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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 drobbins 1.21 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc2 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10     <mail link="jerry@gentoo.org">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11     </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27     <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
28 drobbins 1.21 Linux 1.4_rc2. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
29 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
30     scratch.
31     </abstract>
32 zhen 1.27 <version>2.3.2</version>
33     <date>2 January 2003</date>
34 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
35     <title>About the Install</title>
36     <section>
37     <body>
38 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
39 drobbins 1.21 as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
40     Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
41     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
42     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
43     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
44     establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and download
45     files. </p>
46 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
47 drobbins 1.21 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully
48     built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
49     slow under those conditions.)</p>
50 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
51 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
52     The stage1 tarball is used when one wants to bootstrap and build the entire
53     system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
54     from scratch, except for the bootstrap part which is already performed for you.
55     And the stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
56     been optimized for your system.</p>
57 zhen 1.26 <p> So, how does one beging the install process? First, you'll want to decide
58 drobbins 1.21 which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
59 drobbins 1.23 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</uri>.
60 drobbins 1.22 In this directory, you'll see several subdirectories such as <c>athlon</c>
61 drobbins 1.24 for each of our various architecture-specific builds. Here's a low-down on
62     each arch directory and what it contains:</p>
63 zhen 1.26 <table>
64     <tr>
65     <th>Architecture</th>
66     <th>Description</th>
67     </tr>
68     <tr>
69     <ti>x86</ti>
70     <ti>Stage 1 tarballs and &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; liveCD -- will work on anything.</ti>
71     </tr>
72     <tr>
73     <ti>i586</ti>
74     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i586+ CPUs</ti>
75     </tr>
76     <tr>
77     <ti>i686</ti>
78     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i686+ CPUs</ti>
79     </tr>
80     <tr>
81     <ti>athlon</ti>
82     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon CPUs</ti>
83     </tr>
84     <tr>
85     <ti>athlon-xp</ti>
86     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon XP CPUs</ti>
87     </tr>
88     <tr>
89     <ti>athlon-mp</ti>
90     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon MP CPUs</ti>
91     </tr>
92     <tr>
93     <ti>pentium3</ti>
94     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for Intel Pentium III and Pentium 4 CPUs</ti>
95     </tr>
96     </table>
97     <p>Inside each of these directories,
98 drobbins 1.22 you'll find a <path>livecd/</path> directory that contains LiveCDs. While these LiveCDs
99     will boot on any architecture, the install-related tarballs are optimized for a particular
100 zhen 1.26 CPU type and will not work on all systems, except for the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; LiveCD in the <path>x86</path>
101 drobbins 1.24 directory which can be used to install on anything.
102 drobbins 1.22 </p>
103 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
104 drobbins 1.24 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
105 zhen 1.26 carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size and lives
106 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
107     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
108     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
109 zhen 1.26 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labelled &quot;livecd-grp.&quot;
110 drobbins 1.24 These CDs (found in their respective <path>arch/livecd</path> directories)
111     contain stage1, 2 and 3 tarballs, and also contain a set of GRP packages
112     optimized for a specific architecture. Using these LiveCDs, it will be possible
113     for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly. The
114     downside is that these ISO images are large -- around 600MB -- so they can take
115     a while to download.</p>
116 zhen 1.26 <info>If for some reason your install gets interrupted at some point, you can
117 drobbins 1.24 reboot and restart. For example, if you have partitioned, installed the stageX
118     tarball, and are ready to chroot, you can restart the install if necessary.
119     Just re-boot with the LiveCD, then mount your drives/partitions to
120     <path>/mnt</path> as normal. Basically, you can do this at about any point
121     during the install, just not before partitioning for obvious reasons. </info>
122 zhen 1.26 <warn>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
123 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
124     needs to be moved upstream to the package maintainers (ie KDE) the
125     <e>developers</e> will take care of that. </warn>
126 zhen 1.26 <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. First, we'll download, burn
127 drobbins 1.21 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we'll create partitions, create
128     our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
129     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
130     our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure them
131     (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and have a
132     fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
133     process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation: </p>
134 zhen 1.26 <table>
135 zhen 1.16 <tr>
136     <th>stage tarball</th>
137     <th>requirements for installation</th>
138     </tr>
139     <tr>
140     <ti>1</ti>
141     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
142     </tr>
143     <tr>
144     <ti>2</ti>
145     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
146     </tr>
147     <tr>
148     <ti>3</ti>
149     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
150     </tr>
151     </table>
152     </body>
153     </section>
154     </chapter>
155     <chapter>
156     <title>Booting</title>
157     <section>
158     <body>
159 drobbins 1.21 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. If detected properly, you should see a fancy boot screen
160     with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
161     hit F2 for help, or pass kernel boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c>, etc.
