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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 drobbins 1.21 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc2 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10     <mail link="jerry@gentoo.org">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11     </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
31 drobbins 1.21 Linux 1.4_rc2. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
32 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
33     scratch.
34     </abstract>
35 zhen 1.40 <version>2.3.8</version>
36     <date>12 January 2003</date>
37 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
38     <title>About the Install</title>
39     <section>
40     <body>
41 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
42 drobbins 1.21 as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
43     Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
44     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
45     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
46     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
47     establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and download
48     files. </p>
49 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
50 drobbins 1.21 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully
51     built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
52     slow under those conditions.)</p>
53 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
54 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
55     The stage1 tarball is used when one wants to bootstrap and build the entire
56     system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
57     from scratch, except for the bootstrap part which is already performed for you.
58     And the stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
59     been optimized for your system.</p>
60 zhen 1.33 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you'll want to decide
61 drobbins 1.21 which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
62 drobbins 1.23 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</uri>.
63 drobbins 1.22 In this directory, you'll see several subdirectories such as <c>athlon</c>
64 drobbins 1.24 for each of our various architecture-specific builds. Here's a low-down on
65     each arch directory and what it contains:</p>
66 zhen 1.26 <table>
67     <tr>
68     <th>Architecture</th>
69     <th>Description</th>
70     </tr>
71     <tr>
72     <ti>x86</ti>
73     <ti>Stage 1 tarballs and &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; liveCD -- will work on anything.</ti>
74     </tr>
75     <tr>
76     <ti>i586</ti>
77     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i586+ CPUs</ti>
78     </tr>
79     <tr>
80     <ti>i686</ti>
81     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i686+ CPUs</ti>
82     </tr>
83     <tr>
84     <ti>athlon</ti>
85     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon CPUs</ti>
86     </tr>
87     <tr>
88     <ti>athlon-xp</ti>
89     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon XP CPUs</ti>
90     </tr>
91     <tr>
92     <ti>athlon-mp</ti>
93     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon MP CPUs</ti>
94     </tr>
95     <tr>
96     <ti>pentium3</ti>
97     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for Intel Pentium III and Pentium 4 CPUs</ti>
98     </tr>
99     </table>
100     <p>Inside each of these directories,
101 drobbins 1.22 you'll find a <path>livecd/</path> directory that contains LiveCDs. While these LiveCDs
102     will boot on any architecture, the install-related tarballs are optimized for a particular
103 zhen 1.26 CPU type and will not work on all systems, except for the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; LiveCD in the <path>x86</path>
104 drobbins 1.24 directory which can be used to install on anything.
105 drobbins 1.22 </p>
106 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
107 drobbins 1.24 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
108 zhen 1.26 carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size and lives
109 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
110     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
111     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
112 zhen 1.26 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labelled &quot;livecd-grp.&quot;
113 drobbins 1.24 These CDs (found in their respective <path>arch/livecd</path> directories)
114     contain stage1, 2 and 3 tarballs, and also contain a set of GRP packages
115     optimized for a specific architecture. Using these LiveCDs, it will be possible
116     for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly. The
117     downside is that these ISO images are large -- around 600MB -- so they can take
118     a while to download.</p>
119 zhen 1.26 <info>If for some reason your install gets interrupted at some point, you can
120 drobbins 1.24 reboot and restart. For example, if you have partitioned, installed the stageX
121     tarball, and are ready to chroot, you can restart the install if necessary.
