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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 drobbins 1.21 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc2 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10     <mail link="jerry@gentoo.org">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11     </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27     <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
28 drobbins 1.21 Linux 1.4_rc2. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
29 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
30     scratch.
31     </abstract>
32 drobbins 1.21 <version>2.3</version>
33     <date>31 December 2002</date>
34 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
35     <title>About the Install</title>
36     <section>
37     <body>
38 drobbins 1.21
39     <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
40     as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
41     Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
42     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
43     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
44     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
45     establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and download
46     files. </p>
48     <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
49     ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully
50     built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
51     slow under those conditions.)</p>
53     <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three "stage" tarball files. The
54     one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
55     The stage1 tarball is used when one wants to bootstrap and build the entire
56     system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
57     from scratch, except for the bootstrap part which is already performed for you.
58     And the stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
59     been optimized for your system.</p>
61     <p> So, how does one beging the install process? First, you'll want to decide
62     which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
63 drobbins 1.23 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</uri>.
64 drobbins 1.22 In this directory, you'll see several subdirectories such as <c>athlon</c>
65     for each of our various architecture-specific builds. Inside each of these directories,
66     you'll find a <path>livecd/</path> directory that contains LiveCDs. While these LiveCDs
67     will boot on any architecture, the install-related tarballs are optimized for a particular
68     CPU type and will not work on all systems.
69     </p>
70     <p>
71     The LiveCDs are
72 drobbins 1.21 full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW using CD burning
73     software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first carries the
74     "gentoo-basic" label, and is approximately 40MB in size. This LiveCD is of
75     minimal size to allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1
76     tarball that can be found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has
77     been booted.</p>
79     <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labelled "livecd-grp."
80     These CDs contain stage1, 2 and 3 tarballs, and also contain a set of GRP
81     packages optimized for a specific architecture. Using these LiveCDs, it will be
82     possible for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very
83     quickly. The downside is that these ISO images are large -- around 600MB -- so
84     they can take a while to download.</p>
86     <info>If for some reason your install gets interrupted at some point, you can reboot
87     and restart. For example, if you have partitioned, installed the stageX tarball, and
88     are ready to chroot, you can restart the install if necessary. Just re-boot with the
89     LiveCD, then mount your drives/partitions to <path>/mnt</path> as normal. Basically, you can do
90     this at about any point during the install, just not before partitioning for obvious reasons.
91     </info>
93     <warn>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
94     report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
95     needs to be moved upstream to the package maintainers (ie KDE) the
96     <e>developers</e> will take care of that. </warn>
98     <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. First, we'll download, burn
99     and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we'll create partitions, create
100     our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
101     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
102     our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure them
103     (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and have a
104     fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
105     process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation: </p>
107     <table>
108 zhen 1.16 <tr>
109     <th>stage tarball</th>
110     <th>requirements for installation</th>
111     </tr>
112     <tr>
113     <ti>1</ti>
114     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
115     </tr>
116     <tr>
117     <ti>2</ti>
118     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
119     </tr>
120     <tr>
121     <ti>3</ti>
122     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
123     </tr>
124     </table>
125     </body>
126     </section>
127     </chapter>
128     <chapter>
129     <title>Booting</title>
130     <section>
131     <body>
132 drobbins 1.21 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. If detected properly, you should see a fancy boot screen
133     with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
134     hit F2 for help, or pass kernel boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c>, etc.
135     Once you hit Enter, you'll be
136 zhen 1.6 greeted with a lot of text output
137     followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
138 drobbins 1.21 You will be automatically logged in as &quot;root&quot; and the root password will be
139     set to a random string for security purposes.
140 zhen 1.16 You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt on the current
141 drobbins 1.21 console, and can also open new root consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4.
142     Get back to the one you started on by pressing (you guessed it) Alt-F1.
143 zhen 1.6 </p>
144 drobbins 1.21
145     <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
146     explaining how to do things like configure your network devices and where you can find
147     the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
148 zhen 1.6 </p>
149 zhen 1.16 </body>
150     </section>
151     </chapter>
152     <chapter>
153     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
154     <section>
155     <body>
156     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
157 zhen 1.6 will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
158     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
159     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
160     type:
161     </p>
162 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
163 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
164 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
165     </pre>
166 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
167 drobbins 1.21 during the initial boot autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
168 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
169     </p>
170 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
171 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
172     # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
173 zhen 1.6 </pre>
174 zhen 1.16 <p><c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks.
