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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 drobbins 1.21 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc2 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10     <mail link="jerry@gentoo.org">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11     </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27     <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
28 drobbins 1.21 Linux 1.4_rc2. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
29 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
30     scratch.
31     </abstract>
32 zhen 1.30 <version>2.3.3</version>
33 zhen 1.27 <date>2 January 2003</date>
34 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
35     <title>About the Install</title>
36     <section>
37     <body>
38 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
39 drobbins 1.21 as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
40     Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
41     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
42     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
43     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
44     establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and download
45     files. </p>
46 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
47 drobbins 1.21 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully
48     built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
49     slow under those conditions.)</p>
50 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
51 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
52     The stage1 tarball is used when one wants to bootstrap and build the entire
53     system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
54     from scratch, except for the bootstrap part which is already performed for you.
55     And the stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
56     been optimized for your system.</p>
57 zhen 1.26 <p> So, how does one beging the install process? First, you'll want to decide
58 drobbins 1.21 which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
59 drobbins 1.23 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</uri>.
60 drobbins 1.22 In this directory, you'll see several subdirectories such as <c>athlon</c>
61 drobbins 1.24 for each of our various architecture-specific builds. Here's a low-down on
62     each arch directory and what it contains:</p>
63 zhen 1.26 <table>
64     <tr>
65     <th>Architecture</th>
66     <th>Description</th>
67     </tr>
68     <tr>
69     <ti>x86</ti>
70     <ti>Stage 1 tarballs and &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; liveCD -- will work on anything.</ti>
71     </tr>
72     <tr>
73     <ti>i586</ti>
74     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i586+ CPUs</ti>
75     </tr>
76     <tr>
77     <ti>i686</ti>
78     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i686+ CPUs</ti>
79     </tr>
80     <tr>
81     <ti>athlon</ti>
82     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon CPUs</ti>
83     </tr>
84     <tr>
85     <ti>athlon-xp</ti>
86     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon XP CPUs</ti>
87     </tr>
88     <tr>
89     <ti>athlon-mp</ti>
90     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon MP CPUs</ti>
91     </tr>
92     <tr>
93     <ti>pentium3</ti>
94     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for Intel Pentium III and Pentium 4 CPUs</ti>
95     </tr>
96     </table>
97     <p>Inside each of these directories,
98 drobbins 1.22 you'll find a <path>livecd/</path> directory that contains LiveCDs. While these LiveCDs
99     will boot on any architecture, the install-related tarballs are optimized for a particular
100 zhen 1.26 CPU type and will not work on all systems, except for the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; LiveCD in the <path>x86</path>
101 drobbins 1.24 directory which can be used to install on anything.
102 drobbins 1.22 </p>
103 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
104 drobbins 1.24 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
105 zhen 1.26 carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size and lives
106 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
107     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
108     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
109 zhen 1.26 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labelled &quot;livecd-grp.&quot;
110 drobbins 1.24 These CDs (found in their respective <path>arch/livecd</path> directories)
111     contain stage1, 2 and 3 tarballs, and also contain a set of GRP packages
112     optimized for a specific architecture. Using these LiveCDs, it will be possible
113     for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly. The
114     downside is that these ISO images are large -- around 600MB -- so they can take
115     a while to download.</p>
116 zhen 1.26 <info>If for some reason your install gets interrupted at some point, you can
117 drobbins 1.24 reboot and restart. For example, if you have partitioned, installed the stageX
118     tarball, and are ready to chroot, you can restart the install if necessary.
119     Just re-boot with the LiveCD, then mount your drives/partitions to
120     <path>/mnt</path> as normal. Basically, you can do this at about any point
121     during the install, just not before partitioning for obvious reasons. </info>
122 zhen 1.26 <warn>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
123 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
124     needs to be moved upstream to the package maintainers (ie KDE) the
125     <e>developers</e> will take care of that. </warn>
126 zhen 1.26 <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. First, we'll download, burn
127 drobbins 1.21 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we'll create partitions, create
128     our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
129     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
130     our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure them
131     (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and have a
132     fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
133     process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation: </p>
134 zhen 1.26 <table>
135 zhen 1.16 <tr>
136     <th>stage tarball</th>
137     <th>requirements for installation</th>
138     </tr>
139     <tr>
140     <ti>1</ti>
141     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
142     </tr>
143     <tr>
144     <ti>2</ti>
145     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
146     </tr>
147     <tr>
148     <ti>3</ti>
149     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
150     </tr>
151     </table>
152     </body>
153     </section>
154     </chapter>
155     <chapter>
156     <title>Booting</title>
157     <section>
158     <body>
159 drobbins 1.21 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. If detected properly, you should see a fancy boot screen
160     with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
161     hit F2 for help, or pass kernel boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c>, etc.