122     Just re-boot with the LiveCD, then mount your drives/partitions to
123     <path>/mnt</path> as normal. Basically, you can do this at about any point
124     during the install, just not before partitioning for obvious reasons. </info>
125 zhen 1.26 <warn>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
126 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
127     needs to be moved upstream to the package maintainers (ie KDE) the
128     <e>developers</e> will take care of that. </warn>
129 zhen 1.26 <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. First, we'll download, burn
130 drobbins 1.21 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we'll create partitions, create
131     our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
132     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
133     our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure them
134     (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and have a
135     fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
136     process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation: </p>
137 zhen 1.26 <table>
138 zhen 1.16 <tr>
139     <th>stage tarball</th>
140     <th>requirements for installation</th>
141     </tr>
142     <tr>
143     <ti>1</ti>
144     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
145     </tr>
146     <tr>
147     <ti>2</ti>
148     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
149     </tr>
150     <tr>
151     <ti>3</ti>
152     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
153     </tr>
154     </table>
155     </body>
156     </section>
157     </chapter>
158     <chapter>
159     <title>Booting</title>
160     <section>
161     <body>
162 drobbins 1.21 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. If detected properly, you should see a fancy boot screen
163     with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
164     hit F2 for help, or pass kernel boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c>, etc.
165     Once you hit Enter, you'll be
166 zhen 1.6 greeted with a lot of text output
167     followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
168 drobbins 1.21 You will be automatically logged in as &quot;root&quot; and the root password will be
169     set to a random string for security purposes.
170 zhen 1.16 You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt on the current
171 drobbins 1.21 console, and can also open new root consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4.
172     Get back to the one you started on by pressing (you guessed it) Alt-F1.
173 zhen 1.6 </p>
174 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
175 drobbins 1.21 explaining how to do things like configure your network devices and where you can find
176     the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
177 zhen 1.6 </p>
178 zhen 1.16 </body>
179     </section>
180     </chapter>
181     <chapter>
182     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
183     <section>
184     <body>
185     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
186 zhen 1.6 will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
187     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
188     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
189     type:
190     </p>
191 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
192 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
193 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
194     </pre>
195 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
196 drobbins 1.21 during the initial boot autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
197 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
198     </p>
199 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
200 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
201     # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
202 zhen 1.6 </pre>
203 zhen 1.16 <p><c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks.
204 zhen 1.6 <note>
205 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
206 zhen 1.16 </note></p>
207 drobbins 1.21 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you'll need to load the
208 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
209     </p>
210 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
211 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
212     # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
213 drobbins 1.1 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
214 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
215 drobbins 1.1 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
216 zhen 1.6 </pre>
217 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
218 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
219 zhen 1.26 <pre caption="Setting DMA"><comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
220 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
221     # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 <comment>Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options</comment>
222 zhen 1.26 # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX <comment>Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up</comment></pre>
223 zhen 1.16 </body>
224     </section>
225     </chapter>
226     <chapter>
227     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
228     <section>
229     <body>
230     <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to do some additional
231 zhen 1.6 trickery.
232     </p>
233 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
234 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
235 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
236 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
237     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
238     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
239 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
240 zhen 1.6 </pre>
241 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
242 zhen 1.6 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
243 drobbins 1.21 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that's
244 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
245 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
246 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
247     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
248 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
249 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
250 zhen 1.16 </body>
251     </section>
252     </chapter>
253     <chapter>
254     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
255     <section>
256     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
257     <body>
258     <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has
259 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
260 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
261     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
262     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
263 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
264 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
265     # <c> adsl-start </c>
266     </pre>
267 zhen 1.16 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
268 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
269     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
270 zhen 1.16 </body>
271     </section>
272     <section>
273     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
274     <body>
275     <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use
276 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
277 zhen 1.6 Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
278     Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
279     the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
280     The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
281     script. </p>
282 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
283 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
284 zhen 1.6 </pre>
285 zhen 1.16 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. </p>
286     </body>
287     </section>
288     <section>
289     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
290     <body>
291     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
292     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
293     <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
294 drobbins 1.1 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
295 zhen 1.6 </pre>
296 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
297 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
298     </note>
299 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
300 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
301 zhen 1.16 </body>
302     </section>
303     <section>
304     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
305     <body>
306     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
307 zhen 1.6 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
308     Type in the following commands, replacing
309     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
310     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
311     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
312     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
313     </p>
314 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
315 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
316     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask metric 1</c>
317 zhen 1.6 </pre>
318 zhen 1.16 <p>Now it's time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
319 zhen 1.6 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
320 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
321     <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
322 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
323     nameserver
324     nameserver
325 zhen 1.6 </pre>
326 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c></c> and <c></c> with the IP addresses of your
327 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
328 zhen 1.16 </body>
329     </section>
330     <section>
331     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
332     <body>
333     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
334 zhen 1.6 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
335     </p>
336 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
337     # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
338 seo 1.42 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
339     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
340 zhen 1.6 </pre>
341 zhen 1.16 </body>
342     </section>
343     <section>
344     <title>Network Testing</title>
345     <body>
346     <p>Now that your network has been configured, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig -a</c> command should show
347 zhen 1.6 that your network card is working (look for <e>UP</e> and <e>RUNNING</e> in the output). </p>
348 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
349 drobbins 1.1 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
350     inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
351     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
353     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
354     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
355     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
356     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
357     Interrupt:11
358 zhen 1.6 </pre>
359 zhen 1.16 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
360 zhen 1.14 and a website of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
361     resolution is working correctly, etc.