175 zhen 1.6 <note>
176 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
177 zhen 1.16 </note></p>
178 drobbins 1.21 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you'll need to load the
179 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
180     </p>
181 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
182 drobbins 1.1 # <c>insmod ataraid</c>
183     # <c>insmod pdcraid</c>
184     <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
185     # <c>insmod hptraid</c>
186     <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
187 zhen 1.6 </pre>
188 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
189 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
190 drobbins 1.21 <pre caption="Setting DMA"><comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
191     # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
192     # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 <comment>Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options</comment>
193     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX <comment>Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up</comment>
194     </pre>
195 zhen 1.16 </body>
196     </section>
197     </chapter>
198     <chapter>
199     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
200     <section>
201     <body>
202     <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to do some additional
203 zhen 1.6 trickery.
204     </p>
205 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
206 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
207 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
208 drobbins 1.1 # <i>insmod pcmcia_core</i>
209     # <i>insmod i82365</i>
210     # <i>insmod ds</i>
211     # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
212 zhen 1.6 </pre>
213 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
214 zhen 1.6 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
215 drobbins 1.21 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that's
216 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
217 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
218 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
219     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
220 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
221 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
222 zhen 1.16 </body>
223     </section>
224     </chapter>
225     <chapter>
226     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
227     <section>
228     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
229     <body>
230     <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has
231 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
232 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
233     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
234     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
235 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
236 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
237     # <c> adsl-start </c>
238     </pre>
239 zhen 1.16 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
240 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
241     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
242 zhen 1.16 </body>
243     </section>
244     <section>
245     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
246     <body>
247     <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use
248 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
249 zhen 1.6 Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
250     Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
251     the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
252     The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
253     script. </p>
254 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
255 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
256 zhen 1.6 </pre>
257 zhen 1.16 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. </p>
258     </body>
259     </section>
260     <section>
261     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
262     <body>
263     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
264     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
265     <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
266 drobbins 1.1 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
267 zhen 1.6 </pre>
268 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
269 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
270     </note>
271 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
272 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
273 zhen 1.16 </body>
274     </section>
275     <section>
276     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
277     <body>
278     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
279 zhen 1.6 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
280     Type in the following commands, replacing
281     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
282     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
283     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
284     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
285     </p>
286 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
287 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
288     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask metric 1</c>
289 zhen 1.6 </pre>
290 zhen 1.16 <p>Now it's time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
291 zhen 1.6 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
292 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
293     <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
294 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
295     nameserver
296     nameserver
297 zhen 1.6 </pre>
298 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c></c> and <c></c> with the IP addresses of your
299 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
300 zhen 1.16 </body>
301     </section>
302     <section>
303     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
304     <body>
305     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
306 zhen 1.6 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
307     </p>
308 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
309     # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
310     # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
311     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
312 zhen 1.6 </pre>
313 zhen 1.16 </body>
314     </section>
315     <section>
316     <title>Network Testing</title>
317     <body>
318     <p>Now that your network has been configured, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig -a</c> command should show
319 zhen 1.6 that your network card is working (look for <e>UP</e> and <e>RUNNING</e> in the output). </p>
320 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
321 drobbins 1.1 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
322     inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
323     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
325     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
326     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
327     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
328     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
329     Interrupt:11
330 zhen 1.6 </pre>
331 zhen 1.16 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
332 zhen 1.14 and a website of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
333     resolution is working correctly, etc.