162     Once you hit Enter, you'll be
163 zhen 1.6 greeted with a lot of text output
164     followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
165 drobbins 1.21 You will be automatically logged in as &quot;root&quot; and the root password will be
166     set to a random string for security purposes.
167 zhen 1.16 You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt on the current
168 drobbins 1.21 console, and can also open new root consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4.
169     Get back to the one you started on by pressing (you guessed it) Alt-F1.
170 zhen 1.6 </p>
171 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
172 drobbins 1.21 explaining how to do things like configure your network devices and where you can find
173     the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
174 zhen 1.6 </p>
175 zhen 1.16 </body>
176     </section>
177     </chapter>
178     <chapter>
179     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
180     <section>
181     <body>
182     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
183 zhen 1.6 will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
184     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
185     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
186     type:
187     </p>
188 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
189 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
190 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
191     </pre>
192 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
193 drobbins 1.21 during the initial boot autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
194 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
195     </p>
196 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
197 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
198     # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
199 zhen 1.6 </pre>
200 zhen 1.16 <p><c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks.
201 zhen 1.6 <note>
202 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
203 zhen 1.16 </note></p>
204 drobbins 1.21 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you'll need to load the
205 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
206     </p>
207 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
208 drobbins 1.1 # <c>insmod ataraid</c>
209     # <c>insmod pdcraid</c>
210     <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
211     # <c>insmod hptraid</c>
212     <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
213 zhen 1.6 </pre>
214 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
215 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
216 zhen 1.26 <pre caption="Setting DMA"><comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
217 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
218     # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 <comment>Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options</comment>
219 zhen 1.26 # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX <comment>Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up</comment></pre>
220 zhen 1.16 </body>
221     </section>
222     </chapter>
223     <chapter>
224     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
225     <section>
226     <body>
227     <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to do some additional
228 zhen 1.6 trickery.
229     </p>
230 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
231 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
232 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
233 drobbins 1.1 # <i>insmod pcmcia_core</i>
234     # <i>insmod i82365</i>
235     # <i>insmod ds</i>
236     # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
237 zhen 1.6 </pre>
238 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
239 zhen 1.6 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
240 drobbins 1.21 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that's
241 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
242 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
243 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
244     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
245 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
246 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
247 zhen 1.16 </body>
248     </section>
249     </chapter>
250     <chapter>
251     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
252     <section>
253     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
254     <body>
255     <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has
256 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
257 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
258     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
259     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
260 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
261 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
262     # <c> adsl-start </c>
263     </pre>
264 zhen 1.16 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
265 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
266     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
267 zhen 1.16 </body>
268     </section>
269     <section>
270     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
271     <body>
272     <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use
273 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
274 zhen 1.6 Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
275     Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
276     the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
277     The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
278     script. </p>
279 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
280 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
281 zhen 1.6 </pre>
282 zhen 1.16 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. </p>
283     </body>
284     </section>
285     <section>
286     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
287     <body>
288     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
289     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
290     <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
291 drobbins 1.1 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
292 zhen 1.6 </pre>
293 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
294 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
295     </note>
296 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
297 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
298 zhen 1.16 </body>
299     </section>
300     <section>
301     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
302     <body>
303     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
304 zhen 1.6 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
305     Type in the following commands, replacing
306     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
307     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
308     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
309     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
310     </p>
311 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
312 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
313     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
314 zhen 1.6 </pre>
315 zhen 1.16 <p>Now it's time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
316 zhen 1.6 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
317 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
318     <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
319 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
320     nameserver 10.0.0.1
321     nameserver 10.0.0.2
322 zhen 1.6 </pre>
323 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
324 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
325 zhen 1.16 </body>
326     </section>
327     <section>
328     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
329     <body>
330     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
331 zhen 1.6 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
332     </p>
333 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
334     # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
335     # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
336     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
337 zhen 1.6 </pre>
338 zhen 1.16 </body>
339     </section>
340     <section>
341     <title>Network Testing</title>
342     <body>
343     <p>Now that your network has been configured, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig -a</c> command should show
344 zhen 1.6 that your network card is working (look for <e>UP</e> and <e>RUNNING</e> in the output). </p>
345 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
346 drobbins 1.1 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
347     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
348     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
349     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
350     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
351     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
352     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
353     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
354     Interrupt:11
355 zhen 1.6 </pre>
356 zhen 1.16 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
357 zhen 1.14 and a website of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
358     resolution is working correctly, etc.
