows you to umount <path>/mnt/cdrom</path> and mount another cdrom.
472     </ti>
473     </tr>
474 swift 1.149 </table>
475 drobbins 1.70
476 swift 1.149 <p>
477     Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with an even fancier boot
478     screen and progress bar.
479     </p>
480 swift 1.176
481     <warn>
482     If your screen turns blank instead of giving you a fancy boot screen, try
483     booting with the <e>nofb</e> kernel. It is highly likely that our kernel
484     doesn't support your graphical adapter for framebuffer (grafical mode
485     without X server).
486     </warn>
487 swift 1.142
488 swift 1.149 <p>
489     Once the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in
490     to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "<e>root</e>", the "super user". You should
491     have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
492     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
493     you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
494     </p>
495    
496     <note>
497     <b>Advanced users:</b> When the Live CD boots, the Live CD root password is
498 swift 1.142 set to a random string for security purposes. If you plan to start
499     <c>sshd</c> to allow remote logins to your Live CD, you should set the Live
500     CD root password now by typing <c>passwd</c> and following the prompts.
501     Otherwise, you will not know the proper password for logging into the Live
502 swift 1.149 CD over the network.
503     </note>
504    
505     <p>
506     You've probably also noticed that above your # prompt is a bunch of
507     help text that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking
508     and telling you where you can find the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages
509     on your CD.
510     </p>
511    
512     </body>
513     </section>
514     </chapter>
515    
516     <chapter>
517     <title>Optional hardware configuration</title>
518     <section>
519     <body>
520    
521     <p>
522     When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware
523     devices and loads the appropiate kernel modules to support your
524     hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job.
525     However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules
526     you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you
527     will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
528     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
529     /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
530     type:
531     </p>
532 swift 1.142
533 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
534 swift 1.177 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
535 swift 1.149 # <i>modprobe pcnet32</i>
536 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
537 swift 1.149
538     <p>
539     Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't
540     detected during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to
541     load the appropriate modules from <path>/lib/modules</path>, again using
542     <c>modprobe</c>:
543     </p>
544    
545 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
546 swift 1.177 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
547 swift 1.149 # <i>modprobe aic7xxx</i>
548 swift 1.177 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
549 swift 1.149 # <i>modprobe sd_mod</i>
550 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
551 swift 1.149
552     <note>
553     Support for SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
554     </note>
555    
556     <note>
557     <b>Advanced users:</b> The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA
558     on your disks so that disk transfers are as fast as possible, but if it did not,
559     <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives as follows:
560     <pre caption="Setting DMA">
561     <comment>(Replace hdX with your disk device)</comment>
562 swift 1.177 <comment>(Enables DMA:)</comment>
563 swift 1.149 # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX</i>
564 swift 1.177 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options:)</comment>
565 swift 1.149 # <i>hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX</i>
566 swift 1.177 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up:)</comment>
567 swift 1.149 # <i>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX</i>
568 jhhudso 1.75 </pre>
569 swift 1.149 </note>
570 swift 1.142
571 swift 1.177
572 swift 1.149 </body>
573     </section>
574     </chapter>
575     <chapter>
576     <title>Optional Networking configuration</title>
577     <section>
578     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
579     <body>
580    
581     <p>
582     If your system is plugged into an Ethernet network, it is very
583     likely that your networking configuration has already been
584     set up automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of
585     the many included network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>,
586 swift 1.173 <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>links</c>, among
587 swift 1.149 others.
588     </p>
589 swift 1.177
590 swift 1.149 <p>
591     If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command
592     should list some internet interfaces besides lo, such as eth0:
593     </p>
594    
595 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
596 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
597     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
598     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
599     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
600     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
601     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
602     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
603     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
604 swift 1.149 Interrupt:11 Base address:0xe800
605 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
606 swift 1.149
607     <p>
608     You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in
609     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>) and a Web site of choice, just to make sure
610     that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working
611     correctly, etc..
612     </p>
613    
614 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
615 swift 1.149 # <i>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com</i>
616 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
617 swift 1.149
618     <p>
619     Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this
620     section.
621     </p>
622    
623     </body>
624     </section>
625     <section>
626     <title>PPPoE configuration</title>
627     <body>
628    
629     <p>
630     Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version)
631     has made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided
632     <c>adsl-setup</c> script to configure your connection. You will be prompted
633     for the ethernet device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username
634     and password, the IPs of your DNS servers and if you need a basic firewall
635     or not.
636     </p>
637    
638 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
639 swift 1.149 # <i> adsl-setup </i>
640     # <i> adsl-start </i>
641 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
642 swift 1.149
643     <p>
644     If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed your username
645     and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
646     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and make sure you are using the right
647     ethernet device.
648     </p>
649    
650     </body>
651     </section>
652     <section>
653     <title>Automatic Network Configuration </title>
654     <body>
655    
656     <p>
657     The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured
658     automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script:
659     </p>
660    
661 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
662 swift 1.149 # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
663 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
664 swift 1.149
665     <p>
666     Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is
667     covered next.
668     </p>
669    
670     </body>
671     </section>
672     <section>
673     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
674     <body>
675    
676     <p>
677     Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
678     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below.
679     </p>
680    
681 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
682 swift 1.149 # <i>dhcpcd eth0</i>
683 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
684 swift 1.149
685     <note>
686     Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that, add a
687     <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
688     </note>
689    
690     <p>
691     If you receive <e>dhcpConfig</e> warnings, don't panic; the errors are most
692     likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.
693     </p>
694    
695     </body>
696     </section>
697     <section>
698     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
699     <body>
700    
701     <p>
702     We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download sources for
703     the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed
704     information is explained in the next table.
705     </p>
706 swift 1.117
707     <table>
708 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="1.25in"/>
709     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
710     <tcolumn width="1.25in"/>
711 swift 1.177 <tr>
712     <th>Information</th>
713     <th>Description</th>
714     <th>Example value</th>
715     </tr>
716     <tr>
717     <ti>IP address</ti>
718     <ti>The IP address you want to assign to your network card</ti>
719     <ti>192.168.1.2</ti>
720     </tr>
721     <tr>
722     <ti>Broadcast address</ti>
723     <ti>
724     The IP address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the
725     network
726     </ti>
727     <ti>192.168.1.255</ti>
728     </tr>
729     <tr>
730     <ti>Network mask</ti>
731     <ti>
732     The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the
733     address is for network-identification and host-identification
734     </ti>
735     <ti>255.255.255.0</ti>
736     </tr>
737     <tr>
738     <ti>Gateway</ti>
739     <ti>
740     The IP address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not
741     meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the
742     internet connection)
743     </ti>
744     <ti>192.168.1.1</ti>
745     </tr>
746 swift 1.117 </table>
747 swift 1.149
748     <p>
749     Type in the following commands, replacing <c>$IFACE</c> with your network
750     interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), <c>$IPNUM</c> with your IP address,
751     <c>$BCAST</c> with your broadcast address and <c>$NMASK</c> with your network
752     mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace <c>$GTWAY</c> with your default
753     gateway.
754     </p>
755    
756 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
757 swift 1.149 # <i>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</i>
758     # <i>route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1 $IFACE</i>
759 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
760 swift 1.149
761     <p>
762     Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file so that name
763     resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address)
764     will work. You can use <c>nano -w /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create
765     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use
766     editor.
767     </p>
768    
769     <p>
770     Here is a template to follow for creating your <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
771     file:
772     </p>
773    
774 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
775 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
776     nameserver 10.0.0.1
777     nameserver 10.0.0.2
778 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
779 swift 1.149
780     <p>
781     Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
782     primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.
783     </p>
784    
785     </body>
786     </section>
787     <section>
788     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
789     <body>
790    
791     <p>
792     If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy
793     before you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy
794     accordingly.
795     </p>
796    
797 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
798 swift 1.177 <comment>(If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:)</comment>
799 swift 1.158 # <i>export http_proxy="http://machine.company.com:1234"</i>
800 swift 1.177 <comment>(If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:)</comment>
801 swift 1.158 # <i>export ftp_proxy="ftp://machine.company.com"</i>
802 swift 1.177 <comment>(If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:)</comment>
803 swift 1.158 # <i>export RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://machine.company.com"</i>
804 swift 1.149 </pre>
805 swift 1.178
806     <note>
807     If your proxy requires authentification, use a construct like
808     <c>http://username:password@machine.company.com</c> (note the added
809     &quot;username:password@&quot;).
810     </note>
811 swift 1.149
812     </body>
813     </section>
814     <section>
815     <title>Networking is go!</title>
816     <body>
817    
818     <p>
819     Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the
820 swift 1.173 included <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>links</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c>
821 swift 1.149 commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.
822     </p>
823    
824     </body>
825     </section>
826     </chapter>
827    
828     <chapter>
829     <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
830     <section>
831     <body>
832    
833     <p>
834     Now you need to set your system's date and time. You can do this using the
835     <c>date</c> command.
836     </p>
837    
838 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
839 swift 1.149 # <i>date</i>
840 jhhudso 1.81 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
841 swift 1.177 <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command:)</comment>
842 swift 1.149 # <i>date 022709042003</i>
843 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
844     </pre>
845 swift 1.149
846     </body>
847     </section>
848     </chapter>
849    
850     <chapter>
851     <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
852     <section>
853     <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
854     <body>
855    
856     <p>
857     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo
858     Linux and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block
859     devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
860     filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
861     and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
862 drobbins 1.86 </p>
863 swift 1.149
864 drobbins 1.86 <p>
865     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
866     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
867     </p>
868 swift 1.149
869 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
870     /dev/hda
871     </pre>
872    
873     <p>
874     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
875     </p>
876    
877     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
878     /dev/sda
879     </pre>
880    
881 swift 1.149 <p>
882     The block devices above represent an <e>abstract</e> interface to the disk.
883 drobbins 1.86 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
884 swift 1.149 worrying about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
885 drobbins 1.86 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
886 swift 1.149 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
887     </p>
888    
889 drobbins 1.86 </body>
890     </section>
891     <section>
892     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
893     <body>
894    
895 swift 1.149 <p>
896     Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
897     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc.), specifying a particular
898     block device as a command-line argument.