162     Once you hit Enter, you'll be
163 zhen 1.6 greeted with a lot of text output
164     followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
165 drobbins 1.21 You will be automatically logged in as &quot;root&quot; and the root password will be
166     set to a random string for security purposes.
167 zhen 1.16 You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt on the current
168 drobbins 1.21 console, and can also open new root consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4.
169     Get back to the one you started on by pressing (you guessed it) Alt-F1.
170 zhen 1.6 </p>
171 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
172 drobbins 1.21 explaining how to do things like configure your network devices and where you can find
173     the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
174 zhen 1.6 </p>
175 zhen 1.16 </body>
176     </section>
177     </chapter>
178     <chapter>
179     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
180     <section>
181     <body>
182     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
183 zhen 1.6 will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
184     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
185     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
186     type:
187     </p>
188 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
189 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
190 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
191     </pre>
192 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
193 drobbins 1.21 during the initial boot autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
194 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
195     </p>
196 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
197 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
198     # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
199 zhen 1.6 </pre>
200 zhen 1.16 <p><c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks.
201 zhen 1.6 <note>
202 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
203 zhen 1.16 </note></p>
204 drobbins 1.21 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you'll need to load the
205 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
206     </p>
207 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
208 drobbins 1.1 # <c>insmod ataraid</c>
209     # <c>insmod pdcraid</c>
210     <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
211     # <c>insmod hptraid</c>
212     <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
213 zhen 1.6 </pre>
214 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
215 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
216 zhen 1.26 <pre caption="Setting DMA"><comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
217 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
218     # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 <comment>Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options</comment>
219 zhen 1.26 # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX <comment>Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up</comment></pre>
220 zhen 1.16 </body>
221     </section>
222     </chapter>
223     <chapter>
224     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
225     <section>
226     <body>
227     <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to do some additional
228 zhen 1.6 trickery.
229     </p>
230 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
231 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
232 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
233 drobbins 1.1 # <i>insmod pcmcia_core</i>
234     # <i>insmod i82365</i>
235     # <i>insmod ds</i>
236     # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
237 zhen 1.6 </pre>
238 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
239 zhen 1.6 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
240 drobbins 1.21 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that's
241 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
242 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
243 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
244     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
245 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
246 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
247 zhen 1.16 </body>
248     </section>
249     </chapter>
250     <chapter>
251     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
252     <section>
253     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
254     <body>
255     <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has
256 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
257 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
258     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
259     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
260 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
261 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
262     # <c> adsl-start </c>
263     </pre>
264 zhen 1.16 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
265 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
266     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
267 zhen 1.16 </body>
268     </section>
269     <section>
270     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
271     <body>
272     <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use
273 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
274 zhen 1.6 Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
275     Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
276     the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
277     The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
278     script. </p>
279 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
280 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
281 zhen 1.6 </pre>
282 zhen 1.16 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. </p>
283     </body>
284     </section>
285     <section>
286     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
287     <body>
288     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
289     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
290     <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
291 drobbins 1.1 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
292 zhen 1.6 </pre>
293 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
294 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
295     </note>
296 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
297 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
298 zhen 1.16 </body>
299     </section>
300     <section>
301     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
302     <body>
303     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
304 zhen 1.6 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
305     Type in the following commands, replacing
306     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
307     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
308     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
309     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
310     </p>
311 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
312 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
313     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
314 zhen 1.6 </pre>
315 zhen 1.16 <p>Now it's time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
316 zhen 1.6 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
317 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
318     <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
319 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
320     nameserver 10.0.0.1
321     nameserver 10.0.0.2
322 zhen 1.6 </pre>
323 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
324 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
325 zhen 1.16 </body>
326     </section>
327     <section>
328     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
329     <body>
330     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
331 zhen 1.6 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
332     </p>
333 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
334     # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
335     # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
336     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
337 zhen 1.6 </pre>
338 zhen 1.16 </body>
339     </section>
340     <section>
341     <title>Network Testing</title>
342     <body>
343     <p>Now that your network has been configured, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig -a</c> command should show
344 zhen 1.6 that your network card is working (look for <e>UP</e> and <e>RUNNING</e> in the output). </p>
345 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
346 drobbins 1.1 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
347     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
348     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
349     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
350     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
351     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
352     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
353     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
354     Interrupt:11
355 zhen 1.6 </pre>
356 zhen 1.16 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
357 zhen 1.14 and a website of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
358     resolution is working correctly, etc.