359 zhen 1.6 </p>
360 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
361 zhen 1.15 # <c>ping www.some_website.com </c>
362 zhen 1.6 </pre>
363 zhen 1.16 </body>
364     </section>
365     <section>
366     <title>Networking is go!</title>
367     <body>
368     <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
369 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
370 zhen 1.16 </body>
371     </section>
372     </chapter>
373     <chapter>
374     <title>Partition Configuration</title>
375     <section>
376     <body>
377     <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
378 zhen 1.6 to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
379     </p>
380 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
381 zhen 1.6 We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
382     partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
383     The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
384     your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
385     everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
386     your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. This prevents your kernel
387     from being made unavailable to GRUB (due to filesystem corruption) in the event
388     of a system crash, preventing the chicken-and-egg problem where GRUB can't read
389     your kernel (since your filesystem isn't consistent) but you can't bring your
390     filesystem back to a consistent state (since you can't boot!)
391     </p>
392 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have four filesystem options:
393 zhen 1.6 XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling) and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
394     filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
395     ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
396     providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
397     that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
398     ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
399     10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
400     As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
401     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
402 drobbins 1.21 is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but
403     is generally not recommended due to its tendency to lose recently-modified
404     data if your system locks up or unexpectedly reboots (due to a power failure, for instance.)
405 zhen 1.6 </p>
406 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
407 zhen 1.6 for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
408     high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
409 drobbins 1.21 mature and refined.
410 zhen 1.6 Here are our basic recommended filesystem
411     sizes and types:
412     </p>
413 zhen 1.16 <table>
414     <tr>
415     <th>Partition</th>
416     <th>Size</th>
417     <th>Type</th>
418     <th>example device</th>
419     </tr>
420     <tr>
421     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
422     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
423     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
424     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
425     </tr>
426     <tr>
427     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit)</ti>
428     <ti>&gt;=2*Amount of RAM in this system is recommended but no longer (as of kernel 2.4.10) required</ti>
429     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
430     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
431     </tr>
432     <tr>
433     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
434     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
435     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
436     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
437     </tr>
438     </table>
439 drobbins 1.21 <p>Before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
440     beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
441     will not be mis-indentified by Linux's mounting code.
442     This can be done as follows:
443 zhen 1.6 </p>
444 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
445 drobbins 1.21 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdxy bs=1024 count=1024 </c>
446 zhen 1.26 <comment>Replace /dev/hdxy with the device you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;</comment>
447 zhen 1.6 </pre>
448 drobbins 1.21 <p>At this point, create your partitions using <c>fdisk</c>. Note that your partitions
449     should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS, ext2/3 or other). </p>
450     <note><c>cfdisk</c> is included on the install CD, and it is <i>considerably</i> easier to use than
451     <c>fdisk</c>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it; by default, cfdisk will work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not the hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note>
452 zhen 1.26 <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to allow your system to detect the
453 drobbins 1.21 new partition configuration.</note>
454 zhen 1.26 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
455 drobbins 1.21 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X is
456     the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
457     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
458 zhen 1.26 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
459 zhen 1.6 the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p>
460 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
461 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
462 zhen 1.6 </pre>
463 zhen 1.16 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
464     <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
465 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
466 zhen 1.6 </pre>
467 zhen 1.16 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
468     <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
469 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
470 zhen 1.6 </pre>
471 zhen 1.16 <note>
472 zhen 1.6 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
473     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
474     the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
475     so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5.
476     The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
477     </note>
478 zhen 1.16 <warn>
479 zhen 1.6 If you are installing an XFS partition over a previous ReiserFS partition,
480     later attempts to mount may fail without an explicit <c>mount -t xfs</c>.
481     The solution is to zero out the partition before creating the XFS filesystem:
482     <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hd<comment>x</comment> bs=1k</c>.