899     </p>
900    
901     <p>
902     However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
903     device (one that represents the <e>entire</e> disk) like <path>/dev/hda</path>
904     or <path>/dev/sda</path> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never
905     done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller,
906     more manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created
907     using a tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the
908     partition table that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines
909     exactly how to split up the full disk.
910     </p>
911    
912     <p>
913     We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
914     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument:
915     </p>
916 drobbins 1.86
917 swift 1.149 <note>
918     Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
919 swift 1.142 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> because it's
920 swift 1.149 more powerful and well known in the Unix/Linux world.
921     </note>
922 drobbins 1.86
923     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
924 swift 1.149 # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
925 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
926 swift 1.149
927 drobbins 1.86 <p>
928     or
929     </p>
930 swift 1.149
931 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
932 swift 1.149 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
933 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
934    
935     <impo>
936 swift 1.149 Note that you should <e>not</e> save or make any changes to a disk's
937 drobbins 1.86 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
938     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
939 swift 1.149 lost.
940 drobbins 1.86 </impo>
941    
942     <p>
943 swift 1.149 Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
944 drobbins 1.86 </p>
945    
946     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
947     Command (m for help):
948     </pre>
949    
950     <p>
951     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
952     </p>
953    
954     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
955 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
956 drobbins 1.86
957     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
958     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
959    
960     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
961     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
962     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
963     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
964     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
965     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
966     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
967     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
968     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
969     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
970    
971     Command (m for help):
972     </pre>
973    
974 swift 1.149 <p>
975     This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
976 drobbins 1.86 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
977 swift 1.149 (listed as "Linux swap").
978     </p>
979 drobbins 1.86
980     <p>
981     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
982 swift 1.149 devices on the left hand side, starting with <path>/dev/hda1</path> and going
983     up to <path>/dev/hda9</path>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning
984     software only allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary"
985     partitions). This was too limiting, so a workaround called <e>extended
986     partitioning</e> was created. An extended partition is very similar to a
987     primary partition and counts towards the primary partition limit of four.
988     However, extended partitions can hold any number of so-called <e>logical</e>
989     partitions inside them, providing an effective means of working around the
990     four partition limit.
991     </p>
992    
993     <p>
994     All partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> and higher are logical partitions.
995     The numbers 1 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions.
996 drobbins 1.86 </p>
997    
998     <p>
999 swift 1.149 So, In our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> through <path>/dev/hda3</path> are
1000     primary partitions. <path>/dev/hda4</path> is an extended partition that
1001     contains logical partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
1002     <path>/dev/hda9</path>. You would never actually <e>use</e>
1003     <path>/dev/hda4</path> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
1004     acts as a container for partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
1005     <path>/dev/hda9</path>.
1006     </p>
1007 drobbins 1.86
1008 swift 1.149 <p>
1009     Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
1010 drobbins 1.86 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
1011     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
1012 swift 1.115 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
1013     partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
1014     type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
1015 drobbins 1.86 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
1016 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
1017 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1018 swift 1.149
1019 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1020     </section>
1021     <section>
1022     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
1023     <body>
1024    
1025 swift 1.149 <p>
1026     Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
1027 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
1028     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
1029     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
1030 swift 1.149 look like this:
1031     </p>
1032 drobbins 1.86
1033     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
1034     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1035     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1036     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1037    
1038 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1039 drobbins 1.86 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1040     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1041     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
1042    
1043     Command (m for help):
1044     </pre>
1045    
1046 swift 1.149 <p>
1047     In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
1048     The first one (<path>/dev/hda1</path>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
1049 drobbins 1.86 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
1050     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
1051     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
1052     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
1053     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
1054 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
1055 swift 1.149 likely end up being <path>/dev/sda1</path>.
1056     </p>
1057 drobbins 1.86
1058 swift 1.149 <p>
1059     It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
1060 drobbins 1.98 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
1061     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
1062     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
1063     cylinder 1024.
1064     </p>
1065    
1066 swift 1.149 <p>
1067     The second partition (<path>/dev/hda2</path>) is used to for swap space. The
1068 drobbins 1.86 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
1069     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
1070 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
1071 swift 1.149 being called <path>/dev/sda2</path>.
1072     </p>
1073 drobbins 1.86
1074 swift 1.149 <p>
1075     The third partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path>) is quite large and takes up the
1076     rest of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be
1077     used to store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI
1078     system, this partition would likely end up being <path>/dev/sda3</path>.
1079     </p>
1080 drobbins 1.86
1081 swift 1.149 <p>
1082     Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
1083 drobbins 1.86 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
1084 swift 1.149 Linux:
1085     </p>
1086 drobbins 1.86
1087     <table>
1088 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="1.5in"/>
1089     <tcolumn width="2.5in"/>
1090     <tcolumn width="2.5in"/>
1091     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
1092 swift 1.149 <tr>
1093 swift 1.177 <th>Partition</th>
1094     <th>Size</th>
1095     <th>Type</th>
1096     <th>Example device</th>
1097 swift 1.149 </tr>
1098     <tr>
1099 swift 1.177 <ti>Boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
1100     <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
1101     <ti>
1102     Ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o
1103     notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of
1104     the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is
1105     recommended.
1106     </ti>
1107     <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
1108 swift 1.149 </tr>
1109     <tr>
1110 swift 1.177 <ti>Swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
1111     <ti>
1112     Generally, configure a swap area that is between one and two times the
1113     size of the physical RAM in your system
1114     </ti>
1115     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
1116     <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
1117 swift 1.149 </tr>
1118     <tr>
1119 swift 1.177 <ti>Root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc.)</ti>
1120     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
1121     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
1122     <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
1123 swift 1.149 </tr>
1124 drobbins 1.86 </table>
1125    
1126 swift 1.149 <p>
1127     OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
1128 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
1129 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
1130     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
1131     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
1132 swift 1.149 existing data on your disk will be erased</b>.
1133     </p>
1134 drobbins 1.86
1135 swift 1.149 <impo>
1136     Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
1137 drobbins 1.86 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
1138     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
1139     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
1140 swift 1.149 from the wrong drive.
1141     </impo>
1142 drobbins 1.86
1143 swift 1.149 <p>
1144     Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
1145 drobbins 1.86 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
1146 swift 1.149 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/hda1</path>, you would type:
1147     </p>
1148 drobbins 1.86
1149     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
1150 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
1151     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
1152 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1153 zhen 1.54
1154 swift 1.149 <p>
1155     The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
1156 drobbins 1.86 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
1157     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
1158     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
1159 swift 1.149 deleted.
1160     </p>
1161    
1162     <p>
1163     Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
1164 drobbins 1.86 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
1165     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
1166 swift 1.149 with a partition table with nothing in it:
1167     </p>
1168 drobbins 1.86
1169     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
1170     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1171     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1172     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1173    
1174 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1175 drobbins 1.86
1176     Command (m for help):
1177     </pre>
1178    
1179 swift 1.149 <p>
1180     Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
1181 drobbins 1.86 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
1182     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
1183     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
1184 swift 1.115 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
1185 swift 1.149 partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:
1186     </p>
1187 swift 1.115
1188     <note>
1189     Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
1190 swift 1.142 require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefore, if you are using a journaled
1191 swift 1.115 filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
1192     for the last cylinder.
1193     </note>
1194 drobbins 1.86
1195     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
1196 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
1197 drobbins 1.86 Command action
1198 swift 1.177 e extended
1199     p primary partition (1-4)
1200 swift 1.149 <i>p</i>
1201     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
1202     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1): <comment>(Hit Enter)</comment>
1203 drobbins 1.86 Using default value 1
1204 swift 1.149 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): <i>+32M</i>
1205 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1206    
1207 swift 1.149 <p>
1208     Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition
1209     printout:
1210     </p>
1211 drobbins 1.86
1212     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
1213 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1214 drobbins 1.86
1215     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1216     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1217     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1218    
1219 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1220     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1221 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1222    
1223 swift 1.149 <p>
1224     Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
1225     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition.
1226     Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
1227     <path>/dev/hda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1228     hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create
1229     a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the
1230     partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just created and then
1231     type in <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing
1232     these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks
1233     similar to this:
1234     </p>
1235 drobbins 1.86
1236     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
1237 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1238 drobbins 1.86
1239     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1240     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1241     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1242    
1243 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1244     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1245     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1246 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1247    
1248 swift 1.149 <p>
1249     Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
1250 drobbins 1.86 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
1251 carl 1.101 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
1252 swift 1.149 <path>/dev/hda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1253     hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a
1254     partition that takes up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After
1255     completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that
1256     looks similar to this:
1257     </p>
1258 drobbins 1.86
1259     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
1260 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1261 drobbins 1.86
1262     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1263     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1264     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1265    
1266 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1267     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1268     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1269     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
1270 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1271    
1272     <p>
1273     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
1274 swift 1.149 our changes to disk. To tag <path>/dev/hda1</path> as a "bootable" partition,
1275     type <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number.
1276     If you type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <path>/dev/hda1</path> has a
1277     <c>*</c> in the "Boot" column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do
1278     this, type <c>w</c> and hit enter. Your disk partitions are now properly
1279     configured for a Gentoo Linux install.
