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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 drobbins 1.21 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc2 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10     <mail link="jerry@gentoo.org">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11     </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27     <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
28 drobbins 1.21 Linux 1.4_rc2. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
29 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
30     scratch.
31     </abstract>
32 drobbins 1.21 <version>2.3</version>
33     <date>31 December 2002</date>
34 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
35     <title>About the Install</title>
36     <section>
37     <body>
38 drobbins 1.21
39     <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
40     as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
41     Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
42     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
43     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
44     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
45     establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and download
46     files. </p>
48     <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
49     ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully
50     built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
51     slow under those conditions.)</p>
53     <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three "stage" tarball files. The
54     one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
55     The stage1 tarball is used when one wants to bootstrap and build the entire
56     system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
57     from scratch, except for the bootstrap part which is already performed for you.
58     And the stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
59     been optimized for your system.</p>
61     <p> So, how does one beging the install process? First, you'll want to decide
62     which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
63 drobbins 1.23 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</uri>.
64 drobbins 1.22 In this directory, you'll see several subdirectories such as <c>athlon</c>
65 drobbins 1.24 for each of our various architecture-specific builds. Here's a low-down on
66     each arch directory and what it contains:</p>
67     <table>
68     <tr><th>Architecture</th><th>Description</th></tr>
69     <tr><ti>x86</ti><ti>Stage 1 tarballs and "gentoo-basic" liveCD -- will work on anything.</ti></tr>
70     <tr><ti>i586</ti><ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i586+ CPUs</ti></tr>
71     <tr><ti>i686</ti><ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i686+ CPUs</ti></tr>
72     <tr><ti>athlon</ti><ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon CPUs</ti></tr>
73     <tr><ti>athlon-xp</ti><ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon XP CPUs</ti></tr>
74     <tr><ti>athlon-mp</ti><ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon MP CPUs</ti></tr>
75     <tr><ti>pentium3</ti><ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for Intel Pentium III and Pentium 4 CPUs</ti></tr>
76     </table>
78     <p>Inside each of these directories,
79 drobbins 1.22 you'll find a <path>livecd/</path> directory that contains LiveCDs. While these LiveCDs
80     will boot on any architecture, the install-related tarballs are optimized for a particular
81 drobbins 1.24 CPU type and will not work on all systems, except for the "gentoo-basic" LiveCD in the <path>x86</path>
82     directory which can be used to install on anything.
83 drobbins 1.22 </p>
84 drobbins 1.24
85     <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
86     using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
87     carries the "gentoo-basic" label, and is approximately 40MB in size and lives
88     in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
89     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
90     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
91 drobbins 1.21
92     <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labelled "livecd-grp."
93 drobbins 1.24 These CDs (found in their respective <path>arch/livecd</path> directories)
94     contain stage1, 2 and 3 tarballs, and also contain a set of GRP packages
95     optimized for a specific architecture. Using these LiveCDs, it will be possible
96     for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly. The
97     downside is that these ISO images are large -- around 600MB -- so they can take
98     a while to download.</p>
99 drobbins 1.21
100 drobbins 1.24 <info>If for some reason your install gets interrupted at some point, you can
101     reboot and restart. For example, if you have partitioned, installed the stageX
102     tarball, and are ready to chroot, you can restart the install if necessary.
103     Just re-boot with the LiveCD, then mount your drives/partitions to
104     <path>/mnt</path> as normal. Basically, you can do this at about any point
105     during the install, just not before partitioning for obvious reasons. </info>
106 drobbins 1.21
107     <warn>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
108     report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
109     needs to be moved upstream to the package maintainers (ie KDE) the
110     <e>developers</e> will take care of that. </warn>
112     <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. First, we'll download, burn
113     and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we'll create partitions, create
114     our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
115     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
116     our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure them
117     (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and have a
118     fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
119     process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation: </p>
121     <table>
122 zhen 1.16 <tr>
123     <th>stage tarball</th>
124     <th>requirements for installation</th>
125     </tr>
126     <tr>
127     <ti>1</ti>
128     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
129     </tr>
130     <tr>
131     <ti>2</ti>
132     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
133     </tr>
134     <tr>
135     <ti>3</ti>
136     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
137     </tr>
138     </table>
139     </body>
140     </section>
141     </chapter>
142     <chapter>
143     <title>Booting</title>
144     <section>
145     <body>
146 drobbins 1.21 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. If detected properly, you should see a fancy boot screen
147     with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
148     hit F2 for help, or pass kernel boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c>, etc.