362 zhen 1.6 </p>
363 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
364 zhen 1.15 # <c>ping www.some_website.com </c>
365 zhen 1.6 </pre>
366 zhen 1.16 </body>
367     </section>
368     <section>
369     <title>Networking is go!</title>
370     <body>
371     <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
372 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
373 zhen 1.16 </body>
374     </section>
375     </chapter>
376     <chapter>
377     <title>Partition Configuration</title>
378     <section>
379     <body>
380     <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
381 zhen 1.6 to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
382     </p>
383 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
384 zhen 1.6 We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
385     partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
386     The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
387     your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
388     everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
389     your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. This prevents your kernel
390     from being made unavailable to GRUB (due to filesystem corruption) in the event
391     of a system crash, preventing the chicken-and-egg problem where GRUB can't read
392     your kernel (since your filesystem isn't consistent) but you can't bring your
393     filesystem back to a consistent state (since you can't boot!)
394     </p>
395 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have four filesystem options:
396 zhen 1.6 XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling) and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
397     filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
398     ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
399     providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
400     that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
401     ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
402     10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
403     As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
404     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
405 drobbins 1.21 is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but
406     is generally not recommended due to its tendency to lose recently-modified
407     data if your system locks up or unexpectedly reboots (due to a power failure, for instance.)
408 zhen 1.6 </p>
409 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
410 zhen 1.6 for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
411     high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
412 drobbins 1.21 mature and refined.
413 zhen 1.6 Here are our basic recommended filesystem
414     sizes and types:
415     </p>
416 zhen 1.16 <table>
417     <tr>
418     <th>Partition</th>
419     <th>Size</th>
420     <th>Type</th>
421     <th>example device</th>
422     </tr>
423     <tr>
424     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
425     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
426     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
427     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
428     </tr>
429     <tr>
430     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit)</ti>
431     <ti>&gt;=2*Amount of RAM in this system is recommended but no longer (as of kernel 2.4.10) required</ti>
432     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
433     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
434     </tr>
435     <tr>
436     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
437     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
438     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
439     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
440     </tr>
441     </table>
442 drobbins 1.21 <p>Before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
443     beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
444     will not be mis-indentified by Linux's mounting code.
445     This can be done as follows:
446 zhen 1.6 </p>
447 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
448 zhen 1.34 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdxy bs=1K count=1</c>
449 zhen 1.26 <comment>Replace /dev/hdxy with the device you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;</comment>
450 zhen 1.6 </pre>
451 drobbins 1.21 <p>At this point, create your partitions using <c>fdisk</c>. Note that your partitions
452     should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS, ext2/3 or other). </p>
453     <note><c>cfdisk</c> is included on the install CD, and it is <i>considerably</i> easier to use than
454     <c>fdisk</c>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it; by default, cfdisk will work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not the hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note>
455 zhen 1.26 <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to allow your system to detect the
456 drobbins 1.21 new partition configuration.</note>
457 zhen 1.26 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
458 drobbins 1.21 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X is
459     the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
460     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
461 zhen 1.26 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
462 zhen 1.6 the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p>
463 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
464 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
465 zhen 1.6 </pre>
466 zhen 1.16 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
467     <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
468 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
469 zhen 1.6 </pre>
470 zhen 1.16 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
471     <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
472 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
473 zhen 1.6 </pre>
474 zhen 1.16 <note>
475 zhen 1.6 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
476     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
477     the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
478     so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5.