1280 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1281    
1282 swift 1.149 <note>
1283     If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
1284     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.
1285     </note>
1286    
1287 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1288     </section>
1289     <section>
1290     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
1291     <body>
1292 swift 1.149
1293     <p>
1294     Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
1295     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store
1296     data. We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
1297 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1298    
1299 swift 1.149 <p>
1300     Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
1301     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics.
1302     Currently, we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS
1303     filesystems.
1304     </p>
1305 drobbins 1.86
1306 swift 1.149 <p>
1307     ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
1308 drobbins 1.86 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
1309     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
1310 swift 1.149 <e>journaled</e> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
1311 drobbins 1.86 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
1312     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
1313 swift 1.149 filesystem happens to be in an <e>inconsistent</e> state.
1314     </p>
1315 drobbins 1.86
1316 swift 1.149 <p>
1317     ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
1318 drobbins 1.86 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
1319     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
1320 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
1321     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
1322     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
1323     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
1324     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
1325 swift 1.149 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.
1326     </p>
1327 drobbins 1.86
1328 swift 1.149 <p>
1329     ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
1330 drobbins 1.86 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
1331     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
1332     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
1333     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
1334     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
1335 swift 1.149 use of many small files, very large files and directories containing tens of
1336 drobbins 1.86 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
1337 swift 1.149 non-boot partitions.
1338     </p>
1339 drobbins 1.86
1340 swift 1.149 <p>
1341     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
1342     Gentoo Linux's <c>xfs-sources</c> kernel. It comes with a robust
1343 drobbins 1.86 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
1344     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
1345     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
1346     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
1347 swift 1.149 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
1348     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
1349     </p>
1350 drobbins 1.86
1351 swift 1.149 <p>
1352     JFS is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
1353     become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
1354 swift 1.142 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
1355 swift 1.149 point.
1356     </p>
1357 drobbins 1.86
1358 swift 1.149 <p>
1359     If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
1360 drobbins 1.86 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
1361     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
1362 swift 1.149 refined and recommended for general use.
1363     </p>
1364 drobbins 1.86
1365 swift 1.149 <p>
1366     Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
1367     all our partitions for use:
1368     </p>
1369 drobbins 1.86
1370     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
1371 swift 1.183 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1372 swift 1.149 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1373     # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1374 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1375    
1376 swift 1.149 <p>
1377 swift 1.183 We choose ext2 for our <path>/dev/hda1</path> boot partition because it is a
1378     robust filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
1379 swift 1.149 <c>mkswap</c> for our <path>/dev/hda2</path> swap partition -- the choice is
1380     obvious here. And for our main root filesystem on <path>/dev/hda3</path> we
1381     choose ReiserFS, since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent
1382     performance. Now, go ahead and initialize your partitions.
1383     </p>
1384    
1385     <p>
1386     For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
1387     during the installation process:
1388     </p>
1389 drobbins 1.98
1390 swift 1.149 <p>
1391     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
1392     </p>
1393 drobbins 1.86
1394 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
1395 swift 1.149 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1396 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1397 swift 1.149
1398     <p>
1399     You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:
1400     </p>
1401    
1402 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
1403 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1404 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1405 swift 1.149
1406     <p>
1407     If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
1408     <c>mke2fs -j</c>:
1409     </p>
1410    
1411 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
1412 swift 1.149 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i>
1413 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1414 swift 1.149
1415     <note>
1416     You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
1417     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
1418     </note>
1419    
1420     <p>
1421     To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:
1422     </p>
1423    
1424 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
1425 swift 1.149 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1426 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1427 swift 1.149
1428     <p>
1429     To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:
1430     </p>
1431    
1432 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
1433 swift 1.149 # <i>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</i>
1434 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1435 drobbins 1.86
1436 swift 1.149 <note>
1437     You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c>
1438     command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>. The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command
1439     will lower the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at
1440     least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition, so, for example, if
1441     you have a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5. The
1442     <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing
1443     performance.
1444     </note>
1445    
1446     <p>
1447     To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:
1448     </p>
1449    
1450 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
1451 swift 1.149 # <i>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</i>
1452 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1453 swift 1.149
1454     </body>
1455     </section>
1456     </chapter>
1457    
1458     <chapter>
1459     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
1460     <section>
1461     <body>
1462    
1463     <p>
1464     Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need
1465     the additional virtual memory that it provides later:
1466     </p>
1467    
1468 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
1469 swift 1.149 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
1470 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1471 drobbins 1.86
1472 swift 1.149 <p>
1473     Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount point,
1474     and we will mount our filesystems to the mount points. Once our boot and
1475     root filesystems are mounted, any files we copy or create inside
1476     <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
1477     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo Linux with separate
1478     <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1479     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1480     </p>
1481    
1482     <impo>
1483     If your <path>/boot</path> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS,
1484     be sure to mount it with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly
1485     installed. Make sure that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new
1486     <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1487     We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS,
1488     then the <c>-o notail</c> is not needed. It's always safe to specify the
1489     <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're not sure what to do.
1490     </impo>
1491 drobbins 1.86
1492 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1493 swift 1.149 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
1494     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1495     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1496 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1497 drobbins 1.86
1498 swift 1.149 <impo>
1499     If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1500     <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2</c>
1501     </impo>
1502    
1503     </body>
1504     </section>
1505     </chapter>
1506    
1507     <chapter>
1508     <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1509     <section>
1510     <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1511     <body>
1512 zhen 1.55
1513 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1514     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1515 swift 1.149 basis for the install if you haven't already. The stages on the Live CD are
1516     in <path>/mnt/cdrom/stages/</path> and you can type <c>ls
1517     /mnt/cdrom/stages/</c> to see what's available on your CD.
1518     </p>
1519 drobbins 1.86
1520 swift 1.149 <p>
1521     <b>GRP users</b> should use the <path>stage3-xx-yy.tar.bz2</path> tarball.
1522     </p>
1523 drobbins 1.86
1524 swift 1.149 <p>
1525     If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1526     <e>not</e> on your CD (which will likely be the case if you're using our
1527 swift 1.142 "basic" Live CD), this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1528 drobbins 1.86 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1529 swift 1.142 tarball you want to use (which most users will have), then proceed to the
1530 swift 1.149 "Extracting the stage tarball" section.
1531     </p>
1532 drobbins 1.86
1533 swift 1.163 <note>
1534 swift 1.173 If you want to use a proxy (say proxy.server.tld:8080), add
1535     <c>-http-proxy proxy.server.tld:8080</c> to the <c>links</c> command
1536     mentioned below.
1537 swift 1.163 </note>
1538    
1539 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1540 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1541 swift 1.173 <comment>Use links to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1542     # <i>links http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</i>
1543 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1544     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1545     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1546     Save the file and quit the browser
1547    
1548     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1549 swift 1.149 # <i>wget </i><comment>(insert URL to the required stage tarball here)</comment>
1550 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1551 drobbins 1.86
1552 swift 1.149 </body>
1553     </section>
1554     <section>
1555     <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1556     <body>
1557    
1558     <p>
1559     Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1560 drobbins 1.86 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1561     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1562     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1563 swift 1.149 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:
1564     </p>
1565 drobbins 1.86
1566 swift 1.149 <impo>
1567     Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1568     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.
1569     </impo>
1570 drobbins 1.86
1571 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1572 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1573 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1574     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1575 swift 1.142 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/stages/".</comment>
1576 swift 1.149 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
1577 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1578    
1579 swift 1.149 <p>
1580     If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now
1581     delete it by typing <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.
1582     </p>
1583    
1584 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1585     </section>
1586 swift 1.149
1587 drobbins 1.86 <section>
1588 swift 1.142 <title>GRP package/snapshot steps</title>
1589     <body>
1590 swift 1.149
1591     <impo>
1592 swift 1.172 The following instructions are for GRP users only. If you are not using
1593     GRP, continue with "Selecting Mirrors (Optional)".
1594 swift 1.149 </impo>
1595    
1596     <p>
1597     <b>GRP Users</b>: There is a Portage snapshot on the Live CD. You will
1598 swift 1.142 need to use this snapshot so that you can skip the <c>emerge sync</c> step
1599     later in this document, since <c>emerge sync</c> requires a network
1600 swift 1.149 connection. Untar this snapshot as follows:
1601     </p>
1602    
1603 swift 1.142 <pre caption="Using Portage snapshot">
1604     <comment>Replace yyyymmdd with the datestamp in the filename.</comment>
1605 swift 1.149 # <i>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-yyyymmdd.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
1606 swift 1.142 </pre>
1607 swift 1.149
1608     <p>
1609     This will extract a snapshot of the Portage tree to your fresh Gentoo
1610 swift 1.142 install. Now you won't need to connect to the Internet and use <c>emerge
1611     sync</c> to download a Portage tree. Now, copy distfiles and packages
1612 swift 1.149 from the Live CD into place:
1613     </p>
1614 swift 1.142
1615     <pre caption="Copying GRP files">
1616 swift 1.159 # <i>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
1617     # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages</i>
1618 swift 1.142 </pre>
1619    
1620 swift 1.149 <p>
1621     All relevant files are now in place for using GRP. You should now have
1622 swift 1.142 everything copied over and unpacked that you'll need to install Gentoo Linux
1623 swift 1.149 -- even without a network connection.
1624     </p>
1625 swift 1.142
1626     </body>
1627     </section>
1628 antifa 1.150 <section>
1629     <title>Selecting Mirrors (Optional)</title>
1630     <body>
1631    
1632     <p>
1633     <c>mirrorselect</c> is a tool designed to automatically pick the fastest
1634     mirrors based on your location, or manually pick a mirror from a list.