359 zhen 1.6 </p>
360 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
361 zhen 1.15 # <c>ping www.some_website.com </c>
362 zhen 1.6 </pre>
363 zhen 1.16 </body>
364     </section>
365     <section>
366     <title>Networking is go!</title>
367     <body>
368     <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
369 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
370 zhen 1.16 </body>
371     </section>
372     </chapter>
373     <chapter>
374     <title>Partition Configuration</title>
375     <section>
376     <body>
377     <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
378 zhen 1.6 to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
379     </p>
380 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
381 zhen 1.6 We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
382     partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
383     The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
384     your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
385     everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
386     your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. This prevents your kernel
387     from being made unavailable to GRUB (due to filesystem corruption) in the event
388     of a system crash, preventing the chicken-and-egg problem where GRUB can't read
389     your kernel (since your filesystem isn't consistent) but you can't bring your
390     filesystem back to a consistent state (since you can't boot!)
391     </p>
392 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have four filesystem options:
393 zhen 1.6 XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling) and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
394     filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
395     ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
396     providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
397     that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
398     ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
399     10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
400     As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
401     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
402 drobbins 1.21 is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but
403     is generally not recommended due to its tendency to lose recently-modified
404     data if your system locks up or unexpectedly reboots (due to a power failure, for instance.)
405 zhen 1.6 </p>
406 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
407 zhen 1.6 for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
408     high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
409 drobbins 1.21 mature and refined.
410 zhen 1.6 Here are our basic recommended filesystem
411     sizes and types:
412     </p>
413 zhen 1.16 <table>
414     <tr>
415     <th>Partition</th>
416     <th>Size</th>
417     <th>Type</th>
418     <th>example device</th>
419     </tr>
420     <tr>
421     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
422     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
423     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
424     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
425     </tr>
426     <tr>
427     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit)</ti>
428     <ti>&gt;=2*Amount of RAM in this system is recommended but no longer (as of kernel 2.4.10) required</ti>
429     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
430     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
431     </tr>
432     <tr>
433     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
434     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
435     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
436     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
437     </tr>
438     </table>
439 drobbins 1.21 <p>Before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
440     beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
441     will not be mis-indentified by Linux's mounting code.
442     This can be done as follows:
443 zhen 1.6 </p>
444 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
445 drobbins 1.21 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdxy bs=1024 count=1024 </c>
446 zhen 1.26 <comment>Replace /dev/hdxy with the device you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;</comment>
447 zhen 1.6 </pre>
448 drobbins 1.21 <p>At this point, create your partitions using <c>fdisk</c>. Note that your partitions
449     should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS, ext2/3 or other). </p>
450     <note><c>cfdisk</c> is included on the install CD, and it is <i>considerably</i> easier to use than
451     <c>fdisk</c>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it; by default, cfdisk will work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not the hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note>
452 zhen 1.26 <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to allow your system to detect the
453 drobbins 1.21 new partition configuration.</note>
454 zhen 1.26 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
455 drobbins 1.21 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X is
456     the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
457     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
458 zhen 1.26 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
459 zhen 1.6 the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p>
460 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
461 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
462 zhen 1.6 </pre>
463 zhen 1.16 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
464     <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
465 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
466 zhen 1.6 </pre>
467 zhen 1.16 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
468     <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
469 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
470 zhen 1.6 </pre>
471 zhen 1.16 <note>
472 zhen 1.6 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
473     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
474     the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
475     so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5.
476     The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
477     </note>
478 zhen 1.16 <warn>
479 zhen 1.6 If you are installing an XFS partition over a previous ReiserFS partition,
480     later attempts to mount may fail without an explicit <c>mount -t xfs</c>.
481     The solution is to zero out the partition before creating the XFS filesystem:
482     <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hd<comment>x</comment> bs=1k</c>.