334 zhen 1.6 </p>
335 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
336 zhen 1.15 # <c>ping www.some_website.com </c>
337 zhen 1.6 </pre>
338 zhen 1.16 </body>
339     </section>
340     <section>
341     <title>Networking is go!</title>
342     <body>
343     <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
344 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
345 zhen 1.16 </body>
346     </section>
347     </chapter>
348     <chapter>
349     <title>Partition Configuration</title>
350     <section>
351     <body>
352     <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
353 zhen 1.6 to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
354     </p>
355 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
356 zhen 1.6 We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
357     partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
358     The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
359     your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
360     everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
361     your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. This prevents your kernel
362     from being made unavailable to GRUB (due to filesystem corruption) in the event
363     of a system crash, preventing the chicken-and-egg problem where GRUB can't read
364     your kernel (since your filesystem isn't consistent) but you can't bring your
365     filesystem back to a consistent state (since you can't boot!)
366     </p>
367 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have four filesystem options:
368 zhen 1.6 XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling) and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
369     filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
370     ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
371     providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
372     that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
373     ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
374     10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
375     As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
376     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
377 drobbins 1.21 is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but
378     is generally not recommended due to its tendency to lose recently-modified
379     data if your system locks up or unexpectedly reboots (due to a power failure, for instance.)
380 zhen 1.6 </p>
381 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
382 zhen 1.6 for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
383     high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
384 drobbins 1.21 mature and refined.
385 zhen 1.6 Here are our basic recommended filesystem
386     sizes and types:
387     </p>
388 zhen 1.16 <table>
389     <tr>
390     <th>Partition</th>
391     <th>Size</th>
392     <th>Type</th>
393     <th>example device</th>
394     </tr>
395     <tr>
396     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
397     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
398     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
399     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
400     </tr>
401     <tr>
402     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit)</ti>
403     <ti>&gt;=2*Amount of RAM in this system is recommended but no longer (as of kernel 2.4.10) required</ti>
404     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
405     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
406     </tr>
407     <tr>
408     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
409     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
410     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
411     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
412     </tr>
413     </table>
414 drobbins 1.21 <p>Before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
415     beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
416     will not be mis-indentified by Linux's mounting code.
417     This can be done as follows:
418 zhen 1.6 </p>
419 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
420 drobbins 1.21 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdxy bs=1024 count=1024 </c>
421     <comment>Replace /dev/hdxy with the device you wish to "clean."</comment>
422 zhen 1.6 </pre>
423 drobbins 1.21 <p>At this point, create your partitions using <c>fdisk</c>. Note that your partitions
424     should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS, ext2/3 or other). </p>
425     <note><c>cfdisk</c> is included on the install CD, and it is <i>considerably</i> easier to use than
426     <c>fdisk</c>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it; by default, cfdisk will work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not the hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note>
429     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to allow your system to detect the
430     new partition configuration.</note>
433     <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
434     will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X is
435     the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
436     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
440     <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
441 zhen 1.6 the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p>
442 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
443 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
444 zhen 1.6 </pre>
445 zhen 1.16 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
446     <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
447 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
448 zhen 1.6 </pre>
449 zhen 1.16 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
450     <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
451 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
452 zhen 1.6 </pre>
453 zhen 1.16 <note>
454 zhen 1.6 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
455     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
456     the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
457     so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5.
458     The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
459     </note>
460 zhen 1.16 <warn>
461 zhen 1.6 If you are installing an XFS partition over a previous ReiserFS partition,
462     later attempts to mount may fail without an explicit <c>mount -t xfs</c>.
463     The solution is to zero out the partition before creating the XFS filesystem:
464     <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hd<comment>x</comment> bs=1k</c>.
465     </warn>
466 zhen 1.16 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
467     <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
468 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
469 zhen 1.6 </pre>
470 zhen 1.16 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
471     <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
472 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
473 zhen 1.6 </pre>
474 zhen 1.16 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
475 zhen 1.6 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
476     </note>
477 zhen 1.16 </body>
478     </section>
479     </chapter>
480     <chapter>
481     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
482     <section>
483     <body>
484     <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that
485 zhen 1.6 provides later:
486     </p>
487 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
488 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
489 zhen 1.6 </pre>
490 zhen 1.16 <p>Next, we'll create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mountpoints,
491 zhen 1.6 and we'll mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
492 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
493 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
494     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
495     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
496     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
497 zhen 1.6 </pre>
498 drobbins 1.21 <p>
499 zhen 1.6 If you are setting up Gentoo
500     Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
501     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
502     </p>
503 drobbins 1.21 <p>Additionally, perform the following steps if you'd like to take advantage of your CD's set of pre-built
504     "GRP" packages for openoffice, KDE, GNOME and Xfree86. First, ensure that you're using the required "gentoo-grp"
505     CD. Then, type:</p>
506     <pre caption="Getting ready for GRP">
507     # install -d /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages
508     # mount --bind /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/packages /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages
509     </pre>
510     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
511 zhen 1.6 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
512     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
513     We'll get to that in a bit.
514     </impo>
515 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
516 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
517 zhen 1.16 </body>
518     </section>
519     </chapter>
520     <chapter>
521     <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
522     <section>
523     <body>
524     <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set
525 drobbins 1.21 to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path>.
526 zhen 1.6 On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3
527     tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it
528     (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest)
529 zhen 1.14 from one of the Gentoo mirror sites. </p>
530 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
531 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
532 zhen 1.14 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball</comment>
533 drobbins 1.21 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</c>
534 zhen 1.14 # <c>wget <comment>insert required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
535 zhen 1.6 </pre>
536 zhen 1.16 </body>
537     </section>
538     </chapter>
539     <chapter>
540     <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
541     <section>
542     <body>
543     <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
544 drobbins 1.21 Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to "enter" the new
545     Gentoo Linux system.
546 zhen 1.6 </p>
547 zhen 1.16 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
548 drobbins 1.21 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
549 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install method,
550 zhen 1.6 you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
551     If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
552     These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
553 zhen 1.12 compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.)
554 zhen 1.6 </p>
555 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
556 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
557 drobbins 1.21 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
558 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
559     # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
560 zhen 1.6 </pre>
561 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Entering the chroot Environment">
562 drobbins 1.1 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
563     # <c>env-update</c>
564     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
565     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
566 zhen 1.6 </pre>
567 zhen 1.16 <p>After you execute these commands, you'll be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment.
568 zhen 1.6 </p>
569 zhen 1.16 </body>
570     </section>
571     </chapter>
572     <chapter>
573     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using Rsync</title>
574     <section>
575     <body>
576     <p>Now, you'll need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
577 zhen 1.6 you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
578 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Updating Using Rsync">
579 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
580     </pre>
581 zhen 1.16 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
582 zhen 1.6 it's about 90Mb in size without tarballs.
583     </p>
584 zhen 1.16 </body>
585     </section>
586     </chapter>
587     <chapter>
588     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
589     <section>
590     <body>
591     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, people using stage1 to
592 zhen 1.6 install will need to bootstrap their Gentoo Linux system as follows. First
593     edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
594     <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
595     like to be built into packages; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
596     or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
597     More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
598     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
599     </p>
600 zhen 1.16 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
601 zhen 1.6 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
602     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) Your best friend
603     is <path>man gcc</path> to figure out what additional <c>CFLAGS</c> and
604     <code>CXXFLAGS</code> are available. Search for 'Optimization'.
605     </p>
606 zhen 1.16 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
607 zhen 1.6 firewall.
608     </p>
609 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
610 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
611 zhen 1.6 </pre>
612 zhen 1.16 <note>
613 zhen 1.6 People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
614     the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
615     should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
616     be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
617     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
618     interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
619 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
620 zhen 1.6 in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
621     </note>
622 zhen 1.16 </body>
623     </section>
624     </chapter>
625     <chapter>
626 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
627 zhen 1.16 <section>
628     <body>
629 zhen 1.18 <p>The stage1 tarball is for ultimate tweakage. If you have picked this tarball,
630     you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized system. Have fun, because optimization
631     is what Gentoo Linux is all about!
632     </p>
633 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, it's time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
634 zhen 1.6 my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped
635 zhen 1.18 for compiling the rest of the system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
636 zhen 1.6 These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process.
637     </p>
638 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
639 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
640     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
641 zhen 1.6 </pre>
642 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
643 zhen 1.6 </p>
644 zhen 1.16 <note>
645 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
646     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
647     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
648     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
649     </note>
650 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
651     # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
652 zhen 1.6 </pre>
653 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
654 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
655     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
656 zhen 1.18 Have a nice nap. Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system.