1635     Unfortunately, <c>mirrorselect</c> does not work well behind all routers.
1636     </p>
1637    
1638     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect">
1639 swift 1.177 <comment>(To select a mirror automatically:)</comment>
1640 swift 1.151 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1641 swift 1.177 <comment>(To select a mirror interactively:)</comment>
1642 swift 1.151 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1643 antifa 1.150 </pre>
1644    
1645     <p>
1646     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails you should be able to
1647 swift 1.179 continue with this guide since no changes are made. One of the reasons why
1648     <c>mirrorselect</c> can fail is simply because it isn't there.
1649     <c>mirrorselect</c> isn't available from all installation media.
1650 antifa 1.150 </p>
1651    
1652     </body>
1653     </section>
1654 swift 1.142 <section>
1655 drobbins 1.86 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1656     <body>
1657 swift 1.149
1658 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1659 swift 1.149 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to
1660     "enter" the new Gentoo Linux system:
1661 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1662 swift 1.112
1663     <note>
1664     You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1665 swift 1.113 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1666 swift 1.142 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document, which will resolve
1667 swift 1.112 the problem.
1668     </note>
1669 drobbins 1.86
1670     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1671 swift 1.149 # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
1672     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
1673     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
1674     # <i>env-update</i>
1675 drobbins 1.1 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1676 swift 1.149 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
1677     <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries)</comment>
1678 swift 1.132 </pre>
1679 swift 1.133
1680 swift 1.149 <p>
1681     After you execute these commands, you will be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux
1682     environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. We can perform the rest of the
1683     installation process inside the chroot.
1684     </p>
1685 swift 1.132
1686 swift 1.149 </body>
1687     </section>
1688     </chapter>
1689 swift 1.142
1690 swift 1.149 <chapter>
1691     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1692     <section>
1693     <body>
1694 swift 1.142
1695 swift 1.149 <impo>
1696     If you are doing a GRP install then you can ignore the following section on
1697     <c>emerge sync</c>.
1698     </impo>
1699 swift 1.142
1700 swift 1.149 <p>
1701     Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage
1702 swift 1.142 to download the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree from the
1703 swift 1.149 Internet. If you extracted a Portage tree snapshot from <e>CD 1</e> earlier,
1704     you can safely skip this step. The Portage tree contains all the scripts
1705 swift 1.142 (called ebuilds) used to build every package under Gentoo Linux. Currently,
1706     we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1707     completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in
1708 swift 1.149 <path>/usr/portage</path>:
1709     </p>
1710 drobbins 1.86
1711 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1712 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge sync</i>
1713 swift 1.186 </pre>
1714    
1715     <p>
1716     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
1717 neysx 1.187 update Portage, you can safely ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
1718 bennyc 1.188 on during the installation.
1719 swift 1.186 </p>
1720 drobbins 1.86
1721 swift 1.149 </body>
1722     </section>
1723     </chapter>
1724    
1725     <chapter>
1726     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1727     <section>
1728     <body>
1729    
1730     <p>
1731     Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1732 drobbins 1.86 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1733     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1734     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1735 swift 1.149 this file, you should set your USE flags, which specify optional
1736 drobbins 1.86 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1737 swift 1.182 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset USE variable) are fine.
1738     More information on USE flags can be found in the <uri
1739     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">Gentoo Guide to USE
1740     flags</uri>. A complete list of current USE flags can be found in the <uri
1741     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">Gentoo Linux Use Variable
1742     Descriptions</uri> document.
1743 swift 1.149 </p>
1744    
1745     <p>
1746     If you are starting from a stage1 tarball, You also should set appropriate
1747     CHOST, CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings for the kind of system that you are
1748 bennyc 1.184 creating (commented examples can be found further down in the file).
1749 swift 1.149 </p>
1750 bennyc 1.184
1751     <warn>
1752     If you are using a stage2 or stage3 tarball, these settings will already be
1753     configured optimally. The CHOST-setting <e>may not</e> be changed as this
1754     could lead to a broken system.
1755     </warn>
1756 drobbins 1.86
1757 swift 1.163 <warn>
1758     <b>Advanced users:</b> If you are planning on installing an
1759     ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" Gentoo system, do not set ACCEPT_KEYWORDS until
1760     the bootstrap phase (stage1) is done.
1761     </warn>
1762    
1763 swift 1.149 <impo>
1764     <b>Advanced users:</b> The CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings are used to tell the
1765     C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that is generated on your system.
1766     It is common for users with Athlon XP processors to specify a
1767     "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings so that all
1768     packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and performance
1769     characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1770 swift 1.142 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
1771     </impo>
1772    
1773     <!-- needs qa
1774 swift 1.149 <note>
1775     <b>Advanced users:</b>If you are building from a stage1 and don't want
1776 swift 1.142 to manually configure CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, you can use the <c>genflags</c>
1777     utility, which will try to guess accurate flags for your CPU architecture.
1778     Simply type <c>emerge -O genflags</c> and then execute
1779 swift 1.149 <c>info2flags</c>. <c>info2flags</c> will suggest CHOST, CFLAGS and
1780 swift 1.142 CXXFLAGS settings, which you can then add to
1781 swift 1.149 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
1782     </note>
1783 swift 1.142 -->
1784    
1785 swift 1.149 <p>
1786     If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1787     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1788     using <c>nano</c>, a simple visual editor:
1789 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1790 swift 1.149
1791 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1792 swift 1.149 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
1793 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1794 drobbins 1.108
1795 swift 1.149 <note>
1796     <b>Advanced users:</b> People who need to substantially customize the build
1797     process should take a look at the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This
1798     file comprises gentoo defaults and should never be touched. If the defaults
1799     do not suffice, then new values should be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>,
1800     as entries in <path>make.conf</path> <e>override</e> the entries
1801     in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're interested in customizing USE
1802     settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1803     If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate
1804     <c>USE="-foo"</c> in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c>
1805     USE setting enabled by default in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or
1806     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1807     </note>
1808    
1809     <warn>
1810     Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your USE variables until after
1811     stage1.
1812     </warn>
1813    
1814     </body>
1815     </section>
1816     </chapter>
1817    
1818     <chapter>
1819     <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1820     <section>
1821     <body>
1822    
1823     <note>
1824     If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.
1825     </note>
1826 swift 1.140
1827 swift 1.149 <p>
1828     The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you
1829     have picked this tarball, you are most likely looking to have an
1830     uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun! Installing from a stage1
1831     takes a lot of time, but the result is a system that has been optimized
1832     from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1833     </p>
1834 avenj 1.146
1835 swift 1.149 <p>
1836     Now, it is time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes
1837     about two hours on a 1200MHz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the GNU
1838     C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start
1839     the bootstrap as follows:
1840     </p>
1841 avenj 1.146
1842 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1843     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
1844     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
1845 avenj 1.146 </pre>
1846 swift 1.142
1847 swift 1.149 <p>
1848     The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
1849     </p>
1850 swift 1.142
1851 swift 1.149 <note>
1852     <c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up
1853     users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related
1854     files in one go for later compilation. See <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more
1855     information.
1856     </note>
1857 swift 1.142
1858 swift 1.149 <note>
1859     Portage by default uses <path>/var/tmp</path> during package building,
1860     often using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would
1861     like to change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new
1862     PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e> starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1863     <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1864     # <i>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</i>
1865 swift 1.142 </pre>
1866 swift 1.149 </note>
1867    
1868     <p>
1869     <c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1870     and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c> after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to
1871     say, this process takes a while. Once this process completes, your system
1872     will be equivalent to a "stage2" system, which means you can now move on to
1873     the stage2 instructions.
1874     </p>
1875 swift 1.142
1876     </body>
1877     </section>
1878 swift 1.149 </chapter>
1879    
1880     <chapter>
1881     <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1882 swift 1.142 <section>
1883     <body>
1884    
1885 swift 1.149 <note>
1886     This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1887     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3), then skip this section.
1888     </note>
1889 swift 1.142
1890 swift 1.149 <warn>
1891     If you start from stage2, don't change the CHOST variable in
1892     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so results in strange and
1893     broad compilation failures.
1894     </warn>
1895 swift 1.177
1896 swift 1.149 <p>
1897     The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you
1898     have to do is install the rest of the system:
1899     </p>
1900 swift 1.142
1901 swift 1.149 <note>
1902     If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1903     that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1904     option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1905     safe to skip this suggestion.
1906     </note>
1907 swift 1.142
1908 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Installing the rest of the system">
1909     # <i>emerge -p system</i>
1910     <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1911     # <i>emerge system</i>
1912     </pre>
1913 swift 1.142
1914 swift 1.149 <p>
1915     It is going to take a while to finish building the entire base system.
1916     Your reward is that it will be thoroughly optimized for your system.
1917     The drawback is that you have to find a way to keep yourself occupied for
1918     some time to come. The author suggests "Star Wars - Super Bombad Racing"
1919     for the PS2.
1920     </p>
1921 swift 1.142
1922 swift 1.149 <p>
1923     Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1924     your time zone" section.
1925     </p>
1926 swift 1.142
1927 swift 1.149 </body>
1928     </section>
1929     </chapter>
1930    
1931     <chapter>
1932     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1933     <section>
1934     <body>
1935    
1936     <note>
1937     This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3 and not for those who
1938     have started with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section. GRP users
1939     should skip ahead to the next section.
1940     </note>
1941    
1942     <warn>
1943     Remember, if you start from stage3, don't change the CHOST variable in
1944     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so can result in compilation failures.
1945     </warn>
1946    
1947     <p>
1948     The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system,
1949     so no building is required.