483     </warn>
484 zhen 1.16 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
485     <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
486 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
487 zhen 1.6 </pre>
488 zhen 1.16 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
489     <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
490 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
491 zhen 1.6 </pre>
492 zhen 1.16 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
493 zhen 1.6 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
494     </note>
495 zhen 1.16 </body>
496     </section>
497     </chapter>
498     <chapter>
499     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
500     <section>
501     <body>
502     <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that
503 zhen 1.6 provides later:
504     </p>
505 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
506 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
507 zhen 1.6 </pre>
508 zhen 1.16 <p>Next, we'll create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mountpoints,
509 zhen 1.6 and we'll mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
510 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
511 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
512     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
513     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
514     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
515 zhen 1.6 </pre>
516 zhen 1.26 <p>
517 zhen 1.6 If you are setting up Gentoo
518     Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
519     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
520     </p>
521 zhen 1.27 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
522 zhen 1.6 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
523     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
524     We'll get to that in a bit.
525     </impo>
526 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
527 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
528 zhen 1.16 </body>
529     </section>
530     </chapter>
531     <chapter>
532     <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
533     <section>
534     <body>
535     <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set
536 drobbins 1.21 to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path>.
537 zhen 1.6 On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3
538     tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it
539     (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest)
540 zhen 1.14 from one of the Gentoo mirror sites. </p>
541 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
542 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
543 zhen 1.14 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball</comment>
544 drobbins 1.21 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</c>
545 zhen 1.14 # <c>wget <comment>insert required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
546 zhen 1.6 </pre>
547 zhen 1.16 </body>
548     </section>
549     </chapter>
550     <chapter>
551     <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
552     <section>
553     <body>
554     <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
555 zhen 1.26 Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
556 drobbins 1.21 Gentoo Linux system.
557 zhen 1.6 </p>
558 zhen 1.16 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
559 drobbins 1.21 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
560 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install method,
561 zhen 1.6 you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
562     If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
563     These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
564 zhen 1.12 compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.)
565 zhen 1.6 </p>
566 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
567 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
568 drobbins 1.21 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
569 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
570     # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
571 zhen 1.6 </pre>
572 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Entering the chroot Environment">
573 drobbins 1.1 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
574     # <c>env-update</c>
575     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
576     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
577 zhen 1.6 </pre>
578 zhen 1.16 <p>After you execute these commands, you'll be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment.
579 zhen 1.6 </p>
580 zhen 1.16 </body>
581     </section>
582     </chapter>
583     <chapter>
584     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using Rsync</title>
585     <section>
586     <body>
587     <p>Now, you'll need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
588 zhen 1.6 you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
589 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Updating Using Rsync">
590 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
591     </pre>
592 zhen 1.16 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
593 zhen 1.6 it's about 90Mb in size without tarballs.
594     </p>
595 zhen 1.16 </body>
596     </section>
597     </chapter>
598     <chapter>
599     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
600     <section>
601     <body>
602     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, people using stage1 to
603 zhen 1.6 install will need to bootstrap their Gentoo Linux system as follows. First
604     edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
605     <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
606     like to be built into packages; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
607     or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
608     More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
609     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
610     </p>
611 zhen 1.16 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
612 zhen 1.6 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
613     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) Your best friend
614     is <path>man gcc</path> to figure out what additional <c>CFLAGS</c> and
615     <code>CXXFLAGS</code> are available. Search for 'Optimization'.
616     </p>
617 zhen 1.16 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
618 zhen 1.6 firewall.
619     </p>
620 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
621 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
622 zhen 1.6 </pre>
623 zhen 1.16 <note>
624 zhen 1.6 People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
625     the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
626     should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
627     be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
628     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
629     interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
630 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
631 zhen 1.6 in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
632     </note>
633 zhen 1.16 </body>
634     </section>
635     </chapter>
636     <chapter>
637 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
638 zhen 1.16 <section>
639     <body>
640 zhen 1.18 <p>The stage1 tarball is for ultimate tweakage. If you have picked this tarball,
641     you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized system. Have fun, because optimization
642     is what Gentoo Linux is all about!
643     </p>
644 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, it's time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
645 zhen 1.6 my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped
646 zhen 1.18 for compiling the rest of the system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
647 zhen 1.6 These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process.