149     Once you hit Enter, you'll be
150 zhen 1.6 greeted with a lot of text output
151     followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
152 drobbins 1.21 You will be automatically logged in as &quot;root&quot; and the root password will be
153     set to a random string for security purposes.
154 zhen 1.16 You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt on the current
155 drobbins 1.21 console, and can also open new root consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4.
156     Get back to the one you started on by pressing (you guessed it) Alt-F1.
157 zhen 1.6 </p>
158 drobbins 1.21
159     <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
160     explaining how to do things like configure your network devices and where you can find
161     the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
162 zhen 1.6 </p>
163 zhen 1.16 </body>
164     </section>
165     </chapter>
166     <chapter>
167     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
168     <section>
169     <body>
170     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
171 zhen 1.6 will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
172     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
173     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
174     type:
175     </p>
176 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
177 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
178 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
179     </pre>
180 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
181 drobbins 1.21 during the initial boot autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
182 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
183     </p>
184 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
185 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
186     # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
187 zhen 1.6 </pre>
188 zhen 1.16 <p><c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks.
189 zhen 1.6 <note>
190 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
191 zhen 1.16 </note></p>
192 drobbins 1.21 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you'll need to load the
193 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
194     </p>
195 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
196 drobbins 1.1 # <c>insmod ataraid</c>
197     # <c>insmod pdcraid</c>
198     <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
199     # <c>insmod hptraid</c>
200     <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
201 zhen 1.6 </pre>
202 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
203 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
204 drobbins 1.21 <pre caption="Setting DMA"><comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
205     # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
206     # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 <comment>Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options</comment>
207     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX <comment>Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up</comment>
208     </pre>
209 zhen 1.16 </body>
210     </section>
211     </chapter>
212     <chapter>
213     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
214     <section>
215     <body>
216     <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to do some additional
217 zhen 1.6 trickery.
218     </p>
219 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
220 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
221 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
222 drobbins 1.1 # <i>insmod pcmcia_core</i>
223     # <i>insmod i82365</i>
224     # <i>insmod ds</i>
225     # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
226 zhen 1.6 </pre>
227 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
228 zhen 1.6 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
229 drobbins 1.21 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that's
230 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
231 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
232 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
233     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
234 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
235 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
236 zhen 1.16 </body>
237     </section>
238     </chapter>
239     <chapter>
240     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
241     <section>
242     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
243     <body>
244     <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has
245 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
246 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
247     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
248     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
249 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
250 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
251     # <c> adsl-start </c>
252     </pre>
253 zhen 1.16 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
254 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
255     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
256 zhen 1.16 </body>
257     </section>
258     <section>
259     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
260     <body>
261     <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use
262 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
263 zhen 1.6 Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
264     Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
265     the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
266     The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
267     script. </p>
268 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
269 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
270 zhen 1.6 </pre>
271 zhen 1.16 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. </p>
272     </body>
273     </section>
274     <section>
275     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
276     <body>
277     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
278     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
279     <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
280 drobbins 1.1 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
281 zhen 1.6 </pre>
282 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
283 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
284     </note>
285 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
286 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
287 zhen 1.16 </body>
288     </section>
289     <section>
290     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
291     <body>
292     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
293 zhen 1.6 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
294     Type in the following commands, replacing
295     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
296     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
297     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
298     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
299     </p>
300 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
301 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
302     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask metric 1</c>
303 zhen 1.6 </pre>
304 zhen 1.16 <p>Now it's time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
305 zhen 1.6 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
306 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
307     <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
308 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
309     nameserver
310     nameserver
311 zhen 1.6 </pre>
312 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c></c> and <c></c> with the IP addresses of your
313 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
314 zhen 1.16 </body>
315     </section>
316     <section>
317     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
318     <body>
319     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
320 zhen 1.6 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
321     </p>
322 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
323     # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
324     # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
325     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
326 zhen 1.6 </pre>
327 zhen 1.16 </body>
328     </section>
329     <section>
330     <title>Network Testing</title>
331     <body>
332     <p>Now that your network has been configured, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig -a</c> command should show
333 zhen 1.6 that your network card is working (look for <e>UP</e> and <e>RUNNING</e> in the output). </p>
334 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
335 drobbins 1.1 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
336     inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
337     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
339     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
340     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
341     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
342     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
343     Interrupt:11
344 zhen 1.6 </pre>
345 zhen 1.16 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
346 zhen 1.14 and a website of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
347     resolution is working correctly, etc.