1950     </p>
1951 swift 1.177
1952 swift 1.149 <note>
1953     <b>Advanced users:</b> However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it
1954     may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern for you, you can
1955     automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date
1956 swift 1.161 versions of all system packages by making a backup of
1957 erwin 1.175 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, then typing <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"
1958 swift 1.161 emerge -u system</c> (this requires a network connection) and replacing
1959     the backup afterwards. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is
1960     very old; otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you
1961     to benefit from the very latest Gentoo updates and fixes. In any case, feel
1962     free to skip these steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1963 swift 1.149 </note>
1964 swift 1.177
1965 swift 1.149 </body>
1966     </section>
1967     </chapter>
1968    
1969     <chapter>
1970     <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1971     <section>
1972     <body>
1973    
1974     <p>
1975     Now you need to set your time zone.
1976     </p>
1977    
1978     <p>
1979     Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1980     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1981     <path>/etc/localtime</path> by typing:
1982     </p>
1983 swift 1.142
1984 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1985     # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</i>
1986     </pre>
1987    
1988     </body>
1989     </section>
1990     </chapter>
1991    
1992     <chapter>
1993     <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1994     <section>
1995     <body>
1996 swift 1.142
1997 swift 1.149 <impo>
1998     To edit files, remember to use <c>nano -w "filename"</c>.
1999     </impo>
2000    
2001     <p>
2002     Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is
2003     configure a few important system files and install the boot loader.
2004     The first file we need to configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember
2005     that you should use the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if
2006     you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it. Remember to specify
2007     <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
2008     </p>
2009    
2010 bennyc 1.162 <warn>
2011 swift 1.149 Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be
2012 swift 1.163 sure to replace "BOOT", "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices (such
2013     as <c>hda1</c>, etc.) and "ext2" and "ext3" with the actual filesystems you
2014     are using:
2015 bennyc 1.162 </warn>
2016 swift 1.149
2017     <pre caption="Editing fstab">
2018     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
2019 swift 1.142 #
2020 swift 1.149 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
2021     # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
2022     # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
2023     # switch between notail and tail freely.
2024    
2025     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
2026    
2027     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
2028     </comment>
2029 swift 1.181 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
2030     /dev/ROOT / reiserfs noatime 0 1
2031     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
2032     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro,user 0 0
2033 swift 1.183 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
2034 swift 1.149 </pre>
2035    
2036     <warn>
2037     Please notice that <path>/boot</path> is <e>not</e> mounted at boot time. This
2038     is to protect the data in <path>/boot</path> from corruption. If you need to
2039     access <path>/boot</path>, please mount it!
2040     </warn>
2041    
2042     </body>
2043     </section>
2044     </chapter>
2045    
2046     <chapter>
2047     <title>Installing the kernel and system logger</title>
2048     <section>
2049     <title>Kernel selections</title>
2050     <body>
2051 swift 1.177
2052 swift 1.149 <p>
2053     There are two options for installing a kernel. You can either configure your
2054     own kernel or use the <c>genkernel</c> utility to configure and compile your
2055     kernel automatically.
2056     </p>
2057 swift 1.177
2058 swift 1.149 <p>
2059 swift 1.182 Whether configuring a kernel by hand or using <c>genkernel</c>, you'll need
2060     to merge the Linux kernel sources you'd like to use. Gentoo provides
2061     several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found in the <uri
2062     link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</uri>. If you are
2063     uncertain which kernel sources to choose, we advise using
2064     <c>gentoo-sources</c>. If you want XFS support, you should choose
2065     <c>xfs-sources</c> or <c>gs-sources</c>. Gentoo's LiveCD uses
2066     <c>gs-sources</c> and <c>xfs-sources</c>. There is also a
2067     <c>gaming-sources</c> kernel optimized for game-playing responsiveness that
2068     works wonderfully for this purpose when the "Preemptible kernel" option is
2069     enabled.
2070 swift 1.149 </p>
2071    
2072     <p>
2073     Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:
2074     </p>
2075    
2076     <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
2077     # <i>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</i>
2078     </pre>
2079    
2080     <p>
2081     The <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link will point to your
2082     newly-installed kernel source tree. Portage uses the
2083     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link for a special purpose. Any ebuilds
2084     you install that contain kernel modules will be configured to work with the
2085     kernel source tree pointed to by <path>/usr/src/linux</path>.
2086     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is created when you emerge your first kernel
2087     source package, but after it exists, Portage does not modify this symbolic
2088     link.
2089     </p>
2090    
2091     </body>
2092     </section>
2093     <section>
2094     <title>Using genkernel to compile your kernel</title>
2095     <body>
2096    
2097     <p>
2098     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
2099     kernel. There are two ways to do this. The first way is to use our new
2100     <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for you.
2101     <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the way
2102     our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use <c>genkernel</c>
2103     to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all your hardware at
2104     boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any
2105     manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may
2106     not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
2107     </p>
2108    
2109     <p>
2110     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
2111     </p>
2112    
2113     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
2114     # <i>emerge -k genkernel</i>
2115 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2116 swift 1.177
2117 swift 1.149 <p>
2118     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>:
2119     </p>
2120    
2121     <note>
2122     <b>Advanced users:</b> you can type <c>genkernel --config</c> instead,
2123     which will cause genkernel to allow you to tweak the default kernel
2124     configuration before building begins.
2125     </note>
2126 swift 1.142
2127 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
2128     <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.2 (included in the 1.4-20030803 x86/i686 GRP set), use the following:</comment>
2129     # <i>genkernel gentoo-sources</i>
2130     <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.4 or newer, there's no need to specify a kernel:</comment>
2131     # <i>genkernel</i>
2132     Gentoo Linux genkernel, version 1.4
2133     Copyright 2003 Gentoo Technologies, Inc., Bob Johnson, Daniel Robbins
2134     Distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2
2135    
2136     Settings:
2137     compile optimization: 1 processor(s)
2138     source tree: /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-gaming-r3
2139     config: gentoo (customized)
2140     config loc: /etc/kernels/config-2.4.20-gaming-r3
2141     initrd config: (default) /etc/kernels/settings
2142    
2143     * Running "make oldconfig"... [ ok ]
2144     * Logging to /var/log/genkernel.log... [ ok ]
2145     * Starting 2.4.20-gaming-r3 build... [ ok ]
2146     * Running "make dep"... [ ok ]
2147     * Running "make bzImage"... [ ok ]
2148     * Running "make modules"... [ ok ]
2149     * Running "make modules_install"... [ ok ]
2150     * Moving bzImage to /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3... [ ok ]
2151     * Building busybox... [ ok ]
2152     * Creating initrd... [ ok ]
2153    
2154     * Build completed successfully!
2155    
2156     * Please specify /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3 and /boot/initrd-2.4.20-gaming-r3
2157     * when customizing your boot loader configuration files.
2158     </pre>
2159    
2160     <p>
2161     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
2162     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
2163 swift 1.161 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
2164     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
2165     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
2166     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
2167     your "real" system starts up.
2168 swift 1.149 </p>
2169    
2170     <p>
2171     Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
2172     CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
2173     is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
2174     To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
2175     </p>
2176 swift 1.142
2177     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
2178 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k hotplug</i>
2179     # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
2180 swift 1.142 </pre>
2181    
2182 swift 1.149 <p>
2183     Now that you've run and configured your system to use <c>genkernel</c>, you
2184     can skip the "manual kernel configuration" section below.
2185     </p>
2186    
2187 swift 1.142 </body>
2188     </section>
2189     <section>
2190     <title>Manual kernel configuration</title>
2191     <body>
2192    
2193 swift 1.149 <p>
2194     If you opted not to use genkernel to compile your kernel, this section
2195 swift 1.142 will guide you through the process of configuring and compiling a kernel by
2196     hand. Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your
2197 swift 1.149 current emerged kernel source package and is set automatically by Portage at
2198 swift 1.142 emerge time. If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to
2199     set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink to the correct one before
2200 swift 1.149 proceeding.
2201     </p>
2202 swift 1.142
2203     <warn>
2204 swift 1.149 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i>
2205     option. Being too aggressive with your security settings can cause certain
2206     programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
2207 swift 1.142 </warn>
2208    
2209     <note>
2210 swift 1.149 If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
2211     your configuration on it, you should execute <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
2212     If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
2213     about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
2214     </note>
2215    
2216 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
2217 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
2218     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
2219 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2220 swift 1.149
2221     <warn>
2222     For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
2223     need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <e>be enabled
2224     and not compiled as modules</e>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you
2225     have any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're
2226     using XFS, enable the &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's
2227     always a good idea to leave ext2 enabled whether you are using it or not.
2228     </warn>
2229    
2230     <p>
2231     Below are some common options that you will need:
2232     </p>
2233    
2234 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
2235     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
2236 swift 1.149 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
2237     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below)</comment>
2238     ...
2239 jhhudso 1.81
2240     File systems ---&gt;
2241 swift 1.149 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
2242     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs)</comment>
2243     ...
2244     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
2245     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3)</comment>
2246     ...
2247     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
2248     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2249     ...
2250     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
2251     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS)</comment>
2252     ...
2253     [*] /proc file system support
2254     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2255     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
2256     [*] Automatically mount at boot
2257     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2258     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
2259 swift 1.163 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is not needed unless you use a 2.6 kernel)</comment>
2260 swift 1.149 ...
2261     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
2262     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2)</comment>
2263     ...