483     </warn>
484 zhen 1.16 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
485     <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
486 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
487 zhen 1.6 </pre>
488 seo 1.32 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
489     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
490     </note>
491 zhen 1.16 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
492     <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
493 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
494 zhen 1.6 </pre>
495 zhen 1.16 </body>
496     </section>
497     </chapter>
498     <chapter>
499     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
500     <section>
501     <body>
502     <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that
503 zhen 1.6 provides later:
504     </p>
505 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
506 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
507 zhen 1.6 </pre>
508 zhen 1.16 <p>Next, we'll create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mountpoints,
509 zhen 1.6 and we'll mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
510 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
511 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
512     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
513     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
514     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
515 zhen 1.6 </pre>
516 zhen 1.26 <p>
517 zhen 1.6 If you are setting up Gentoo
518     Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
519     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
520     </p>
521 zhen 1.27 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
522 zhen 1.6 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
523     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
524     We'll get to that in a bit.
525     </impo>
526 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
527 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
528 zhen 1.16 </body>
529     </section>
530     </chapter>
531     <chapter>
532     <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
533     <section>
534     <body>
535     <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set
536 drobbins 1.21 to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path>.
537 zhen 1.6 On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3
538     tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it
539     (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest)
540 zhen 1.14 from one of the Gentoo mirror sites. </p>
541 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
542 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
543 zhen 1.14 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball</comment>
544 drobbins 1.21 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</c>
545 zhen 1.14 # <c>wget <comment>insert required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
546 zhen 1.6 </pre>
547 zhen 1.16 </body>
548     </section>
549     </chapter>
550     <chapter>
551     <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
552     <section>
553     <body>
554     <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
555 zhen 1.26 Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
556 drobbins 1.21 Gentoo Linux system.
557 zhen 1.6 </p>
558 zhen 1.16 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
559 drobbins 1.21 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
560 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install method,
561 zhen 1.6 you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
562     If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
563     These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
564 zhen 1.12 compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.)
565 zhen 1.6 </p>
566 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
567 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
568 drobbins 1.21 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
569 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
570     # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
571 zhen 1.6 </pre>
572 zhen 1.30 <p>If you are going to use GRP, now would be a good time to execute the following commands:
573     </p>
574    
575     <pre caption="Getting ready for GRP">
576     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/GRP</c>
577     # <c>mount -o bind /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/packages /mnt/gentoo/GRP</c>
578     </pre>
579    
580 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Entering the chroot Environment">
581 drobbins 1.1 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
582     # <c>env-update</c>
583     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
584     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
585 zhen 1.6 </pre>
586 zhen 1.16 <p>After you execute these commands, you'll be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment.
587 zhen 1.6 </p>
588 zhen 1.16 </body>
589     </section>
590     </chapter>
591     <chapter>
592     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using Rsync</title>
593     <section>
594     <body>
595     <p>Now, you'll need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
596 zhen 1.6 you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
597 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Updating Using Rsync">
598 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
599     </pre>
600 zhen 1.16 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
601 zhen 1.6 it's about 90Mb in size without tarballs.
602     </p>
603 zhen 1.16 </body>
604     </section>
605     </chapter>
606     <chapter>
607     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
608     <section>
609     <body>
610     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, people using stage1 to
611 zhen 1.6 install will need to bootstrap their Gentoo Linux system as follows. First
612     edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
613     <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
614     like to be built into packages; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
615     or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
616     More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
617     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
618     </p>
619 zhen 1.16 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
620 zhen 1.6 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
621     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) Your best friend
622     is <path>man gcc</path> to figure out what additional <c>CFLAGS</c> and
623     <code>CXXFLAGS</code> are available. Search for 'Optimization'.
624     </p>
625 zhen 1.16 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
626 zhen 1.6 firewall.
627     </p>
628 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
629 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
630 zhen 1.6 </pre>
631 zhen 1.16 <note>
632 zhen 1.6 People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
633     the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
634     should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
635     be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
636     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
637     interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
638 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
639 zhen 1.6 in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
640     </note>
641 zhen 1.16 </body>
642     </section>
643     </chapter>
644     <chapter>
645 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
646 zhen 1.16 <section>
647     <body>
648 zhen 1.18 <p>The stage1 tarball is for ultimate tweakage. If you have picked this tarball,
649     you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized system. Have fun, because optimization
650     is what Gentoo Linux is all about!
651     </p>
652 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, it's time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
653 zhen 1.6 my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped
654 zhen 1.18 for compiling the rest of the system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
655 zhen 1.6 These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process.