479     The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
480     </note>
481 zhen 1.16 <warn>
482 zhen 1.6 If you are installing an XFS partition over a previous ReiserFS partition,
483     later attempts to mount may fail without an explicit <c>mount -t xfs</c>.
484     The solution is to zero out the partition before creating the XFS filesystem:
485     <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hd<comment>x</comment> bs=1k</c>.
486     </warn>
487 zhen 1.16 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
488     <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
489 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
490 zhen 1.6 </pre>
491 seo 1.32 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
492     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
493     </note>
494 zhen 1.16 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
495     <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
496 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
497 zhen 1.6 </pre>
498 zhen 1.16 </body>
499     </section>
500     </chapter>
501     <chapter>
502     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
503     <section>
504     <body>
505     <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that
506 zhen 1.6 provides later:
507     </p>
508 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
509 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
510 zhen 1.6 </pre>
511 zhen 1.16 <p>Next, we'll create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mountpoints,
512 zhen 1.6 and we'll mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
513 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
514 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
515     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
516     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
517     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
518 zhen 1.6 </pre>
519 zhen 1.26 <p>
520 zhen 1.6 If you are setting up Gentoo
521     Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
522     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
523     </p>
524 zhen 1.27 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
525 zhen 1.6 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
526     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
527     We'll get to that in a bit.
528     </impo>
529 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
530 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
531 zhen 1.16 </body>
532     </section>
533     </chapter>
534     <chapter>
535     <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
536     <section>
537     <body>
538     <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set
539 drobbins 1.21 to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path>.
540 zhen 1.6 On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3
541     tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it
542     (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest)
543 zhen 1.14 from one of the Gentoo mirror sites. </p>
544 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
545 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
546 zhen 1.14 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball</comment>
547 drobbins 1.21 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</c>
548 zhen 1.14 # <c>wget <comment>insert required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
549 zhen 1.6 </pre>
550 zhen 1.16 </body>
551     </section>
552     </chapter>
553     <chapter>
554     <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
555     <section>
556     <body>
557     <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
558 zhen 1.26 Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
559 drobbins 1.21 Gentoo Linux system.
560 zhen 1.6 </p>
561 zhen 1.16 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
562 drobbins 1.21 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
563 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install method,
564 zhen 1.6 you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
565     If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
566     These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
567 zhen 1.12 compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.)
568 zhen 1.6 </p>
569 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
570 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
571 drobbins 1.21 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
572 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
573 drobbins 1.35 # <c>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</c>
574     <comment>The /dev bind-mount is required for perl to build properly for some people.</comment>
575 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
576 zhen 1.6 </pre>
577 zhen 1.30 <p>If you are going to use GRP, now would be a good time to execute the following commands:
578     </p>
580     <pre caption="Getting ready for GRP">
581     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/GRP</c>
582     # <c>mount -o bind /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/packages /mnt/gentoo/GRP</c>
583     </pre>
585 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Entering the chroot Environment">
586 drobbins 1.1 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
587     # <c>env-update</c>
588     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
589     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
590 zhen 1.6 </pre>
591 zhen 1.16 <p>After you execute these commands, you'll be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment.
592 zhen 1.6 </p>
593 zhen 1.16 </body>
594     </section>
595     </chapter>
596     <chapter>
597     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using Rsync</title>
598     <section>
599     <body>
600     <p>Now, you'll need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
601 zhen 1.6 you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
602 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Updating Using Rsync">
603 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
604     </pre>
605 zhen 1.16 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
606 zhen 1.6 it's about 90Mb in size without tarballs.