2264     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
2265     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS)</comment>
2266     </pre>
2267    
2268     <p>
2269     If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
2270     options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) : &quot;PPP
2271     (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial
2272     ports&quot;, &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression
2273     options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP
2274     over Ethernet&quot; option, that might only be used by <c>rp-pppoe</c> when
2275     configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
2276     </p>
2277    
2278     <p>
2279     If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
2280     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA
2281     and ATAPI Block devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot;
2282     (I usually make it a module), then under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable
2283     &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and &quot;SCSI
2284     generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
2285     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
2286 swift 1.157 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</c> to have them automatically
2287     added at boot time.
2288 swift 1.149 </p>
2289    
2290     <p>
2291     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
2292     ethernet card.
2293     </p>
2294    
2295     <note>
2296     For those who prefer it, it is possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2
2297     kernel. However, doing this comes at a price: you will lose many of the nifty
2298     features that are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
2299     filesystems, iptables and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
2300     patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
2301     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the
2302     kernel, so 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled
2303     in (ie, not a module). It is <comment>vital</comment> that a
2304     <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel line in
2305     <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in
2306     <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
2307     for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
2308     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
2309     </note>
2310 swift 1.121
2311     <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
2312 swift 1.149 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</i>
2313     # <i>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
2314 swift 1.121 </pre>
2315 swift 1.158
2316     </body>
2317     </section>
2318     <section>
2319     <title>Installing additional hardware-specific ebuilds</title>
2320     <body>
2321    
2322     <p>
2323     Finally, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is on
2324     your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
2325     </p>
2326    
2327     <table>
2328 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
2329     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
2330     <tcolumn width="2in"/>
2331 swift 1.158 <tr>
2332 swift 1.177 <th>Ebuild</th>
2333     <th>Purpose</th>
2334     <th>Command</th>
2335 swift 1.158 </tr>
2336     <tr>
2337 swift 1.177 <ti>nvidia-kernel</ti>
2338     <ti>Accelerated NVIDIA graphics for XFree86</ti>
2339     <ti><c>emerge -k nvidia-kernel</c></ti>
2340 swift 1.158 </tr>
2341     <tr>
2342 swift 1.177 <ti>nforce-net</ti>
2343     <ti>On-board ethernet controller on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2344     <ti><c>emerge nforce-net</c></ti>
2345 swift 1.158 </tr>
2346     <tr>
2347 swift 1.177 <ti>nforce-audio</ti>
2348     <ti>On-board audio on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2349     <ti><c>emerge nforce-audio</c></ti>
2350 swift 1.158 </tr>
2351     <tr>
2352 swift 1.177 <ti>e100</ti>
2353     <ti>Intel e100 Fast Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2354     <ti><c>emerge e100</c></ti>
2355 swift 1.158 </tr>
2356     <tr>
2357 swift 1.177 <ti>e1000</ti>
2358     <ti>Intel e1000 Gigabit Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2359     <ti><c>emerge e1000</c></ti>
2360 swift 1.158 </tr>
2361     <tr>
2362 swift 1.177 <ti>emu10k1</ti>
2363     <ti>Creative Sound Blaster Live!/Audigy support</ti>
2364     <ti><c>emerge emu10k1</c></ti>
2365 swift 1.158 </tr>
2366     <tr>
2367 swift 1.177 <ti>ati-drivers</ti>
2368     <ti>Accelerated ATI Radeon 8500+/FireGL graphics for XFree86</ti>
2369     <ti><c>emerge ati-drivers</c></ti>
2370 swift 1.158 </tr>
2371     <tr>
2372 swift 1.177 <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
2373     <ti>
2374     Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
2375     other cards for XFree86
2376     </ti>
2377     <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
2378 swift 1.158 </tr>
2379     </table>
2380    
2381     <p>
2382     The <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, <c>ati-drivers</c> and <c>xfree-drm</c> packages
2383     will require additional configuration to be enabled. All other ebuilds listed
2384     above should be auto-detected at boot-time by the <c>hotplug</c> package. If
2385     you are not using hotplug, be sure to add the appropriate modules to
2386     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path>.
2387     </p>
2388    
2389     <p>
2390     More information on <c>xfree-drm</c> can be found in our <uri
2391     link="/doc/en/dri-howto.xml">Direct Rendering Guide</uri>.
2392     </p>
2393    
2394 swift 1.149
2395 swift 1.142 </body>
2396     </section>
2397     <section>
2398     <title>Installing a system logger</title>
2399     <body>
2400 swift 1.149
2401     <p>
2402     Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose
2403     a system logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is
2404     the traditional set of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and
2405 swift 1.173 syslog-ng as well as metalog. If in doubt, you may want to try
2406     syslog-ng, since it is very flexible and feature-rich. To merge your logger of
2407     choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four command sets:
2408 swift 1.149 </p>
2409    
2410 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
2411 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/sysklogd</i>
2412     # <i>rc-update add sysklogd default</i>
2413 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2414 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng</i>
2415     # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
2416 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2417 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/metalog</i>
2418     # <i>rc-update add metalog default</i>
2419 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2420 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/msyslog</i>
2421     # <i>rc-update add msyslog default</i>
2422 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2423 swift 1.149
2424     <impo>
2425 swift 1.182 If you chose <c>metalogd</c>, please read <uri
2426     link="faq.xml#doc_chap6_sect3">Chapter 6, Section 3 of the Gentoo Linux
2427     FAQ</uri> on metalogd's buffering.
2428 swift 1.149 </impo>
2429    
2430     <p>
2431     Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
2432 dertobi123 1.190 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vixie-cron. If you do not know which
2433     one to choose, you might as well grab vixie-cron.
2434 swift 1.149 </p>
2435    
2436 dertobi123 1.190 <note>
2437     If you are installing Gentoo using the prebuild packages, you should use
2438     <c>vcron</c> instead of <c>vixie-cron</c> in case <c>vixie-cron</c> fails.
2439     </note>
2440    
2441 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
2442 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/dcron</i>
2443     # <i>rc-update add dcron default</i>
2444     # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2445 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2446 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/fcron</i>
2447     # <i>rc-update add fcron default</i>
2448     # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2449 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2450 dertobi123 1.190 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/vixie-cron</i>
2451     # <i>rc-update add vixie-cron default</i>
2452     <comment>You do not need to run <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i> if using vixie-cron.</comment>
2453 swift 1.149 </pre>
2454    
2455     <p>
2456     For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
2457 swift 1.182 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">Gentoo Linux Init System</uri> Guide.
2458 swift 1.149 </p>
2459    
2460     </body>
2461     </section>
2462     </chapter>
2463    
2464     <chapter>
2465     <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
2466     <section>
2467     <body>
2468    
2469     <p>
2470     If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
2471     it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it:
2472     </p>
2473    
2474 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
2475 swift 1.149 # <i>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</i>
2476 swift 1.177 <comment>(GRP users should type the following:)</comment>
2477 swift 1.167 # <i>emerge -K rp-pppoe</i>
2478 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2479 zhen 1.40
2480 swift 1.149 <note>
2481     The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface,
2482     which is a good thing, because X and its dependencies would also be emerged.
2483 swift 1.167 You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with X support later. The GRP version
2484 swift 1.177 of rp-pppoe has the optional X interface enabled. If you're not using GRP,
2485     compile from source as in the first example.
2486 swift 1.149 </note>
2487 swift 1.167 <!-- this pkg is a candidate for moving from .tbz2 to distfiles/ (source) -->
2488    
2489 swift 1.149
2490     <note>
2491     Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured. You will have to
2492     do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
2493     for the first time.
2494     </note>
2495    
2496     <p>
2497     You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
2498     if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
2499     using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
2500     </p>
2501    
2502 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
2503 erwin 1.171 # <i>emerge -k xfsprogs</i>
2504 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
2505 erwin 1.171 # <i>emerge -k reiserfsprogs</i>
2506 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
2507 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k jfsutils</i>
2508 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
2509 erwin 1.171 # <i>emerge -k lvm-user</i>
2510 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2511 swift 1.149
2512     <p>
2513     If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
2514     real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i>
2515     package.
2516     </p>
2517    
2518 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
2519 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</i>
2520 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2521 swift 1.149
2522     <!-- fix the bug or fix the docs, don't send the user in circles
2523 swift 1.142 (drobbins)
2524 swift 1.177 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
2525     to work.
2526     </warn>
2527     -->
2528 swift 1.149
2529     </body>
2530     </section>
2531     </chapter>
2532    
2533     <chapter>
2534     <title>User Management</title>
2535     <section>
2536     <title>Setting a root password</title>
2537     <body>
2538    
2539     <p>
2540     Before you forget, set the root password by typing:
2541     </p>
2542    
2543 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
2544 swift 1.149 # <i>passwd</i>
2545 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2546 swift 1.149
2547     </body>
2548     </section>
2549     <section>
2550     <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
2551     <body>
2552    
2553     <p>
2554     Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
2555     should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
2556     recommended to add a user for day-to-day use:
2557     </p>
2558    
2559     <pre caption = "Adding a user">
2560 swift 1.135 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
2561 swift 1.149 # <i>passwd your_user</i>
2562     </pre>
2563    
2564     <p>
2565     Substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.
2566     </p>
2567    
2568     <p>
2569     Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
2570     use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
2571     a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.