348 zhen 1.6 </p>
349 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
350 zhen 1.15 # <c>ping www.some_website.com </c>
351 zhen 1.6 </pre>
352 zhen 1.16 </body>
353     </section>
354     <section>
355     <title>Networking is go!</title>
356     <body>
357     <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
358 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
359 zhen 1.16 </body>
360     </section>
361     </chapter>
362     <chapter>
363     <title>Partition Configuration</title>
364     <section>
365     <body>
366     <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
367 zhen 1.6 to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
368     </p>
369 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
370 zhen 1.6 We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
371     partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
372     The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
373     your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
374     everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
375     your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. This prevents your kernel
376     from being made unavailable to GRUB (due to filesystem corruption) in the event
377     of a system crash, preventing the chicken-and-egg problem where GRUB can't read
378     your kernel (since your filesystem isn't consistent) but you can't bring your
379     filesystem back to a consistent state (since you can't boot!)
380     </p>
381 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have four filesystem options:
382 zhen 1.6 XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling) and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
383     filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
384     ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
385     providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
386     that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
387     ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
388     10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
389     As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
390     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
391 drobbins 1.21 is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but
392     is generally not recommended due to its tendency to lose recently-modified
393     data if your system locks up or unexpectedly reboots (due to a power failure, for instance.)
394 zhen 1.6 </p>
395 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
396 zhen 1.6 for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
397     high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
398 drobbins 1.21 mature and refined.
399 zhen 1.6 Here are our basic recommended filesystem
400     sizes and types:
401     </p>
402 zhen 1.16 <table>
403     <tr>
404     <th>Partition</th>
405     <th>Size</th>
406     <th>Type</th>
407     <th>example device</th>
408     </tr>
409     <tr>
410     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
411     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
412     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
413     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
414     </tr>
415     <tr>
416     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit)</ti>
417     <ti>&gt;=2*Amount of RAM in this system is recommended but no longer (as of kernel 2.4.10) required</ti>
418     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
419     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
420     </tr>
421     <tr>
422     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
423     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
424     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
425     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
426     </tr>
427     </table>
428 drobbins 1.21 <p>Before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
429     beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
430     will not be mis-indentified by Linux's mounting code.
431     This can be done as follows:
432 zhen 1.6 </p>
433 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
434 drobbins 1.21 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdxy bs=1024 count=1024 </c>
435     <comment>Replace /dev/hdxy with the device you wish to "clean."</comment>
436 zhen 1.6 </pre>
437 drobbins 1.21 <p>At this point, create your partitions using <c>fdisk</c>. Note that your partitions
438     should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS, ext2/3 or other). </p>
439     <note><c>cfdisk</c> is included on the install CD, and it is <i>considerably</i> easier to use than
440     <c>fdisk</c>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it; by default, cfdisk will work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not the hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note>
443     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to allow your system to detect the
444     new partition configuration.</note>
447     <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
448     will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X is
449     the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
450     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
454     <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
455 zhen 1.6 the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p>
456 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
457 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
458 zhen 1.6 </pre>
459 zhen 1.16 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
460     <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
461 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
462 zhen 1.6 </pre>
463 zhen 1.16 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
464     <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
465 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
466 zhen 1.6 </pre>
467 zhen 1.16 <note>
468 zhen 1.6 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
469     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
470     the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
471     so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5.
472     The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
473     </note>
474 zhen 1.16 <warn>
475 zhen 1.6 If you are installing an XFS partition over a previous ReiserFS partition,
476     later attempts to mount may fail without an explicit <c>mount -t xfs</c>.
477     The solution is to zero out the partition before creating the XFS filesystem:
478     <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hd<comment>x</comment> bs=1k</c>.