656     </p>
657 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
658 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
659     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
660 zhen 1.6 </pre>
661 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
662 zhen 1.6 </p>
663 zhen 1.16 <note>
664 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
665     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
666     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
667     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
668     </note>
669 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
670     # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
671 zhen 1.6 </pre>
672 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
673 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
674     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
675 zhen 1.27 Have a nice nap. Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
676     which means you can skip the rest of the stage installs, and move onto final installation.
677 zhen 1.6 </p>
678 zhen 1.16 </body>
679     </section>
680     </chapter>
681     <chapter>
682 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage2</title>
683 zhen 1.16 <section>
684     <body>
685 zhen 1.18 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
686     to do is install the rest of the system.
687 zhen 1.6 </p>
688 zhen 1.16 <note>
689 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
690     </note>
691 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
692 drobbins 1.25 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;-*&quot;</c>
693 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
694     <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
695     # <c>emerge system</c>
696 zhen 1.6 </pre>
697 drobbins 1.25 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;-*&quot;</c> line ensures that any new scripts
698 zhen 1.6 installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
699     <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
700     management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
701 zhen 1.16 <p>It's going to take a while
702 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
703     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
704 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
705 zhen 1.18 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2. When this process completes, your system
706 zhen 1.27 will be the equivalent of a stage3 system, which means you can skip <i>Starting form Stage3</i>
707     and move on to building the rest of your system.
708 zhen 1.18 </p>
709     </body>
710     </section>
711     </chapter>
712     <chapter>
713     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
714     <section>
715     <body>
716     <p>The stage3 tarball is already configured for your system. There is not much to do for this stage,
717     but it is a very good idea to update your system to the newest available packages. </p>
718     <note>If you have not already edited <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to fit your specifications,
719     now would be a good time to do so. </note>
720     <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
721     # <c>emerge sync</c>
722     # <c>emerge -up world</c>
723     <comment>lists [<i>packages</i>] to be installed</comment>
724     # <c>emerge -u world</c>
725     </pre>
726 zhen 1.27 <p>Once you complete this step, your Gentoo installation is ready to move on to the next step.
727     </p>
728    
729 zhen 1.18 </body>
730     </section>
731     </chapter>
732     <chapter>
733 zhen 1.26 <title>Using GRP</title>
734     <section>
735     <body>
736 zhen 1.28 <p>You can take advantage of pre-built GRP package sets to avoid compiling certain popular and large packages. Currently, we provide full builds of everything you need for <c>openoffice-bin</c>,
737 zhen 1.27 <c>GNOME</c>, <c>KDE</c> and <c>xfree</c>.
738     </p>
739     <p>First, you will need to <c>cd</c> to the location of the packages directory, for the
740     liveCD you will find it at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/packages</path>. In that directory you
741     will find the <c>grp-install.sh</c> script, an <i>All</i> directory that contains all of the binary
742     packages, and a list of available GRP packages. To install any/all of these
743     package sets you should do the following: </p>
744 zhen 1.26 <pre caption="Using GRP">
745 zhen 1.27 # <c>sh grp-install.sh &lt;list of package lists&gt;</c>
746     <comment>where &lt;list of package lists&gt; may be any of the *-list.txt files found in the same directory.</comment>
747 drobbins 1.21 </pre>
748 zhen 1.27 <p><c>grp-install.sh</c> can be run multiple times without replacing existing installations. You can
749     do a <c>sh grp-install.sh</c> for a basic usage description if you are still a bit foggy.
750     </p>
751 zhen 1.26 </body>
752     </section>
753     </chapter>
754 drobbins 1.21 <chapter>
755 zhen 1.18 <title>Final Steps: Timezone</title>
756     <section>
757     <body>
758     <p>At this point, you should have system that's ready for final configuration.
759     We'll start the configuration process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building
760     the kernel we ensure that users get reasonable <c>uname -a</c> output.
761     </p>
762     <p>Look for your timezone (or GMT if you using Greenwich Mean Time) in
763     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:
764     </p>
765     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for timezome">
766     # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
767     </pre>
768     <p>You might also want to check <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to make sure your timezone settings
769     are correct.