657 zhen 1.6 </p>
658 zhen 1.16 </body>
659     </section>
660     </chapter>
661     <chapter>
662 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage2</title>
663 zhen 1.16 <section>
664     <body>
665 zhen 1.18 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
666     to do is install the rest of the system.
667 zhen 1.6 </p>
668 zhen 1.16 <note>
669 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
670     </note>
671 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
672     # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;&quot;</c>
673 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
674     <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
675     # <c>emerge system</c>
676 zhen 1.6 </pre>
677 zhen 1.16 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;&quot;</c> line ensures that any new scripts
678 zhen 1.6 installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
679     <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
680     management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
681 zhen 1.16 <p>It's going to take a while
682 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
683     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
684 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
685 zhen 1.18 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2. When this process completes, your system
686     will be the equivalent of a stage3 system.
687     </p>
688     </body>
689     </section>
690     </chapter>
691     <chapter>
692     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
693     <section>
694     <body>
695     <p>The stage3 tarball is already configured for your system. There is not much to do for this stage,
696     but it is a very good idea to update your system to the newest available packages. </p>
697     <note>If you have not already edited <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to fit your specifications,
698     now would be a good time to do so. </note>
699     <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
700     # <c>emerge sync</c>
701     # <c>emerge -up world</c>
702     <comment>lists [<i>packages</i>] to be installed</comment>
703     # <c>emerge -u world</c>
704     </pre>
705     </body>
706     </section>
707     </chapter>
708     <chapter>
709 drobbins 1.21 <title>Using GRP</title>
710     <section>
711     <body>
713     <p>If you bind mounted <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/packages</path> previously, you can take advantage of pre-built GRP package sets
714     to avoid compiling certain popular and large packages. Currently, we provide full builds of everything you need for <c>openoffice-bin</c>,
715     <c>gnome</c>, <c>kde</c> and <c>xfree</c>. To merge these pre-built packages, type:</p>
716     <pre caption="Using GRP">
717     # emerge --usepkgonly kde
718     </pre>
719     <p>Optionally, you can use pre-built packages combined with any updates available in your new Portage tree by typing:</p>
720     <pre caption="Using GRP with updates">
721     # emerge --usepkg openoffice-bin
722     </pre>
723     </body>
724     </section>
725     </chapter>
727     <chapter>
728 zhen 1.18 <title>Final Steps: Timezone</title>
729     <section>
730     <body>
731     <p>At this point, you should have system that's ready for final configuration.
732     We'll start the configuration process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building
733     the kernel we ensure that users get reasonable <c>uname -a</c> output.
734     </p>
735     <p>Look for your timezone (or GMT if you using Greenwich Mean Time) in
736     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:
737     </p>
738     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for timezome">
739     # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
740     </pre>
741     <p>You might also want to check <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to make sure your timezone settings
742     are correct.
743 zhen 1.6 </p>
744 zhen 1.16 </body>
745     </section>
746     </chapter>
747     <chapter>
748     <title>Final steps: kernel and system logger</title>
749     <section>
750     <body>
751     <note>
752 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
753     </note>
754 zhen 1.16 <p>You now need to merge Linux source ebuilds. Here are the ones we currently
755 zhen 1.6 offer:
756     </p>
757 zhen 1.16 <table>
758     <tr>
759     <th>ebuild</th>
760     <th>description</th>
761     </tr>
762     <tr>
763     <ti>
764     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
765     </ti>
766 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
767 zhen 1.16 </tr>
768     <tr>
769     <ti>
770     <path>xfs-sources</path>
771     </ti>
772 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
773 zhen 1.16 </tr>
774     <tr>
775     <ti>
776     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
777     </ti>
778     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
779     </tr>
780     <tr>
781     <ti>
782     <path>usermode-sources</path>
783     </ti>
784     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
785     </tr>
786     <tr>
787     <ti>
788     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
789     </ti>
790     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti>
791     </tr>
792     </table>
793 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
794     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
795     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
796 zhen 1.6 </warn>
797 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
798 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
799 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
800 zhen 1.6 </pre>
801 zhen 1.16 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel.