607     </p>
608 zhen 1.16 </body>
609     </section>
610     </chapter>
611     <chapter>
612     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
613     <section>
614     <body>
615     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, people using stage1 to
616 zhen 1.6 install will need to bootstrap their Gentoo Linux system as follows. First
617     edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
618     <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
619     like to be built into packages; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
620     or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
621     More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
622     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
623 zhen 1.38 A complete list of current USE flags can be found
624     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
625 zhen 1.6 </p>
626 zhen 1.16 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
627 zhen 1.6 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
628     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) Your best friend
629     is <path>man gcc</path> to figure out what additional <c>CFLAGS</c> and
630     <code>CXXFLAGS</code> are available. Search for 'Optimization'.
631     </p>
632 zhen 1.16 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
633 zhen 1.6 firewall.
634     </p>
635 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
636 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
637 zhen 1.6 </pre>
638 zhen 1.16 <note>
639 zhen 1.6 People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
640     the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
641     should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
642     be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
643     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
644     interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
645 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
646 zhen 1.6 in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
647     </note>
648 zhen 1.16 </body>
649     </section>
650     </chapter>
651     <chapter>
652 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
653 zhen 1.16 <section>
654     <body>
655 zhen 1.18 <p>The stage1 tarball is for ultimate tweakage. If you have picked this tarball,
656     you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized system. Have fun, because optimization
657     is what Gentoo Linux is all about!
658     </p>
659 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, it's time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
660 zhen 1.6 my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped
661 zhen 1.18 for compiling the rest of the system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
662 zhen 1.6 These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process.
663     </p>
664 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
665 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
666     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
667 zhen 1.6 </pre>
668 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
669 zhen 1.6 </p>
670 zhen 1.16 <note>
671 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
672     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
673     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
674     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
675     </note>
676 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
677     # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
678 zhen 1.6 </pre>
679 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
680 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
681     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
682 zhen 1.27 Have a nice nap. Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
683 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
684 zhen 1.6 </p>
685 zhen 1.16 </body>
686     </section>
687     </chapter>
688     <chapter>
689 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage2</title>
690 zhen 1.16 <section>
691     <body>
692 zhen 1.18 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
693     to do is install the rest of the system.
694 zhen 1.6 </p>
695 zhen 1.16 <note>
696 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
697     </note>
698 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
699 drobbins 1.25 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;-*&quot;</c>
700 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
701     <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
702     # <c>emerge system</c>
703 zhen 1.6 </pre>
704 drobbins 1.25 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;-*&quot;</c> line ensures that any new scripts
705 zhen 1.6 installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
706     <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
707     management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
708 zhen 1.16 <p>It's going to take a while
709 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
710     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
711 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
712 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
713     </p>
714     <p>When this process completes, your system will be the equivalent of a stage3 system. You have
715     a couple of choices on how to continue
716     at this point. You can move onto the stage3 instructions and complete those. Doing that will
717     get your system right up to date with what is in the current Portage tree. This is not necessary,
718     but it is highly recommended. If you do not choose to get up to date with the stage3 instructions,
719     you can move onto the GRP install section. If you do not wish to use GRP, you can move
720     onto <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml#doc_chp16">Chapter 16: Final Steps</uri>.
721 zhen 1.18 </p>
722     </body>
723     </section>
724     </chapter>
725     <chapter>
726     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
727     <section>
728     <body>
729     <p>The stage3 tarball is already configured for your system. There is not much to do for this stage,
730     but it is a very good idea to update your system to the newest available packages. </p>
731     <note>If you have not already edited <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to fit your specifications,
732     now would be a good time to do so. </note>
733     <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
734     # <c>emerge sync</c>
735     # <c>emerge -up world</c>
736     <comment>lists [<i>packages</i>] to be installed</comment>
737     # <c>emerge -u world</c>
738     </pre>
739 zhen 1.37 <p>Once you complete this step, you have some options on how to continue. If you are going to be using GRP,
740     please move onto the GRP section. If you are not going to use GRP, you may continue onto
741     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml#doc_chp16">Chapter 16: Final Steps</uri>.