770 zhen 1.6 </p>
771 zhen 1.16 </body>
772     </section>
773     </chapter>
774     <chapter>
775     <title>Final steps: kernel and system logger</title>
776     <section>
777     <body>
778     <note>
779 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
780     </note>
781 zhen 1.16 <p>You now need to merge Linux source ebuilds. Here are the ones we currently
782 zhen 1.6 offer:
783     </p>
784 zhen 1.16 <table>
785     <tr>
786     <th>ebuild</th>
787     <th>description</th>
788     </tr>
789     <tr>
790     <ti>
791     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
792     </ti>
793 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
794 zhen 1.16 </tr>
795     <tr>
796     <ti>
797     <path>xfs-sources</path>
798     </ti>
799 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
800 zhen 1.16 </tr>
801     <tr>
802     <ti>
803     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
804     </ti>
805     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
806     </tr>
807     <tr>
808     <ti>
809     <path>usermode-sources</path>
810     </ti>
811     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
812     </tr>
813     <tr>
814     <ti>
815     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
816     </ti>
817     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti>
818     </tr>
819     </table>
820 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
821     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
822     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
823 zhen 1.6 </warn>
824 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
825 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
826 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
827 zhen 1.6 </pre>
828 zhen 1.16 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel.
829 zhen 1.6 </p>
830 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
831 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
832     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
833     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
834     # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
835     <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
836     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
837 zhen 1.6 </pre>
838 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
839 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
840 zhen 1.16 compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>&quot;Code maturity
841     level options --&gt; Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;</i>
842 zhen 1.6 option to see several of these selections.
843 zhen 1.16 Under the &quot;File systems&quot; section, be sure to enable the <i>&quot;Device File System&quot;</i> (note that
844     you <e>don't</e> need to enable the &quot;/dev/pts file system support&quot; option). You'll also
845     need to enable the <i>&quot;Virtual Memory Filesystem&quot;</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
846     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
847     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot;
848 zhen 1.6 option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
849     enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
850 zhen 1.16 want to enable the &quot;USE DMA by default&quot; option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
851     very poorly. Of course, remember to enable &quot;IDE disk&quot; support as well -- otherwise your
852 zhen 1.6 kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
853     </warn>
854 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
855 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
856     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
857     support for IDE RAID
858     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
859     </p>
860 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
861 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
862 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
863     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
864     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
865 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
866     </p>
867 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
868     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
869     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
870     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
871     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
872     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
873     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
874 zhen 1.6 </p>
875 zhen 1.16 <note>
876 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
877     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
878 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
879 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
880     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
881     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
882 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
883     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
884 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
885     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
886     line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
887     for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
888     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
889     </note>
890 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
891 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
892     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
893     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
894     newer alternatives.
895     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
896     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
897     </p>
898 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
899 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
900     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
901     <comment>or</comment>
902     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
903     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
904     <comment>or</comment>
905     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
906     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
907     <comment>or</comment>
908     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
909     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
910 zhen 1.6 </pre>
911 zhen 1.16 <warn>
912 zhen 1.6 In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
913     <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
914     See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
915     for a sample configuration file.
916     </warn>
917 zhen 1.16 <impo>
918 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
919     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
920     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
921     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
922     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
923     in real time, as expected),
924     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
925     again.
926     </impo>
927 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you'd like to use.
928 zhen 1.6 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you don't know which one to choose,
929     you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
930     </p>
931 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
932 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
933     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
934     <comment>or</comment>
935     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
936     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
937     <comment>or</comment>
938     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
939 zhen 1.2 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
940 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
941     # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
942 zhen 1.6 </pre>
943 zhen 1.26 <!--<p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux,
944 drobbins 1.21 see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>-->
945 zhen 1.16 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
946 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
947 zhen 1.6 </p>
948 zhen 1.16 </body>
949     </section>
950     </chapter>
951     <chapter>
952     <title>Final steps: Install Additional Packages</title>
953     <section>
954     <body>
955     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
956 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
957 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
958 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge rp-pppoe</c>
959 zhen 1.6 </pre>
960 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
961 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
962     for the first time.
963     </note>
964 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
965 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
966     using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> ebuild:
967     </p>
968 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
969 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
970     <comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
971     # <c> emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
972     <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
973 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
974 zhen 1.6 </pre>
975 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
976 zhen 1.6 real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
977     </p>
978 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
979 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
980 zhen 1.6 </pre>
981 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
982 zhen 1.10 to work.
983     </warn>
984 zhen 1.16 </body>
985     </section>
986     </chapter>
987     <chapter>
988     <title>Final steps: /etc/fstab</title>
989     <section>
990     <body>
991     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
992 zhen 1.6 a few important system files and install the GRUB boot loader.