648     </p>
649 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
650 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
651     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
652 zhen 1.6 </pre>
653 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
654 zhen 1.6 </p>
655 zhen 1.16 <note>
656 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
657     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
658     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
659     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
660     </note>
661 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
662     # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
663 zhen 1.6 </pre>
664 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
665 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
666     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
667 zhen 1.27 Have a nice nap. Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
668     which means you can skip the rest of the stage installs, and move onto final installation.
669 zhen 1.6 </p>
670 zhen 1.16 </body>
671     </section>
672     </chapter>
673     <chapter>
674 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage2</title>
675 zhen 1.16 <section>
676     <body>
677 zhen 1.18 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
678     to do is install the rest of the system.
679 zhen 1.6 </p>
680 zhen 1.16 <note>
681 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
682     </note>
683 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
684 drobbins 1.25 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;-*&quot;</c>
685 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
686     <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
687     # <c>emerge system</c>
688 zhen 1.6 </pre>
689 drobbins 1.25 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;-*&quot;</c> line ensures that any new scripts
690 zhen 1.6 installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
691     <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
692     management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
693 zhen 1.16 <p>It's going to take a while
694 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
695     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
696 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
697 zhen 1.18 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2. When this process completes, your system
698 zhen 1.27 will be the equivalent of a stage3 system, which means you can skip <i>Starting form Stage3</i>
699     and move on to building the rest of your system.
700 zhen 1.18 </p>
701     </body>
702     </section>
703     </chapter>
704     <chapter>
705     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
706     <section>
707     <body>
708     <p>The stage3 tarball is already configured for your system. There is not much to do for this stage,
709     but it is a very good idea to update your system to the newest available packages. </p>
710     <note>If you have not already edited <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to fit your specifications,
711     now would be a good time to do so. </note>
712     <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
713     # <c>emerge sync</c>
714     # <c>emerge -up world</c>
715     <comment>lists [<i>packages</i>] to be installed</comment>
716     # <c>emerge -u world</c>
717     </pre>
718 zhen 1.27 <p>Once you complete this step, your Gentoo installation is ready to move on to the next step.
719     </p>
720    
721 zhen 1.18 </body>
722     </section>
723     </chapter>
724     <chapter>
725 zhen 1.26 <title>Using GRP</title>
726     <section>
727     <body>
728 zhen 1.28 <p>You can take advantage of pre-built GRP package sets to avoid compiling certain popular and large packages. Currently, we provide full builds of everything you need for <c>openoffice-bin</c>,
729 zhen 1.27 <c>GNOME</c>, <c>KDE</c> and <c>xfree</c>.
730     </p>
731     <p>First, you will need to <c>cd</c> to the location of the packages directory, for the
732     liveCD you will find it at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/packages</path>. In that directory you
733     will find the <c>grp-install.sh</c> script, an <i>All</i> directory that contains all of the binary
734     packages, and a list of available GRP packages. To install any/all of these
735     package sets you should do the following: </p>
736 zhen 1.26 <pre caption="Using GRP">
737 zhen 1.27 # <c>sh grp-install.sh &lt;list of package lists&gt;</c>
738     <comment>where &lt;list of package lists&gt; may be any of the *-list.txt files found in the same directory.</comment>
739 drobbins 1.21 </pre>
740 zhen 1.27 <p><c>grp-install.sh</c> can be run multiple times without replacing existing installations. You can
741     do a <c>sh grp-install.sh</c> for a basic usage description if you are still a bit foggy.
742     </p>
743 zhen 1.26 </body>
744     </section>
745     </chapter>
746 drobbins 1.21 <chapter>
747 zhen 1.18 <title>Final Steps: Timezone</title>
748     <section>
749     <body>
750     <p>At this point, you should have system that's ready for final configuration.
751     We'll start the configuration process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building
752     the kernel we ensure that users get reasonable <c>uname -a</c> output.
753     </p>
754     <p>Look for your timezone (or GMT if you using Greenwich Mean Time) in
755     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:
756     </p>
757     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for timezome">
758     # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
759     </pre>
760     <p>You might also want to check <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to make sure your timezone settings
761     are correct.