802 zhen 1.6 </p>
803 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
804 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
805     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
806     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
807     # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
808     <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
809     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
810 zhen 1.6 </pre>
811 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
812 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
813 zhen 1.16 compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>&quot;Code maturity
814     level options --&gt; Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;</i>
815 zhen 1.6 option to see several of these selections.
816 zhen 1.16 Under the &quot;File systems&quot; section, be sure to enable the <i>&quot;Device File System&quot;</i> (note that
817     you <e>don't</e> need to enable the &quot;/dev/pts file system support&quot; option). You'll also
818     need to enable the <i>&quot;Virtual Memory Filesystem&quot;</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
819     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
820     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot;
821 zhen 1.6 option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
822     enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
823 zhen 1.16 want to enable the &quot;USE DMA by default&quot; option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
824     very poorly. Of course, remember to enable &quot;IDE disk&quot; support as well -- otherwise your
825 zhen 1.6 kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
826     </warn>
827 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
828 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
829     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
830     support for IDE RAID
831     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
832     </p>
833 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
834 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
835 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
836     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
837     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
838 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
839     </p>
840 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
841     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
842     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
843     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
844     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
845     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
846     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
847 zhen 1.6 </p>
848 zhen 1.16 <note>
849 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
850     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
851 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
852 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
853     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
854     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
855 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
856     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
857 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
858     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
859     line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
860     for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
861     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
862     </note>
863 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
864 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
865     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
866     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
867     newer alternatives.
868     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
869     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
870     </p>
871 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
872 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
873     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
874     <comment>or</comment>
875     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
876     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
877     <comment>or</comment>
878     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
879     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
880     <comment>or</comment>
881     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
882     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
883 zhen 1.6 </pre>
884 zhen 1.16 <warn>
885 zhen 1.6 In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
886     <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
887     See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
888     for a sample configuration file.
889     </warn>
890 zhen 1.16 <impo>
891 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
892     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
893     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
894     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
895     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
896     in real time, as expected),
897     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
898     again.
899     </impo>
900 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you'd like to use.
901 zhen 1.6 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you don't know which one to choose,
902     you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
903     </p>
904 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
905 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
906     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
907     <comment>or</comment>
908     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
909     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
910     <comment>or</comment>
911     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
912 zhen 1.2 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
913 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
914     # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
915 zhen 1.6 </pre>
916 drobbins 1.21 <!--<p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux,
917     see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>-->
918 zhen 1.16 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
919 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
920 zhen 1.6 </p>
921 zhen 1.16 </body>
922     </section>
923     </chapter>
924     <chapter>
925     <title>Final steps: Install Additional Packages</title>
926     <section>
927     <body>
928     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
929 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
930 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
931 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge rp-pppoe</c>
932 zhen 1.6 </pre>
933 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
934 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
935     for the first time.
936     </note>
937 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
938 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
939     using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> ebuild:
940     </p>
941 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
942 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
943     <comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
944     # <c> emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
945     <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
946 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
947 zhen 1.6 </pre>
948 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
949 zhen 1.6 real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
950     </p>
951 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
952 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
953 zhen 1.6 </pre>
954 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
955 zhen 1.10 to work.
956     </warn>
957 zhen 1.16 </body>
958     </section>
959     </chapter>
960     <chapter>
961     <title>Final steps: /etc/fstab</title>
962     <section>
963     <body>
964     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
965 zhen 1.6 a few important system files and install the GRUB boot loader.
966     The first file we need to
967     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
968     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
969     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
970     </p>
971 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
972     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
973     <pre caption="Editing fstab"><comment>
974 drobbins 1.1 # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
975     #
976     # noatime turns of atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
977     # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
978     # efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
979     # switch between notail and tail freely.
981     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
983     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
984     </comment>
985     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
986     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
987     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
988     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
989     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
990 zhen 1.6 </pre>
991 zhen 1.16 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boottime.