993     The first file we need to
994     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
995     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
996     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
997     </p>
998 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
999     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1000     <pre caption="Editing fstab"><comment>
1001 drobbins 1.1 # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1002     #
1003 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1004 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1005     # efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1006     # switch between notail and tail freely.
1007    
1008     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1009    
1010     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1011     </comment>
1012     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1013     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1014     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1015     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1016     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1017 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1018 zhen 1.16 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boottime.
1019 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1020     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1021     </warn>
1022 zhen 1.16 </body>
1023     </section>
1024     </chapter>
1025     <chapter>
1026     <title>Final steps: Root Password</title>
1027     <section>
1028     <body>
1029     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1030     <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1031     # <c>passwd</c>
1032 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1033 zhen 1.16 </body>
1034     </section>
1035     </chapter>
1036     <chapter>
1037     <title>Final steps: /etc/hostname</title>
1038     <section>
1039     <body>
1040     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1041 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1042     </p>
1043 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1044     # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1045 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1046 zhen 1.16 </body>
1047     </section>
1048     </chapter>
1049     <chapter>
1050     <title>Final steps: /etc/hosts</title>
1051     <section>
1052     <body>
1053     <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1054 zhen 1.6 It's used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1055     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here's a template for this file:
1056     </p>
1057 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1058 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
1059     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1060     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1061 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1062 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1063 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1064     </note>
1065 zhen 1.16 </body>
1066     </section>
1067     </chapter>
1068     <chapter>
1069     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1070     <section>
1071     <body>
1072     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1073 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1074     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1075     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1076     it as a module:
1077     </p>
1078 stocke2 1.29 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1079     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1080 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1081 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1082 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1083 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1084 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Boottime Network Configuration">
1085 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1086     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1087 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1088 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1089 zhen 1.6 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1090 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1091 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1092     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1093     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1094 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1095 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1096 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1097 zhen 1.10 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/ethx</path>:
1098 zhen 1.6 </p>
1099 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1100 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1101     need pcmcia
1102     }
1103 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1104 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1105 zhen 1.10 </p>
1106 zhen 1.16 </body>
1107     </section>
1108     </chapter>
1109     <chapter>
1110     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1111     <section>
1112     <body>
1113     <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1114 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1115 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1116 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1117 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1118     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1119     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1120     possibilities).
1121     </p>
1122 zhen 1.16 </body>
1123     </section>
1124     </chapter>
1125     <chapter>
1126     <title>Final steps: Configure GRUB</title>
1127     <section>
1128     <body>
1129     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1130 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1131     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1132 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1133 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1134     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1135     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1136     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1137     a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1138     <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1139    
1140     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1141     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1142     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1143     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1144     it's time to install GRUB.
1145     </p>
1146 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1147     <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1148 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1149 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1150 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1151 zhen 1.6 this time.
1152     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1153     grub setup for RAID controllers
1154     </impo>
1155 zhen 1.16 <p>You'll be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1156 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1157     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1158     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1159     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1160     I want to type are:
1161     </p>
1162 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="GRUB Commands">
1163 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c>
1164     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c>
1165     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1166 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1167 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1168 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1169     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1170     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1171     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1172     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1173     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1174     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1175     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1176     I'd specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1177     boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1178    
1179     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1180     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1181     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1182     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1183     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1184     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1185    
1186     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1187     to make the right choice.
1188     </note>
1189    
1190     Gentoo Linux is now
1191     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1192     we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here's how to do it.
1193     </p>
1194 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1195 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1196     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1197 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1198 zhen 1.6 </p>
1199 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1200 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1201     timeout 30
1202     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1203    
1204     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1205     root (hd0,0)
1206     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1207    
1208     <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1209     title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1210     root (hd0,0)
1211     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/discX/partY
1212    
1213     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1214     title=Windows NT Workstation
1215     root (hd0,5)
1216     chainloader +1
1217 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1218 zhen 1.16 <note>
1219 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1220     </note>
1221 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1222 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1223 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1224     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1225 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1226 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1227 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1228     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1229     </p>
1230 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1231 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1232     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1233     loader.
1234 zhware 1.9 </note>
1235 zhen 1.16 <note>
1236 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1237 zhen 1.6 </note>
1238 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1239 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1240     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1241     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1242     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1243     </p>
1244 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1245 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1246     devfs is enabled by default.