479     </warn>
480 zhen 1.16 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
481     <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
482 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
483 zhen 1.6 </pre>
484 zhen 1.16 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
485     <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
486 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
487 zhen 1.6 </pre>
488 zhen 1.16 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
489 zhen 1.6 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
490     </note>
491 zhen 1.16 </body>
492     </section>
493     </chapter>
494     <chapter>
495     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
496     <section>
497     <body>
498     <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that
499 zhen 1.6 provides later:
500     </p>
501 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
502 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
503 zhen 1.6 </pre>
504 zhen 1.16 <p>Next, we'll create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mountpoints,
505 zhen 1.6 and we'll mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
506 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
507 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
508     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
509     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
510     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
511 zhen 1.6 </pre>
512 drobbins 1.21 <p>
513 zhen 1.6 If you are setting up Gentoo
514     Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
515     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
516     </p>
517 drobbins 1.21 <p>Additionally, perform the following steps if you'd like to take advantage of your CD's set of pre-built
518     "GRP" packages for openoffice, KDE, GNOME and Xfree86. First, ensure that you're using the required "gentoo-grp"
519     CD. Then, type:</p>
520     <pre caption="Getting ready for GRP">
521     # install -d /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages
522     # mount --bind /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/packages /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages
523     </pre>
524     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
525 zhen 1.6 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
526     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
527     We'll get to that in a bit.
528     </impo>
529 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
530 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
531 zhen 1.16 </body>
532     </section>
533     </chapter>
534     <chapter>
535     <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
536     <section>
537     <body>
538     <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set
539 drobbins 1.21 to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path>.
540 zhen 1.6 On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3
541     tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it
542     (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest)
543 zhen 1.14 from one of the Gentoo mirror sites. </p>
544 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
545 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
546 zhen 1.14 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball</comment>
547 drobbins 1.21 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</c>
548 zhen 1.14 # <c>wget <comment>insert required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
549 zhen 1.6 </pre>
550 zhen 1.16 </body>
551     </section>
552     </chapter>
553     <chapter>
554     <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
555     <section>
556     <body>
557     <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
558 drobbins 1.21 Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to "enter" the new
559     Gentoo Linux system.
560 zhen 1.6 </p>
561 zhen 1.16 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
562 drobbins 1.21 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
563 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install method,
564 zhen 1.6 you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
565     If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
566     These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
567 zhen 1.12 compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.)
568 zhen 1.6 </p>
569 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
570 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
571 drobbins 1.21 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
572 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
573     # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
574 zhen 1.6 </pre>
575 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Entering the chroot Environment">
576 drobbins 1.1 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
577     # <c>env-update</c>
578     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
579     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
580 zhen 1.6 </pre>
581 zhen 1.16 <p>After you execute these commands, you'll be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment.
582 zhen 1.6 </p>
583 zhen 1.16 </body>
584     </section>
585     </chapter>
586     <chapter>
587     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using Rsync</title>
588     <section>
589     <body>
590     <p>Now, you'll need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
591 zhen 1.6 you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
592 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Updating Using Rsync">
593 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
594     </pre>
595 zhen 1.16 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
596 zhen 1.6 it's about 90Mb in size without tarballs.
597     </p>
598 zhen 1.16 </body>
599     </section>
600     </chapter>
601     <chapter>
602     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
603     <section>
604     <body>
605     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, people using stage1 to
606 zhen 1.6 install will need to bootstrap their Gentoo Linux system as follows. First
607     edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
608     <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
609     like to be built into packages; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
610     or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
611     More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
612     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
613     </p>
614 zhen 1.16 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
615 zhen 1.6 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
616     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) Your best friend
617     is <path>man gcc</path> to figure out what additional <c>CFLAGS</c> and
618     <code>CXXFLAGS</code> are available. Search for 'Optimization'.
619     </p>
620 zhen 1.16 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
621 zhen 1.6 firewall.
622     </p>
623 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
624 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
625 zhen 1.6 </pre>
626 zhen 1.16 <note>
627 zhen 1.6 People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
628     the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
629     should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
630     be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
631     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
632     interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
633 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
634 zhen 1.6 in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
635     </note>
636 zhen 1.16 </body>
637     </section>
638     </chapter>
639     <chapter>
640 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
641 zhen 1.16 <section>
642     <body>
643 zhen 1.18 <p>The stage1 tarball is for ultimate tweakage. If you have picked this tarball,
644     you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized system. Have fun, because optimization
645     is what Gentoo Linux is all about!