742 zhen 1.27 </p>
743 zhen 1.18 </body>
744     </section>
745     </chapter>
746     <chapter>
747 zhen 1.26 <title>Using GRP</title>
748     <section>
749     <body>
750 zhen 1.28 <p>You can take advantage of pre-built GRP package sets to avoid compiling certain popular and large packages. Currently, we provide full builds of everything you need for <c>openoffice-bin</c>,
751 zhen 1.27 <c>GNOME</c>, <c>KDE</c> and <c>xfree</c>.
752     </p>
753 seo 1.41 <p>First, you will need to <c>cd</c> to the location of the packages directory. We have already
754     mounted the directory at <path>/GRP</path>. In that directory you
755 zhen 1.27 will find the <c>grp-install.sh</c> script, an <i>All</i> directory that contains all of the binary
756     packages, and a list of available GRP packages. To install any/all of these
757     package sets you should do the following: </p>
758 zhen 1.26 <pre caption="Using GRP">
759 seo 1.41 # <c>cd /GRP</c>
760 zhen 1.27 # <c>sh grp-install.sh &lt;list of package lists&gt;</c>
761     <comment>where &lt;list of package lists&gt; may be any of the *-list.txt files found in the same directory.</comment>
762 drobbins 1.21 </pre>
763 zhen 1.27 <p><c>grp-install.sh</c> can be run multiple times without replacing existing installations. You can
764     do a <c>sh grp-install.sh</c> for a basic usage description if you are still a bit foggy.
765     </p>
766 zhen 1.26 </body>
767     </section>
768     </chapter>
769 drobbins 1.21 <chapter>
770 zhen 1.18 <title>Final Steps: Timezone</title>
771     <section>
772     <body>
773     <p>At this point, you should have system that's ready for final configuration.
774     We'll start the configuration process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building
775     the kernel we ensure that users get reasonable <c>uname -a</c> output.
776     </p>
777     <p>Look for your timezone (or GMT if you using Greenwich Mean Time) in
778     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:
779     </p>
780     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for timezome">
781     # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
782     </pre>
783     <p>You might also want to check <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to make sure your timezone settings
784     are correct.
785 zhen 1.6 </p>
786 zhen 1.16 </body>
787     </section>
788     </chapter>
789     <chapter>
790     <title>Final steps: kernel and system logger</title>
791     <section>
792     <body>
793     <note>
794 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
795     </note>
796 zhen 1.16 <p>You now need to merge Linux source ebuilds. Here are the ones we currently
797 zhen 1.6 offer:
798     </p>
799 zhen 1.16 <table>
800     <tr>
801     <th>ebuild</th>
802     <th>description</th>
803     </tr>
804     <tr>
805     <ti>
806     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
807     </ti>
808 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
809 zhen 1.16 </tr>
810     <tr>
811     <ti>
812     <path>xfs-sources</path>
813     </ti>
814 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
815 zhen 1.16 </tr>
816     <tr>
817     <ti>
818     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
819     </ti>
820     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
821     </tr>
822     <tr>
823     <ti>
824     <path>usermode-sources</path>
825     </ti>
826     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
827     </tr>
828     <tr>
829     <ti>
830     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
831     </ti>
832     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti>
833     </tr>
834     </table>
835 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
836     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
837     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
838 zhen 1.6 </warn>
839 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
840 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
841 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
842 zhen 1.6 </pre>
843 zhen 1.16 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel.
844 zhen 1.6 </p>
845 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
846     which is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
847     If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
848     to the correct one before proceeding.
849     </p>
850 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
851 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
852     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
853     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
854     # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
855     <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
856     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
857 zhen 1.6 </pre>
858 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
859 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
860 zhen 1.16 compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>&quot;Code maturity
861     level options --&gt; Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;</i>
862 zhen 1.6 option to see several of these selections.