992 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
993     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
994     </warn>
995 zhen 1.16 </body>
996     </section>
997     </chapter>
998     <chapter>
999     <title>Final steps: Root Password</title>
1000     <section>
1001     <body>
1002     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1003     <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1004     # <c>passwd</c>
1005 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1006 zhen 1.16 </body>
1007     </section>
1008     </chapter>
1009     <chapter>
1010     <title>Final steps: /etc/hostname</title>
1011     <section>
1012     <body>
1013     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1014 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1015     </p>
1016 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1017     # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1018 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1019 zhen 1.16 </body>
1020     </section>
1021     </chapter>
1022     <chapter>
1023     <title>Final steps: /etc/hosts</title>
1024     <section>
1025     <body>
1026     <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1027 zhen 1.6 It's used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1028     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here's a template for this file:
1029     </p>
1030 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1031 drobbins 1.1 localhost
1032     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1033 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1034 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1035 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1036 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1037     </note>
1038 zhen 1.16 </body>
1039     </section>
1040     </chapter>
1041     <chapter>
1042     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1043     <section>
1044     <body>
1045     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1046 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1047     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1048     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1049     it as a module:
1050     </p>
1051 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card. Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your
1052 drobbins 1.1 card. </comment>
1053     3c59x
1054 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1055 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1056 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1057 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Boottime Network Configuration">
1058 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1059     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1060 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1061 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1062 zhen 1.6 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1063 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1064 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1065     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1066     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1067 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1068 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1069 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1070 zhen 1.10 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/ethx</path>:
1071 zhen 1.6 </p>
1072 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1073 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1074     need pcmcia
1075     }
1076 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1077 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1078 zhen 1.10 </p>
1079 zhen 1.16 </body>
1080     </section>
1081     </chapter>
1082     <chapter>
1083     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1084     <section>
1085     <body>
1086     <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1087 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1088 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1089 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1090 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1091     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1092     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1093     possibilities).
1094     </p>
1095 zhen 1.16 </body>
1096     </section>
1097     </chapter>
1098     <chapter>
1099     <title>Final steps: Configure GRUB</title>
1100     <section>
1101     <body>
1102     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1103 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1104     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1105 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1106 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1107     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1108     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1109     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1110     a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1111     <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1113     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1114     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1115     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1116     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1117     it's time to install GRUB.
1118     </p>
1119 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1120     <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1121 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1122 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1123 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1124 zhen 1.6 this time.
1125     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1126     grub setup for RAID controllers
1127     </impo>
1128 zhen 1.16 <p>You'll be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1129 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1130     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1131     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1132     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1133     I want to type are:
1134     </p>
1135 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="GRUB Commands">
1136 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c>
1137     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c>
1138     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1139 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1140 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1141 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1142     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1143     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1144     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1145     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1146     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1147     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1148     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1149     I'd specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1150     boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1152     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1153     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1154     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1155     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1156     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1157     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1159     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1160     to make the right choice.
1161     </note>
1163     Gentoo Linux is now
1164     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1165     we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here's how to do it.
1166     </p>
1167 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1168 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1169     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1170 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1171 zhen 1.6 </p>
1172 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1173 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1174     timeout 30
1175     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1177     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1178     root (hd0,0)
1179     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1181     <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1182     title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1183     root (hd0,0)
1184     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/discX/partY
1186     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1187     title=Windows NT Workstation
1188     root (hd0,5)
1189     chainloader +1
1190 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1191 zhen 1.16 <note>
1192 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1193     </note>
1194 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1195 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1196 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1197     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1198 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1199 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1200 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1201     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1202     </p>
1203 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1204 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1205     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1206     loader.
1207 zhware 1.9 </note>
1208 zhen 1.16 <note>
1209 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1210 zhen 1.6 </note>
1211 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1212 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1213     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1214     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1215     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1216     </p>
1217 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1218 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1219     devfs is enabled by default.
1220     </note>
1221 zhen 1.16 </body>
1222     </section>
1223     </chapter>
1224     <chapter>
1225     <title>Final steps: Configure LILO</title>
1226     <section>
1227     <body>
1228 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1229     LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here's how to install
1230     LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1231 zhen 1.16 </p>
1232     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1233     </p>
1234     <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1235     # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1236     </pre>
1237     <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. I will give you a small <i>lilo.conf</i> to use, and I will explain
1238     the different parts of the file.