646     </p>
647 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, it's time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
648 zhen 1.6 my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped
649 zhen 1.18 for compiling the rest of the system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
650 zhen 1.6 These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process.
651     </p>
652 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
653 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
654     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
655 zhen 1.6 </pre>
656 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
657 zhen 1.6 </p>
658 zhen 1.16 <note>
659 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
660     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
661     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
662     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
663     </note>
664 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
665     # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
666 zhen 1.6 </pre>
667 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
668 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
669     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
670 zhen 1.18 Have a nice nap. Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system.
671 zhen 1.6 </p>
672 zhen 1.16 </body>
673     </section>
674     </chapter>
675     <chapter>
676 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage2</title>
677 zhen 1.16 <section>
678     <body>
679 zhen 1.18 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
680     to do is install the rest of the system.
681 zhen 1.6 </p>
682 zhen 1.16 <note>
683 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
684     </note>
685 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
686     # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;&quot;</c>
687 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
688     <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
689     # <c>emerge system</c>
690 zhen 1.6 </pre>
691 zhen 1.16 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;&quot;</c> line ensures that any new scripts
692 zhen 1.6 installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
693     <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
694     management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
695 zhen 1.16 <p>It's going to take a while
696 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
697     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
698 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
699 zhen 1.18 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2. When this process completes, your system
700     will be the equivalent of a stage3 system.
701     </p>
702     </body>
703     </section>
704     </chapter>
705     <chapter>
706     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
707     <section>
708     <body>
709     <p>The stage3 tarball is already configured for your system. There is not much to do for this stage,
710     but it is a very good idea to update your system to the newest available packages. </p>
711     <note>If you have not already edited <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to fit your specifications,
712     now would be a good time to do so. </note>
713     <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
714     # <c>emerge sync</c>
715     # <c>emerge -up world</c>
716     <comment>lists [<i>packages</i>] to be installed</comment>
717     # <c>emerge -u world</c>
718     </pre>
719     </body>
720     </section>
721     </chapter>
722     <chapter>
723 drobbins 1.21 <title>Using GRP</title>
724     <section>
725     <body>
727     <p>If you bind mounted <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/packages</path> previously, you can take advantage of pre-built GRP package sets
728     to avoid compiling certain popular and large packages. Currently, we provide full builds of everything you need for <c>openoffice-bin</c>,
729     <c>gnome</c>, <c>kde</c> and <c>xfree</c>. To merge these pre-built packages, type:</p>
730     <pre caption="Using GRP">
731     # emerge --usepkgonly kde
732     </pre>
733     <p>Optionally, you can use pre-built packages combined with any updates available in your new Portage tree by typing:</p>
734     <pre caption="Using GRP with updates">
735     # emerge --usepkg openoffice-bin
736     </pre>
737     </body>
738     </section>
739     </chapter>
741     <chapter>
742 zhen 1.18 <title>Final Steps: Timezone</title>
743     <section>
744     <body>
745     <p>At this point, you should have system that's ready for final configuration.
746     We'll start the configuration process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building
747     the kernel we ensure that users get reasonable <c>uname -a</c> output.
748     </p>
749     <p>Look for your timezone (or GMT if you using Greenwich Mean Time) in
750     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:
751     </p>
752     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for timezome">
753     # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
754     </pre>
755     <p>You might also want to check <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to make sure your timezone settings
756     are correct.
757 zhen 1.6 </p>
758 zhen 1.16 </body>
759     </section>
760     </chapter>
761     <chapter>
762     <title>Final steps: kernel and system logger</title>
763     <section>
764     <body>
765     <note>
766 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
767     </note>
768 zhen 1.16 <p>You now need to merge Linux source ebuilds. Here are the ones we currently
769 zhen 1.6 offer:
770     </p>
771 zhen 1.16 <table>
772     <tr>
773     <th>ebuild</th>
774     <th>description</th>
775     </tr>
776     <tr>
777     <ti>
778     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
779     </ti>
780 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
781 zhen 1.16 </tr>
782     <tr>
783     <ti>
784     <path>xfs-sources</path>
785     </ti>
786 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
787 zhen 1.16 </tr>
788     <tr>
789     <ti>
790     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
791     </ti>
792     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
793     </tr>
794     <tr>
795     <ti>
796     <path>usermode-sources</path>
797     </ti>
798     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
799     </tr>
800     <tr>
801     <ti>
802     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
803     </ti>
804     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti>
805     </tr>
806     </table>
807 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
808     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
809     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
810 zhen 1.6 </warn>
811 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
812 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
813 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
814 zhen 1.6 </pre>
815 zhen 1.16 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel.