762 zhen 1.6 </p>
763 zhen 1.16 </body>
764     </section>
765     </chapter>
766     <chapter>
767     <title>Final steps: kernel and system logger</title>
768     <section>
769     <body>
770     <note>
771 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
772     </note>
773 zhen 1.16 <p>You now need to merge Linux source ebuilds. Here are the ones we currently
774 zhen 1.6 offer:
775     </p>
776 zhen 1.16 <table>
777     <tr>
778     <th>ebuild</th>
779     <th>description</th>
780     </tr>
781     <tr>
782     <ti>
783     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
784     </ti>
785 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
786 zhen 1.16 </tr>
787     <tr>
788     <ti>
789     <path>xfs-sources</path>
790     </ti>
791 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
792 zhen 1.16 </tr>
793     <tr>
794     <ti>
795     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
796     </ti>
797     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
798     </tr>
799     <tr>
800     <ti>
801     <path>usermode-sources</path>
802     </ti>
803     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
804     </tr>
805     <tr>
806     <ti>
807     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
808     </ti>
809     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti>
810     </tr>
811     </table>
812 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
813     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
814     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
815 zhen 1.6 </warn>
816 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
817 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
818 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
819 zhen 1.6 </pre>
820 zhen 1.16 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel.
821 zhen 1.6 </p>
822 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
823 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
824     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
825     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
826     # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
827     <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
828     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
829 zhen 1.6 </pre>
830 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
831 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
832 zhen 1.16 compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>&quot;Code maturity
833     level options --&gt; Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;</i>
834 zhen 1.6 option to see several of these selections.
835 zhen 1.16 Under the &quot;File systems&quot; section, be sure to enable the <i>&quot;Device File System&quot;</i> (note that
836     you <e>don't</e> need to enable the &quot;/dev/pts file system support&quot; option). You'll also
837     need to enable the <i>&quot;Virtual Memory Filesystem&quot;</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
838     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
839     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot;
840 zhen 1.6 option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
841     enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
842 zhen 1.16 want to enable the &quot;USE DMA by default&quot; option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
843     very poorly. Of course, remember to enable &quot;IDE disk&quot; support as well -- otherwise your
844 zhen 1.6 kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
845     </warn>
846 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
847 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
848     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
849     support for IDE RAID
850     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
851     </p>
852 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
853 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
854 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
855     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
856     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
857 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
858     </p>
859 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
860     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
861     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
862     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
863     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
864     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
865     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
866 zhen 1.6 </p>
867 zhen 1.16 <note>
868 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
869     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
870 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
871 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
872     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
873     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
874 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
875     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
876 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
877     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
878     line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
879     for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
880     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
881     </note>
882 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
883 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
884     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
885     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
886     newer alternatives.
887     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
888     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
889     </p>
890 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
891 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
892     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
893     <comment>or</comment>
894     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
895     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
896     <comment>or</comment>
897     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
898     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
899     <comment>or</comment>
900     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
901     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
902 zhen 1.6 </pre>
903 zhen 1.16 <warn>
904 zhen 1.6 In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
905     <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
906     See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
907     for a sample configuration file.
908     </warn>
909 zhen 1.16 <impo>
910 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
911     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
912     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
913     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
914     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
915     in real time, as expected),
916     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
917     again.
918     </impo>
919 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you'd like to use.
920 zhen 1.6 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you don't know which one to choose,
921     you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
922     </p>
923 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
924 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
925     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
926     <comment>or</comment>
927     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
928     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
929     <comment>or</comment>
930     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
931 zhen 1.2 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
932 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
933     # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
934 zhen 1.6 </pre>
935 zhen 1.26 <!--<p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux,
936 drobbins 1.21 see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>-->
937 zhen 1.16 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
938 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
939 zhen 1.6 </p>
940 zhen 1.16 </body>
941     </section>
942     </chapter>
943     <chapter>
944     <title>Final steps: Install Additional Packages</title>
945     <section>
946     <body>
947     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
948 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
949 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
950 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge rp-pppoe</c>
951 zhen 1.6 </pre>
952 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
953 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
954     for the first time.
955     </note>
956 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
957 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
958     using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> ebuild:
959     </p>
960 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
961 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
962     <comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
963     # <c> emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
964     <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
965 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
966 zhen 1.6 </pre>
967 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
968 zhen 1.6 real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
969     </p>
970 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
971 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
972 zhen 1.6 </pre>
973 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
974 zhen 1.10 to work.
975     </warn>
976 zhen 1.16 </body>
977     </section>
978     </chapter>
979     <chapter>
980     <title>Final steps: /etc/fstab</title>
981     <section>
982     <body>
983     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
984 zhen 1.6 a few important system files and install the GRUB boot loader.