1239     </p>
1240     <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1241     boot=/dev/hda
1242     map=/boot/map
1243     install=/boot/boot.b
1244     prompt
1245     timeout=50
1246     message=/boot/message
1247     lba32
1248     default=linux
1250     image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1251     label=linux
1252     initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.20.img
1253     read-only
1254     root=/dev/hda5
1256     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1257     other=/dev/hda1
1258     label=dos
1260     </pre>
1261     <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1262     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1263     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1264     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1265     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1266     <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to show you whatever is referenced in the message line.
1267     While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1268     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1269     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1270     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1271     <li><i>message=/boot/message</i> refers to the screen that LILO displays to let you select the
1272     operating system or kernel to boot. </li>
1273     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1274     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1275     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1276     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1277     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1278     <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1279     <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1280     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1281     <li><i>initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.20.img</i> refers to the initial ram disk image that is used at boot time
1282     to actually initialize and start the devices that makes booting the kernel possible. The initial
1283     ram disk is a collection of machine-specific drivers necessary to operate a SCSI card, hard drive, or any
1284     other device needed to load the kernel. You should never try to share initial ram disks between machines. </li>
1285     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1286     altered during the boot process. </li>
1287     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1288     <note>Thanks to <uri link="http://www.redhat.com">Redhat.com</uri> for this information.
1289     </note>
1290     <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1291     into the MBR:
1292     </p>
1293     <pre caption="Running LILO">
1294     # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1295     </pre>
1296     <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1297     </p>
1298     </body>
1299     </section>
1300     </chapter>
1301     <chapter>
1302     <title>Final steps: Bootdisks</title>
1303     <section>
1304     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1305     <body>
1306 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1307 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1308 drobbins 1.21 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1309     disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1310     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1311     make a GRUB
1312     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1313 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1314     bootdisk like this:
1315     </p>
1316 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1317 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1318     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1319     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1320     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1321     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1323     # <c>grub</c>
1325     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1326     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1327     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1328 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1329 drobbins 1.21 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1330     and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1331 zhen 1.16 </body>
1332     </section>
1333     <section>
1334     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1335     <body>
1336     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1337     </p>
1338 zhen 1.18 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1339     # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1340     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1341     </pre>
1342 zhen 1.16 </body>
1343     </section>
1344     </chapter>
1345     <chapter>
1346     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1347     <section>
1348     <body>
1349     <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to exit the chrooted shell,
1350 zhen 1.6 udpate necessary configuration files,
1351     safely unmount your partitions
1352     and reboot the system:
1353     </p>
1354 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1355 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1356     # <c>exit</c>
1357     <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1358     # <c>cd / </c>
1359     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1360     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1361     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1362     # <c>reboot</c>
1363 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1364 zhen 1.16 <note>
1365 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1366     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1367     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1368     </note>
1369 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1370 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1371     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1372 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1373 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1374 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1375 zhen 1.16 (there's a &quot;click to subscribe&quot; link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1376 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1377     that will
1378     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1379     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1380     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1381 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1382 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1383 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1384 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1385     </p>
1386 zhen 1.16 </body>
1387     </section>
1388     </chapter>
1389     <chapter>
1390     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1391     <section>
1392     <body>
1393     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1394 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1395     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1396     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1397     </p>
1398 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1399 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1400     to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1401     other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1402     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1403 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1404 zhen 1.6 </p>
1405 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1406     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1407     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1408     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1409     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1410     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1411     </ul>
1412     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1413 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
1414     </p>
1415 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1416     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1417 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1418 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1419     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1420     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1421     </ul>
1422     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1423 zhen 1.6 </p>
1424 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1425 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1426     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1427 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1428 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1429 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1430     to see additional configuration options.
1431     </p>
1432 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1433 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1434     </p>
1435 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1436     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1437     </pre>
1438     <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1439 zhen 1.6 viewed with your favortive pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1440 zhen 1.16 </body>
1441     </section>
1442     </chapter>
1443 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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