816 zhen 1.6 </p>
817 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
818 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
819     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
820     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
821     # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
822     <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
823     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
824 zhen 1.6 </pre>
825 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
826 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
827 zhen 1.16 compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>&quot;Code maturity
828     level options --&gt; Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;</i>
829 zhen 1.6 option to see several of these selections.
830 zhen 1.16 Under the &quot;File systems&quot; section, be sure to enable the <i>&quot;Device File System&quot;</i> (note that
831     you <e>don't</e> need to enable the &quot;/dev/pts file system support&quot; option). You'll also
832     need to enable the <i>&quot;Virtual Memory Filesystem&quot;</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
833     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
834     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot;
835 zhen 1.6 option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
836     enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
837 zhen 1.16 want to enable the &quot;USE DMA by default&quot; option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
838     very poorly. Of course, remember to enable &quot;IDE disk&quot; support as well -- otherwise your
839 zhen 1.6 kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
840     </warn>
841 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
842 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
843     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
844     support for IDE RAID
845     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
846     </p>
847 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
848 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
849 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
850     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
851     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
852 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
853     </p>
854 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
855     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
856     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
857     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
858     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
859     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
860     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
861 zhen 1.6 </p>
862 zhen 1.16 <note>
863 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
864     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
865 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
866 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
867     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
868     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
869 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
870     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
871 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
872     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
873     line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
874     for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
875     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
876     </note>
877 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
878 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
879     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
880     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
881     newer alternatives.
882     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
883     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
884     </p>
885 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
886 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
887     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
888     <comment>or</comment>
889     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
890     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
891     <comment>or</comment>
892     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
893     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
894     <comment>or</comment>
895     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
896     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
897 zhen 1.6 </pre>
898 zhen 1.16 <warn>
899 zhen 1.6 In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
900     <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
901     See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
902     for a sample configuration file.
903     </warn>
904 zhen 1.16 <impo>
905 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
906     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
907     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
908     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
909     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
910     in real time, as expected),
911     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
912     again.
913     </impo>
914 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you'd like to use.
915 zhen 1.6 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you don't know which one to choose,
916     you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
917     </p>
918 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
919 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
920     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
921     <comment>or</comment>
922     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
923     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
924     <comment>or</comment>
925     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
926 zhen 1.2 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
927 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
928     # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
929 zhen 1.6 </pre>
930 drobbins 1.21 <!--<p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux,
931     see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>-->
932 zhen 1.16 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
933 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
934 zhen 1.6 </p>
935 zhen 1.16 </body>
936     </section>
937     </chapter>
938     <chapter>
939     <title>Final steps: Install Additional Packages</title>
940     <section>
941     <body>
942     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
943 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
944 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
945 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge rp-pppoe</c>
946 zhen 1.6 </pre>
947 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
948 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
949     for the first time.
950     </note>
951 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
952 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
953     using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> ebuild:
954     </p>
955 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
956 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
957     <comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
958     # <c> emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
959     <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
960 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
961 zhen 1.6 </pre>
962 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
963 zhen 1.6 real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
964     </p>
965 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
966 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
967 zhen 1.6 </pre>
968 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
969 zhen 1.10 to work.
970     </warn>
971 zhen 1.16 </body>
972     </section>
973     </chapter>
974     <chapter>
975     <title>Final steps: /etc/fstab</title>
976     <section>
977     <body>
978     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
979 zhen 1.6 a few important system files and install the GRUB boot loader.
980     The first file we need to
981     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
982     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
983     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
984     </p>
985 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
986     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
987     <pre caption="Editing fstab"><comment>
988 drobbins 1.1 # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
989     #
990     # noatime turns of atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
991     # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
992     # efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
993     # switch between notail and tail freely.