2572     </p>
2573    
2574     </body>
2575     </section>
2576     </chapter>
2577    
2578     <chapter>
2579     <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
2580     <section>
2581     <body>
2582    
2583     <p>
2584     Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
2585     on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
2586     </p>
2587    
2588 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
2589 swift 1.121 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
2590     </pre>
2591 swift 1.149
2592     <p>
2593     Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
2594     domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
2595     </p>
2596    
2597 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
2598     # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
2599     </pre>
2600 swift 1.149
2601     <p>
2602     If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
2603     <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
2604     </p>
2605    
2606 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
2607     # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
2608 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2609 swift 1.189
2610     <p>
2611     Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
2612     </p>
2613    
2614     <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
2615     # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
2616     </pre>
2617    
2618 swift 1.149
2619     </body>
2620     </section>
2621     </chapter>
2622    
2623     <chapter>
2624     <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
2625     <section>
2626     <body>
2627    
2628     <p>
2629     This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
2630     It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses of any hostnames that
2631     may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
2632     </p>
2633    
2634 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
2635 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
2636 swift 1.149 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN and your associated machine name</comment>
2637 drobbins 1.1 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
2638 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2639 swift 1.149
2640     <note>
2641     If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
2642     machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
2643     GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
2644     </note>
2645    
2646     </body>
2647     </section>
2648     </chapter>
2649    
2650     <chapter>
2651     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
2652     <section>
2653 swift 1.174 <title>Loading the Kernel Modules</title>
2654 swift 1.149 <body>
2655    
2656     <p>
2657     Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of
2658 swift 1.157 your system to <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> file (you can
2659     also add any options you need to the same line). When Gentoo Linux boots, these
2660     modules will be automatically loaded. Of particular importance is your
2661     ethernet card module, if you happened to compile it as a module:
2662 swift 1.149 </p>
2663    
2664 swift 1.157 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
2665 swift 1.149 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
2666 swift 1.174 Check /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/kernel/drivers/net for your card. </comment>
2667 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
2668 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2669 swift 1.149
2670 swift 1.174 </body>
2671     </section>
2672     <section>
2673     <title>Configuring the Network Interfaces</title>
2674     <body>
2675    
2676 swift 1.149 <p>
2677     Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured
2678 swift 1.174 for your first boot.
2679 swift 1.149 </p>
2680    
2681 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
2682 swift 1.149 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
2683 swift 1.174 </pre>
2684    
2685     <p>
2686     If you want eth0 to automatically receive its IP, set <c>iface_eth0</c>
2687     to <e>dhcp</e>. Otherwise fill in your IP, broadcast address and
2688     netmask. If you have several interfaces, do the same for <c>iface_eth1</c>,
2689     <c>iface_eth2</c> etc.
2690     </p>
2691    
2692     <p>
2693     Now add the <c>net.eth0</c> initscript to the default runlevel <e>if</e>
2694     it isn't a PCMCIA network card:
2695     </p>
2696    
2697     <pre caption="Automatically start the network interfaces during boot">
2698 swift 1.149 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
2699 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2700 swift 1.149
2701     <p>
2702     If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create
2703 swift 1.174 additional <path>net.eth</path><comment>x</comment> or
2704     <path>net.tr</path><comment>x</comment> scripts respectively for each one
2705 swift 1.149 (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...):
2706     </p>
2707    
2708 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
2709 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
2710 swift 1.167 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></i>
2711 swift 1.174 </pre>
2712    
2713     <p>
2714     Now for each created initscript, add it to the default runlevel (again
2715     only if it isn't a PCMCIA network card):
2716     </p>
2717    
2718     <pre caption = "Adding net.ethx to the default runlevel">
2719 swift 1.149 # <i>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</i>
2720     </pre>
2721    
2722 swift 1.174 </body>
2723     </section>
2724     <section>
2725     <title>Only for PCMCIA Users</title>
2726     <body>
2727    
2728 swift 1.149 <p>
2729     If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
2730 swift 1.174 <path>/etc/conf.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for
2731 swift 1.157 your setup, then run the following command:
2732 swift 1.149 </p>
2733    
2734 swift 1.157 <pre caption = "Have PCMCIA services start automatically">
2735     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
2736 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2737 swift 1.149
2738     <p>
2739     This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network
2740 swift 1.157 is loaded. The appropriate <path>/etc/init.d/net.eth*</path> services
2741     will be started by the pcmcia service automatically.
2742 swift 1.149 </p>
2743    
2744     </body>
2745     </section>
2746     </chapter>
2747    
2748     <chapter>
2749     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
2750     <section>
2751     <body>
2752    
2753 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
2754 swift 1.149 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
2755 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2756 swift 1.149
2757     <p>
2758     Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings. All users
2759     will want to make sure that CLOCK is set to his/her liking. International
2760     keyboard users will want to set the KEYMAP variable (browse
2761     <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various possibilities).
2762     </p>
2763    
2764     </body>
2765     </section>
2766     </chapter>
2767    
2768     <chapter>
2769     <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
2770     <section>
2771     <title>Notes</title>
2772     <body>
2773    
2774     <p>
2775     In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose
2776     from. Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between
2777     both GRUB and LILO as their bootloaders.
2778     </p>
2779    
2780     <p>
2781     Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
2782     In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
2783     </p>
2784    
2785     <p>
2786     In addition, you will need to configure our bootloader differently depending
2787     upon whether you are using <c>genkernel</c> (with kernel and initrd) or a
2788     kernel you compiled by hand. Be sure to take note of the important
2789     differences.
2790     </p>
2791    
2792     </body>
2793     </section>
2794     <section>
2795     <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
2796     <body>
2797    
2798     <p>
2799     The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how
2800     GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition
2801     <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the
2802     parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required. Hard drives count from zero
2803     rather than "a" and partitions start at zero rather than one. Be aware too
2804     that with the hd devices, only hard drives are counted, not atapi-ide devices
2805     such as cdrom players, burners and that the same construct can be used with
2806     scsi drives. (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the
2807     bios is configured to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a hard drive
2808     on <path>/dev/hda</path>, a cdrom player on <path>/dev/hdb</path>, a burner on
2809     <path>/dev/hdc</path>, a second hard drive on <path>/dev/hdd</path> and no
2810     SCSI hard drive, <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to
2811     <path>(hd1,6)</path>. It might sound tricky and tricky it is indeed, but as
2812     we will see, GRUB offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for
2813     those of you having a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a little
2814     lost in the GRUB numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that, it is
2815     time to install GRUB.
2816     </p>
2817    
2818     <p>
2819     The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted
2820     shell prompt:
2821     </p>
2822    
2823 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
2824 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k grub</i>
2825     # <i>grub</i>
2826 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2827 swift 1.149
2828     <p>
2829     You will be presented with the <e>grub&gt;</e> grub command-line prompt.
2830     Now, you need to type in the right commands to install the GRUB boot record
2831     onto your hard drive. In my example configuration, I want to install the GRUB
2832     boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that the first
2833     thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the
2834     commands I want to type are:
2835     </p>
2836 zhen 1.68
2837 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
2838 swift 1.149 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2839     grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here, it is the MBR)</comment>
2840 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2841 swift 1.177
2842 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
2843 swift 1.149 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR:</comment>
2844     grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2845     grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0,4)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here it is /dev/hda5)</comment>
2846     grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2847     </pre>
2848    
2849     <p>
2850     Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells
2851     GRUB the location of your boot partition (in our example,
2852     <path>/dev/hda1</path> or <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the
2853     second <c>setup ( )</c> command tells GRUB where to install the boot record -
2854     it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root ( )</c>
2855     location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the MBR
2856     of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as
2857     <path>(hd0)</path>). If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up
2858     GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I could install GRUB to the boot record of
2859     a particular partition. In that case, I would specify a particular partition
2860     rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB boot record has been successfully
2861     installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
2862     </p>
2863    
2864     <note>
2865     The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB,
2866     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
2867     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only hard drives),
2868     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, GRUB would print the
2869     available hard drives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
2870     would make GRUB print the list of partitions on the first hard drive.
2871     Checking the syntax of the GRUB location with completion should really help
2872     to make the right choice.
2873     </note>
2874 swift 1.177
2875 swift 1.149 <p>
2876     Gentoo Linux is now installed, but we need to create the
2877     <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that we get a nice GRUB boot menu
2878     when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
2879     </p>
2880    
2881     <impo>
2882     To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
2883     <path>grub.conf</path> to <path>menu.lst</path>. You can do this by typing
2884     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst</c>.
2885     </impo>
2886    
2887     <p>
2888     Now, create the <path>grub.conf</path> file (<c>nano -w
2889     /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>) and add the following to it:
2890     </p>
2891    
2892 swift 1.142 <pre caption="grub.conf for GRUB">
2893 drobbins 1.1 default 0
2894     timeout 30
2895     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
2896    
2897 swift 1.149 <comment># If you compiled your own kernel, use something like this:</comment>
2898 drobbins 1.1 title=My example Gentoo Linux
2899     root (hd0,0)
2900 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
2901 drobbins 1.1
2902 swift 1.149 <comment># If you're using genkernel, use something like this instead:</comment>
2903 swift 1.142 title=My example Gentoo Linux (genkernel)
2904     root (hd0,0)
2905     kernel (hd0,0)/boot/kernel-KV root=/dev/hda3
2906     initrd (hd0,0)/boot/initrd-KV
2907    
2908 drobbins 1.1 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
2909 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
2910 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
2911 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
2912 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2913 swift 1.149
2914 bennyc 1.162 <warn>
2915 swift 1.152 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed.
2916 bennyc 1.162 </warn>
2917 swift 1.152
2918 swift 1.149 <note>
2919     (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
2920     </note>
2921    
2922     <impo>
2923     If you set up SCSI emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
2924     actually work you need to add an <c>hdx=ide-scsi</c> fragment to the kernel
2925     line in <path>grub.conf</path> (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd
2926     burner).
2927     </impo>
2928    
2929     <p>
2930     After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the
2931     first option will tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second
2932     part of the <path>grub.conf</path> file is optional and shows you how to use
2933     GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
2934     </p>
2935    
2936     <note>
2937     Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
2938     (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path>
2939     should point to your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT
2940     boot loader.