1247     </note>
1248 zhen 1.16 </body>
1249     </section>
1250     </chapter>
1251     <chapter>
1252     <title>Final steps: Configure LILO</title>
1253     <section>
1254     <body>
1255 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1256     LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here's how to install
1257     LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1258 zhen 1.16 </p>
1259     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1260     </p>
1261     <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1262     # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1263     </pre>
1264     <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. I will give you a small <i>lilo.conf</i> to use, and I will explain
1265     the different parts of the file.
1266     </p>
1267     <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1268     boot=/dev/hda
1269     map=/boot/map
1270     install=/boot/boot.b
1271     prompt
1272     timeout=50
1273     message=/boot/message
1274     lba32
1275     default=linux
1276    
1277     image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1278     label=linux
1279     initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.20.img
1280     read-only
1281     root=/dev/hda5
1282    
1283     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1284     other=/dev/hda1
1285     label=dos
1286    
1287     </pre>
1288     <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1289     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1290     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1291     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1292     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1293     <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to show you whatever is referenced in the message line.
1294     While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1295     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1296     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1297     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1298     <li><i>message=/boot/message</i> refers to the screen that LILO displays to let you select the
1299     operating system or kernel to boot. </li>
1300     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1301     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1302     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1303     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1304     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1305     <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1306     <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1307     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1308     <li><i>initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.20.img</i> refers to the initial ram disk image that is used at boot time
1309     to actually initialize and start the devices that makes booting the kernel possible. The initial
1310     ram disk is a collection of machine-specific drivers necessary to operate a SCSI card, hard drive, or any
1311     other device needed to load the kernel. You should never try to share initial ram disks between machines. </li>
1312     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1313     altered during the boot process. </li>
1314     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1315     <note>Thanks to <uri link="http://www.redhat.com">Redhat.com</uri> for this information.
1316     </note>
1317     <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1318     into the MBR:
1319     </p>
1320     <pre caption="Running LILO">
1321     # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1322     </pre>
1323     <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1324     </p>
1325     </body>
1326     </section>
1327     </chapter>
1328     <chapter>
1329     <title>Final steps: Bootdisks</title>
1330     <section>
1331     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1332     <body>
1333 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1334 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1335 drobbins 1.21 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1336     disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1337     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1338     make a GRUB
1339     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1340 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1341     bootdisk like this:
1342     </p>
1343 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1344 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1345     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1346     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1347     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1348     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1349    
1350     # <c>grub</c>
1351    
1352     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1353     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1354     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1355 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1356 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1357 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1358 zhen 1.16 </body>
1359     </section>
1360     <section>
1361     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1362     <body>
1363     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1364     </p>
1365 zhen 1.18 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1366     # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1367     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1368     </pre>
1369 zhen 1.16 </body>
1370     </section>
1371     </chapter>
1372     <chapter>
1373     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1374     <section>
1375     <body>
1376     <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to exit the chrooted shell,
1377 zhen 1.6 udpate necessary configuration files,
1378     safely unmount your partitions
1379     and reboot the system:
1380     </p>
1381 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1382 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1383     # <c>exit</c>
1384     <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1385     # <c>cd / </c>
1386     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1387     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1388     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1389     # <c>reboot</c>
1390 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1391 zhen 1.16 <note>
1392 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1393     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1394     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1395     </note>
1396 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1397 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1398     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1399 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1400 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1401 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1402 zhen 1.16 (there's a &quot;click to subscribe&quot; link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1403 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1404     that will
1405     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1406     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1407     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1408 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1409 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1410 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1411 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1412     </p>
1413 zhen 1.16 </body>
1414     </section>
1415     </chapter>
1416     <chapter>
1417     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1418     <section>
1419     <body>
1420     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1421 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1422     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1423     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1424     </p>
1425 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1426 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1427     to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1428     other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1429     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1430 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1431 zhen 1.6 </p>
1432 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1433     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1434     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1435     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1436     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1437     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1438     </ul>
1439     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1440 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
1441     </p>
1442 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1443     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1444 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1445 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1446     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1447     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1448     </ul>
1449     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1450 zhen 1.6 </p>
1451 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1452 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1453     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1454 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1455 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1456 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1457     to see additional configuration options.
1458     </p>
1459 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1460 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1461     </p>
1462 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1463     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1464     </pre>
1465     <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1466 zhen 1.6 viewed with your favortive pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1467 zhen 1.16 </body>
1468     </section>
1469     </chapter>
1470 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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