995     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
997     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
998     </comment>
999     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1000     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1001     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1002     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1003     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1004 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1005 zhen 1.16 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boottime.
1006 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1007     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1008     </warn>
1009 zhen 1.16 </body>
1010     </section>
1011     </chapter>
1012     <chapter>
1013     <title>Final steps: Root Password</title>
1014     <section>
1015     <body>
1016     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1017     <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1018     # <c>passwd</c>
1019 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1020 zhen 1.16 </body>
1021     </section>
1022     </chapter>
1023     <chapter>
1024     <title>Final steps: /etc/hostname</title>
1025     <section>
1026     <body>
1027     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1028 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1029     </p>
1030 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1031     # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1032 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1033 zhen 1.16 </body>
1034     </section>
1035     </chapter>
1036     <chapter>
1037     <title>Final steps: /etc/hosts</title>
1038     <section>
1039     <body>
1040     <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1041 zhen 1.6 It's used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1042     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here's a template for this file:
1043     </p>
1044 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1045 drobbins 1.1 localhost
1046     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1047 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1048 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1049 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1050 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1051     </note>
1052 zhen 1.16 </body>
1053     </section>
1054     </chapter>
1055     <chapter>
1056     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1057     <section>
1058     <body>
1059     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1060 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1061     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1062     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1063     it as a module:
1064     </p>
1065 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card. Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your
1066 drobbins 1.1 card. </comment>
1067     3c59x
1068 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1069 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1070 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1071 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Boottime Network Configuration">
1072 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1073     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1074 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1075 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1076 zhen 1.6 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1077 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1078 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1079     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1080     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1081 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1082 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1083 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1084 zhen 1.10 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/ethx</path>:
1085 zhen 1.6 </p>
1086 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1087 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1088     need pcmcia
1089     }
1090 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1091 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1092 zhen 1.10 </p>
1093 zhen 1.16 </body>
1094     </section>
1095     </chapter>
1096     <chapter>
1097     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1098     <section>
1099     <body>
1100     <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1101 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1102 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1103 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1104 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1105     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1106     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1107     possibilities).
1108     </p>
1109 zhen 1.16 </body>
1110     </section>
1111     </chapter>
1112     <chapter>
1113     <title>Final steps: Configure GRUB</title>
1114     <section>
1115     <body>
1116     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1117 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1118     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1119 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1120 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1121     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1122     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1123     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1124     a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1125     <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1127     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1128     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1129     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1130     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1131     it's time to install GRUB.
1132     </p>
1133 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1134     <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1135 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1136 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1137 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1138 zhen 1.6 this time.
1139     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1140     grub setup for RAID controllers
1141     </impo>
1142 zhen 1.16 <p>You'll be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1143 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1144     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1145     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1146     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1147     I want to type are:
1148     </p>
1149 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="GRUB Commands">
1150 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c>
1151     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c>
1152     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1153 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1154 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1155 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1156     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1157     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1158     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1159     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1160     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1161     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1162     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1163     I'd specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1164     boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1166     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1167     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1168     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1169     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1170     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1171     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1173     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1174     to make the right choice.
1175     </note>
1177     Gentoo Linux is now
1178     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1179     we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here's how to do it.
1180     </p>
1181 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1182 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1183     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1184 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1185 zhen 1.6 </p>
1186 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1187 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1188     timeout 30
1189     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1191     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1192     root (hd0,0)
1193     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1195     <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1196     title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1197     root (hd0,0)
1198     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/discX/partY
1200     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1201     title=Windows NT Workstation
1202     root (hd0,5)
1203     chainloader +1
1204 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1205 zhen 1.16 <note>
1206 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1207     </note>
1208 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1209 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1210 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1211     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1212 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1213 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1214 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1215     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1216     </p>
1217 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1218 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1219     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1220     loader.
1221 zhware 1.9 </note>
1222 zhen 1.16 <note>
1223 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1224 zhen 1.6 </note>
1225 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1226 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1227     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1228     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1229     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1230     </p>
1231 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1232 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1233     devfs is enabled by default.