2941     </note>
2942    
2943     <note>
2944     The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for
2945     example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root
2946     partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the <path>grub.conf</path> file
2947     above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
2948     </note>
2949    
2950     <p>
2951     If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply add them to
2952     the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
2953     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you
2954     can turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're
2955     doing) by adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c>
2956     command.
2957     </p>
2958    
2959     <note>
2960     Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
2961     <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs.
2962     Now devfs is enabled by default.
2963     </note>
2964    
2965     </body>
2966     </section>
2967     <section>
2968     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
2969     <body>
2970    
2971     <p>
2972     While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the
2973     best choice. LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux
2974     bootloaders. Here is how to install LILO if you would like to use it instead
2975     of GRUB.
2976     </p>
2977    
2978     <p>
2979     The first step is to emerge LILO:
2980     </p>
2981    
2982 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
2983 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k lilo</i>
2984 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2985 swift 1.149
2986     <p>
2987     Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file
2988     <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>:
2989     </p>
2990    
2991 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
2992 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
2993     map=/boot/map
2994     install=/boot/boot.b
2995     prompt
2996     timeout=50
2997     lba32
2998     default=linux
2999    
3000 swift 1.149 <comment># Use something like the following 4 lines if you compiled your kernel yourself</comment>
3001 swift 1.111 image=/boot/bzImage
3002 swift 1.177 label=linux
3003     read-only
3004     root=/dev/hda3
3005 swift 1.142
3006 swift 1.149 <comment># If you used genkernel, use something like this:</comment>
3007 swift 1.142 image=/boot/kernel-KV
3008 swift 1.177 label=gk_linux
3009     root=/dev/hda3
3010     initrd=/boot/initrd-KV
3011     append="root=/dev/hda3 init=/linuxrc"
3012    
3013 swift 1.142
3014 swift 1.149 <comment># For dual booting windows/other OS</comment>
3015 zhen 1.16 other=/dev/hda1
3016 swift 1.177 label=dos
3017 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3018 swift 1.149
3019 bennyc 1.162 <warn>
3020 swift 1.155 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed, and
3021     make sure that <c>default=</c> points to your label (<c>gk_linux</c> if
3022     you used genkernel).
3023 bennyc 1.162 </warn>
3024 swift 1.152
3025 swift 1.149 <ul>
3026 swift 1.177 <li>
3027     <c>boot=/dev/hda</c> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on
3028     the first IDE controller
3029     </li>
3030     <li>
3031     <c>map=/boot/map</c> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be
3032     modified
3033     </li>
3034     <li>
3035     <c>install=/boot/boot.b</c> tells LILO to install the specified file as the
3036     new boot sector. In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install
3037     line is missing, LILO will assume a default of <path>/boot/boot.b</path> as
3038     the file to be used.
3039     </li>
3040     <li>
3041     The existence of <c>prompt</c> tells LILO to display the classic <e>lilo:</e>
3042     prompt at bootup. While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line,
3043     if you do remove it, you can still get a prompt by holding down the [Shift]
3044     key while your machine starts to boot.
3045     </li>
3046     <li>
3047     <c>timeout=50</c> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input
3048     before proceeding with booting the default line entry. This is measured in
3049     tenths of a second, with 50 as the default.
3050     </li>
3051     <li>
3052     <c>lba32</c> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry
3053     here is linear. You should not change this line unless you are very aware of
3054     what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put your system in an unbootable
3055     state.
3056     </li>
3057     <li>
3058     <c>default=linux</c> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot
3059     from the options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label
3060     line below in each of the boot options.
3061     </li>
3062     <li>
3063     <c>image=/boot/bzImage</c> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this
3064     particular boot option
3065     </li>
3066     <li>
3067     <c>label=linux</c> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In
3068     this case, it is also the name referred to by the default line.
3069     </li>
3070     <li>
3071     <c>read-only</c> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below)
3072     is read-only and cannot be altered during the boot process.
3073     </li>
3074     <li>
3075     <c>root=/dev/hda3</c> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root
3076     partition
3077     </li>
3078 swift 1.149 </ul>
3079    
3080     <p>
3081     After you have edited your <path>lilo.conf</path> file, it is time to run LILO
3082     to load the information into the MBR:
3083     </p>
3084    
3085 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
3086 swift 1.149 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
3087 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3088 swift 1.149
3089     <p>
3090     LILO is configured and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
3091     </p>
3092    
3093     </body>
3094     </section>
3095    
3096     <section>
3097     <title>Using framebuffer</title>
3098     <body>
3099    
3100     <p>
3101     People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c>
3102     to their bootloader configuration file. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the
3103     following table:
3104     </p>
3105    
3106 swift 1.142 <table>
3107 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
3108     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
3109     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
3110     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
3111 swift 1.177 <tr>
3112     <ti></ti>
3113     <th>640x480</th>
3114     <th>800x600</th>
3115     <th>1024x768</th>
3116     <th>1280x1024</th>
3117     </tr>
3118     <tr>
3119     <th>8 bpp</th>
3120     <ti>769</ti>
3121     <ti>771</ti>
3122     <ti>773</ti>
3123     <ti>775</ti>
3124     </tr>
3125     <tr>
3126     <th>16 bpp</th>
3127     <ti>785</ti>
3128     <ti>788</ti>
3129     <ti>791</ti>
3130     <ti>794</ti>
3131     </tr>
3132     <tr>
3133     <th>32 bpp</th>
3134     <ti>786</ti>
3135     <ti>789</ti>
3136     <ti>792</ti>
3137     <ti>795</ti>
3138     </tr>
3139 swift 1.142 </table>
3140 swift 1.149
3141 swift 1.142 <p>
3142     LILO-users will have to add <c>vga=xxx</c> on top of their configuration
3143     file.
3144     </p>
3145 swift 1.149
3146 swift 1.142 <p>
3147     GRUB-users will have to append <c>vga=xxx</c> to the <c>kernel
3148     (hd0,0)...</c> line.
3149     </p>
3150 swift 1.149
3151 swift 1.142 </body>
3152     </section>
3153 swift 1.149 </chapter>
3154    
3155     <chapter>
3156     <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
3157     <section>
3158     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
3159     <body>
3160    
3161     <impo>
3162     Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
3163     </impo>
3164    
3165     <p>
3166     It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
3167     time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
3168     blanket and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
3169     let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
3170     you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
3171     If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk and when you reboot
3172     the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
3173     like this:
3174     </p>
3175    
3176 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
3177 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</i>
3178 swift 1.177 # <i>cat stage1 stage2 &gt; /dev/fd0</i>
3179 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3180 swift 1.142
3181 swift 1.149 <p>
3182     Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you
3183     can now execute the necessary <c>root</c> and <c>setup</c> commands.
3184     </p>
3185    
3186     </body>
3187     </section>
3188     <section>
3189     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
3190     <body>
3191    
3192     <impo>
3193     Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
3194     </impo>
3195    
3196     <p>
3197     If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
3198     </p>
3199    
3200 peesh 1.126 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
3201 swift 1.177 <comment>(This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB)</comment>
3202 swift 1.149 # <i>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </i>
3203 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3204 swift 1.142
3205 swift 1.149 </body>
3206     </section>
3207     </chapter>
3208    
3209     <chapter>
3210     <title>Using GRP</title>
3211     <section>
3212     <body>
3213    
3214     <p>
3215     GRP users can, at this point, install binary packages:
3216     </p>
3217 swift 1.142
3218     <pre caption="Installing from GRP">
3219 swift 1.167 # <i>emerge -k xfree</i>
3220 swift 1.142 </pre>
3221    
3222 swift 1.149 <p>
3223     CD 1 contains enough applications to install a working system with XFree86.
3224     Additionally, CD2 of the 2-CD GRP set contains other applications including
3225     KDE, GNOME, Mozilla and others. To install these packages, you will need to
3226     reboot into your new Gentoo system first (covered in the "Installation
3227     complete!" section near the end of this document). After you are running your
3228     basic Gentoo system from the hard drive, you can mount the second CD and copy
3229     files:
3230     </p>
3231 swift 1.142
3232 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Loading binary packages from CD2">
3233     # <i>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</i>
3234 swift 1.156 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/* /usr/portage/packages/</i>
3235 swift 1.142 </pre>
3236    
3237 swift 1.149 <p>
3238     Now various other applications can be installed the same way. For example:
3239     </p>
3240 swift 1.142
3241 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Installing KDE from GRP">
3242 swift 1.167 # <i>emerge -k kde</i>
3243 swift 1.142 </pre>
3244    
3245 swift 1.149 </body>
3246     </section>
3247     </chapter>
3248    
3249     <chapter>
3250     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
3251     <section>
3252     <body>
3253    
3254     <p>
3255     Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary
3256     configuration files, exit the chrooted shell, safely unmount your partitions
3257     and reboot the system:
3258     </p>
3259 jhhudso 1.75
3260 swift 1.142 <warn>
3261     <c>etc-update</c> can provide you with a list of configuration files
3262     that have newer versions at your disposal. Verify that none of the
3263     configuration files have a big impact (such as <path>/etc/fstab</path>,
3264     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, ...). Merge the
3265     files that don't have such a big impact, remove the updates of the
3266     others or view the diff and manually update the configuration file.
3267     </warn>
3268 swift 1.149
3269 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
3270 swift 1.149 # <i>etc-update</i>
3271     # <i>exit</i>
3272     <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <i>^D</i>)</comment>
3273     # <i>cd / </i>
3274     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
3275     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
3276     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo</i>
3277     # <i>reboot</i>
3278 swift 1.142 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the bootable CD)</comment>
3279 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3280 swift 1.149
3281     <note>
3282 swift 1.164 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>modules-update</c> command to