985     The first file we need to
986     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
987     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
988     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
989     </p>
990 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
991     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
992     <pre caption="Editing fstab"><comment>
993 drobbins 1.1 # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
994     #
995     # noatime turns of atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
996     # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
997     # efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
998     # switch between notail and tail freely.
999    
1000     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1001    
1002     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1003     </comment>
1004     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1005     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1006     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1007     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1008     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1009 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1010 zhen 1.16 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boottime.
1011 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1012     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1013     </warn>
1014 zhen 1.16 </body>
1015     </section>
1016     </chapter>
1017     <chapter>
1018     <title>Final steps: Root Password</title>
1019     <section>
1020     <body>
1021     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1022     <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1023     # <c>passwd</c>
1024 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1025 zhen 1.16 </body>
1026     </section>
1027     </chapter>
1028     <chapter>
1029     <title>Final steps: /etc/hostname</title>
1030     <section>
1031     <body>
1032     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1033 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1034     </p>
1035 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1036     # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1037 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1038 zhen 1.16 </body>
1039     </section>
1040     </chapter>
1041     <chapter>
1042     <title>Final steps: /etc/hosts</title>
1043     <section>
1044     <body>
1045     <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1046 zhen 1.6 It's used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1047     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here's a template for this file:
1048     </p>
1049 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1050 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
1051     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1052     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1053 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1054 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1055 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1056     </note>
1057 zhen 1.16 </body>
1058     </section>
1059     </chapter>
1060     <chapter>
1061     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1062     <section>
1063     <body>
1064     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1065 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1066     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1067     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1068     it as a module:
1069     </p>
1070 stocke2 1.29 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1071     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1072 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1073 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1074 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1075 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1076 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Boottime Network Configuration">
1077 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1078     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1079 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1080 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1081 zhen 1.6 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1082 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1083 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1084     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1085     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1086 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1087 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1088 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1089 zhen 1.10 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/ethx</path>:
1090 zhen 1.6 </p>
1091 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1092 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1093     need pcmcia
1094     }
1095 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1096 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1097 zhen 1.10 </p>
1098 zhen 1.16 </body>
1099     </section>
1100     </chapter>
1101     <chapter>
1102     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1103     <section>
1104     <body>
1105     <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1106 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1107 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1108 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1109 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1110     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1111     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1112     possibilities).
1113     </p>
1114 zhen 1.16 </body>
1115     </section>
1116     </chapter>
1117     <chapter>
1118     <title>Final steps: Configure GRUB</title>
1119     <section>
1120     <body>
1121     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1122 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1123     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1124 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1125 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1126     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1127     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1128     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1129     a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1130     <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1131    
1132     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1133     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1134     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1135     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1136     it's time to install GRUB.
1137     </p>
1138 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1139     <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1140 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1141 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1142 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1143 zhen 1.6 this time.
1144     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1145     grub setup for RAID controllers
1146     </impo>
1147 zhen 1.16 <p>You'll be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1148 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1149     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1150     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1151     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1152     I want to type are:
1153     </p>
1154 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="GRUB Commands">
1155 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c>
1156     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c>
1157     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1158 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1159 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1160 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1161     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1162     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1163     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1164     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1165     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1166     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1167     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1168     I'd specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1169     boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1170    
1171     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1172     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1173     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1174     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1175     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1176     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1177    
1178     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1179     to make the right choice.
1180     </note>
1181    
1182     Gentoo Linux is now
1183     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1184     we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here's how to do it.
1185     </p>
1186 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1187 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1188     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1189 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1190 zhen 1.6 </p>
1191 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1192 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1193     timeout 30
1194     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1195    
1196     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1197     root (hd0,0)
1198     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1199    
1200     <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1201     title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1202     root (hd0,0)
1203     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/discX/partY
1204    
1205     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1206     title=Windows NT Workstation
1207     root (hd0,5)
1208     chainloader +1
1209 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1210 zhen 1.16 <note>
1211 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1212     </note>
1213 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1214 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1215 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1216     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1217 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1218 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1219 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1220     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1221     </p>
1222 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1223 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1224     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1225     loader.
1226 zhware 1.9 </note>
1227 zhen 1.16 <note>
1228 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1229 zhen 1.6 </note>
1230 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1231 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1232     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1233     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1234     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1235     </p>
1236 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1237 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1238     devfs is enabled by default.