1234     </note>
1235 zhen 1.16 </body>
1236     </section>
1237     </chapter>
1238     <chapter>
1239     <title>Final steps: Configure LILO</title>
1240     <section>
1241     <body>
1242 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1243     LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here's how to install
1244     LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1245 zhen 1.16 </p>
1246     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1247     </p>
1248     <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1249     # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1250     </pre>
1251     <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. I will give you a small <i>lilo.conf</i> to use, and I will explain
1252     the different parts of the file.
1253     </p>
1254     <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1255     boot=/dev/hda
1256     map=/boot/map
1257     install=/boot/boot.b
1258     prompt
1259     timeout=50
1260     message=/boot/message
1261     lba32
1262     default=linux
1264     image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1265     label=linux
1266     initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.20.img
1267     read-only
1268     root=/dev/hda5
1270     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1271     other=/dev/hda1
1272     label=dos
1274     </pre>
1275     <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1276     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1277     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1278     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1279     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1280     <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to show you whatever is referenced in the message line.
1281     While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1282     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1283     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1284     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1285     <li><i>message=/boot/message</i> refers to the screen that LILO displays to let you select the
1286     operating system or kernel to boot. </li>
1287     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1288     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1289     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1290     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1291     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1292     <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1293     <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1294     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1295     <li><i>initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.20.img</i> refers to the initial ram disk image that is used at boot time
1296     to actually initialize and start the devices that makes booting the kernel possible. The initial
1297     ram disk is a collection of machine-specific drivers necessary to operate a SCSI card, hard drive, or any
1298     other device needed to load the kernel. You should never try to share initial ram disks between machines. </li>
1299     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1300     altered during the boot process. </li>
1301     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1302     <note>Thanks to <uri link="http://www.redhat.com">Redhat.com</uri> for this information.
1303     </note>
1304     <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1305     into the MBR:
1306     </p>
1307     <pre caption="Running LILO">
1308     # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1309     </pre>
1310     <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1311     </p>
1312     </body>
1313     </section>
1314     </chapter>
1315     <chapter>
1316     <title>Final steps: Bootdisks</title>
1317     <section>
1318     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1319     <body>
1320 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1321 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1322 drobbins 1.21 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1323     disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1324     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1325     make a GRUB
1326     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1327 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1328     bootdisk like this:
1329     </p>
1330 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1331 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1332     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1333     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1334     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1335     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1337     # <c>grub</c>
1339     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1340     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1341     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1342 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1343 drobbins 1.21 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1344     and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1345 zhen 1.16 </body>
1346     </section>
1347     <section>
1348     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1349     <body>
1350     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1351     </p>
1352 zhen 1.18 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1353     # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1354     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1355     </pre>
1356 zhen 1.16 </body>
1357     </section>
1358     </chapter>
1359     <chapter>
1360     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1361     <section>
1362     <body>
1363     <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to exit the chrooted shell,
1364 zhen 1.6 udpate necessary configuration files,
1365     safely unmount your partitions
1366     and reboot the system:
1367     </p>
1368 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1369 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1370     # <c>exit</c>
1371     <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1372     # <c>cd / </c>
1373     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1374     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1375     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1376     # <c>reboot</c>
1377 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1378 zhen 1.16 <note>
1379 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1380     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1381     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1382     </note>
1383 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1384 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1385     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1386 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1387 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1388 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1389 zhen 1.16 (there's a &quot;click to subscribe&quot; link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1390 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1391     that will
1392     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1393     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1394     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1395 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1396 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1397 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1398 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1399     </p>
1400 zhen 1.16 </body>
1401     </section>
1402     </chapter>
1403     <chapter>
1404     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1405     <section>
1406     <body>
1407     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1408 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1409     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1410     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1411     </p>
1412 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1413 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1414     to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1415     other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1416     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1417 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1418 zhen 1.6 </p>
1419 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1420     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1421     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1422     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1423     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1424     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1425     </ul>
1426     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1427 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
1428     </p>
1429 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1430     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1431 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1432 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1433     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1434     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1435     </ul>
1436     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1437 zhen 1.6 </p>
1438 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1439 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1440     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1441 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1442 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1443 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1444     to see additional configuration options.
1445     </p>
1446 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1447 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1448     </p>
1449 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1450     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1451     </pre>
1452     <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1453 zhen 1.6 viewed with your favortive pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1454 zhen 1.16 </body>
1455     </section>
1456     </chapter>
1457 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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