1239     </note>
1240 zhen 1.16 </body>
1241     </section>
1242     </chapter>
1243     <chapter>
1244     <title>Final steps: Configure LILO</title>
1245     <section>
1246     <body>
1247 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1248     LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here's how to install
1249     LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1250 zhen 1.16 </p>
1251     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1252     </p>
1253     <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1254     # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1255     </pre>
1256     <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. I will give you a small <i>lilo.conf</i> to use, and I will explain
1257     the different parts of the file.
1258     </p>
1259     <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1260     boot=/dev/hda
1261     map=/boot/map
1262     install=/boot/boot.b
1263     prompt
1264     timeout=50
1265     message=/boot/message
1266     lba32
1267     default=linux
1268    
1269     image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1270     label=linux
1271     initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.20.img
1272     read-only
1273     root=/dev/hda5
1274    
1275     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1276     other=/dev/hda1
1277     label=dos
1278    
1279     </pre>
1280     <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1281     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1282     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1283     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1284     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1285     <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to show you whatever is referenced in the message line.
1286     While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1287     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1288     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1289     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1290     <li><i>message=/boot/message</i> refers to the screen that LILO displays to let you select the
1291     operating system or kernel to boot. </li>
1292     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1293     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1294     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1295     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1296     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1297     <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1298     <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1299     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1300     <li><i>initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.20.img</i> refers to the initial ram disk image that is used at boot time
1301     to actually initialize and start the devices that makes booting the kernel possible. The initial
1302     ram disk is a collection of machine-specific drivers necessary to operate a SCSI card, hard drive, or any
1303     other device needed to load the kernel. You should never try to share initial ram disks between machines. </li>
1304     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1305     altered during the boot process. </li>
1306     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1307     <note>Thanks to <uri link="http://www.redhat.com">Redhat.com</uri> for this information.
1308     </note>
1309     <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1310     into the MBR:
1311     </p>
1312     <pre caption="Running LILO">
1313     # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1314     </pre>
1315     <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1316     </p>
1317     </body>
1318     </section>
1319     </chapter>
1320     <chapter>
1321     <title>Final steps: Bootdisks</title>
1322     <section>
1323     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1324     <body>
1325 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1326 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1327 drobbins 1.21 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1328     disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1329     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1330     make a GRUB
1331     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1332 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1333     bootdisk like this:
1334     </p>
1335 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1336 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1337     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1338     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1339     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1340     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1341    
1342     # <c>grub</c>
1343    
1344     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1345     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1346     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1347 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1348 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1349 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1350 zhen 1.16 </body>
1351     </section>
1352     <section>
1353     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1354     <body>
1355     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1356     </p>
1357 zhen 1.18 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1358     # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1359     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1360     </pre>
1361 zhen 1.16 </body>
1362     </section>
1363     </chapter>
1364     <chapter>
1365     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1366     <section>
1367     <body>
1368     <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to exit the chrooted shell,
1369 zhen 1.6 udpate necessary configuration files,
1370     safely unmount your partitions
1371     and reboot the system:
1372     </p>
1373 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1374 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1375     # <c>exit</c>
1376     <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1377     # <c>cd / </c>
1378     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1379     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1380     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1381     # <c>reboot</c>
1382 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1383 zhen 1.16 <note>
1384 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1385     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1386     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1387     </note>
1388 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1389 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1390     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1391 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1392 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1393 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1394 zhen 1.16 (there's a &quot;click to subscribe&quot; link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1395 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1396     that will
1397     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1398     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1399     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1400 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1401 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1402 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1403 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1404     </p>
1405 zhen 1.16 </body>
1406     </section>
1407     </chapter>
1408     <chapter>
1409     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1410     <section>
1411     <body>
1412     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1413 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1414     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1415     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1416     </p>
1417 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1418 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1419     to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1420     other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1421     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1422 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1423 zhen 1.6 </p>
1424 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1425     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1426     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1427     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1428     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1429     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1430     </ul>
1431     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1432 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
1433     </p>
1434 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1435     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1436 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1437 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1438     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1439     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1440     </ul>
1441     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1442 zhen 1.6 </p>
1443 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1444 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1445     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1446 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1447 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1448 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1449     to see additional configuration options.
1450     </p>
1451 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1452 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1453     </p>
1454 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1455     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1456     </pre>
1457     <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1458 zhen 1.6 viewed with your favortive pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1459 zhen 1.16 </body>
1460     </section>
1461     </chapter>
1462 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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