863 zhen 1.16 Under the &quot;File systems&quot; section, be sure to enable the <i>&quot;Device File System&quot;</i> (note that
864     you <e>don't</e> need to enable the &quot;/dev/pts file system support&quot; option). You'll also
865     need to enable the <i>&quot;Virtual Memory Filesystem&quot;</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
866     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
867     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot;
868 zhen 1.6 option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
869     enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
870 zhen 1.16 want to enable the &quot;USE DMA by default&quot; option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
871     very poorly. Of course, remember to enable &quot;IDE disk&quot; support as well -- otherwise your
872 zhen 1.6 kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
873     </warn>
874 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
875 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
876     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
877     support for IDE RAID
878     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
879     </p>
880 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
881 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
882 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
883     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
884     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
885 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
886     </p>
887 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
888     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
889     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
890     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
891     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
892     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
893     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
894 zhen 1.6 </p>
895 zhen 1.16 <note>
896 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
897     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
898 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
899 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
900     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
901     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
902 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
903     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
904 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
905     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
906     line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
907     for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
908     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
909     </note>
910 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
911 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
912     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
913     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
914     newer alternatives.
915     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
916     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
917     </p>
918 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
919 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
920     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
921     <comment>or</comment>
922     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
923     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
924     <comment>or</comment>
925     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
926     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
927     <comment>or</comment>
928     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
929     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
930 zhen 1.6 </pre>
931 zhen 1.16 <warn>
932 zhen 1.6 In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
933     <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
934     See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
935     for a sample configuration file.
936     </warn>
937 zhen 1.16 <impo>
938 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
939     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
940     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
941     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
942     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
943     in real time, as expected),
944     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
945 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
946     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
947 zhen 1.6 </impo>
948 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you'd like to use.
949 zhen 1.6 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you don't know which one to choose,
950     you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
951     </p>
952 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
953 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
954     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
955     <comment>or</comment>
956     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
957     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
958     <comment>or</comment>
959     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
960 zhen 1.2 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
961 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
962     # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
963 zhen 1.6 </pre>
964 zhen 1.26 <!--<p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux,
965 drobbins 1.21 see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>-->
966 zhen 1.16 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
967 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
968 zhen 1.6 </p>
969 zhen 1.16 </body>
970     </section>
971     </chapter>
972     <chapter>
973     <title>Final steps: Install Additional Packages</title>
974     <section>
975     <body>
976     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
977 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
978 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
979 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
980 zhen 1.6 </pre>
981 zhen 1.40
982     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
983     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
984     X support later.
985     </note>
986 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
987 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
988     for the first time.
989     </note>
990 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
991 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
992     using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> ebuild:
993     </p>
994 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
995 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
996     <comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
997     # <c> emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
998     <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
999 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1000 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1001 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1002 zhen 1.6 real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1003     </p>
1004 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1005 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1006 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1007 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1008 zhen 1.10 to work.
1009     </warn>
1010 zhen 1.16 </body>
1011     </section>
1012     </chapter>
1013     <chapter>
1014     <title>Final steps: /etc/fstab</title>
1015     <section>
1016     <body>
1017     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1018 zhen 1.6 a few important system files and install the GRUB boot loader.
1019     The first file we need to
1020     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1021     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1022     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1023     </p>
1024 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1025     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1026     <pre caption="Editing fstab"><comment>
1027 drobbins 1.1 # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1028     #
1029 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1030 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1031     # efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1032     # switch between notail and tail freely.
1034     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1036     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1037     </comment>
1038     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1039     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1040     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1041     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1042     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1043 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1044 zhen 1.16 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boottime.
1045 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1046     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1047     </warn>
1048 zhen 1.16 </body>
1049     </section>
1050     </chapter>
1051     <chapter>
1052     <title>Final steps: Root Password</title>
1053     <section>
1054     <body>
1055     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1056     <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1057     # <c>passwd</c>
1058 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1059 zhen 1.16 </body>
1060     </section>
1061     </chapter>
1062     <chapter>
1063     <title>Final steps: /etc/hostname</title>
1064     <section>
1065     <body>
1066     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1067 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1068     </p>
1069 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1070     # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1071 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1072 zhen 1.16 </body>
1073     </section>
1074     </chapter>
1075     <chapter>
1076     <title>Final steps: /etc/hosts</title>
1077     <section>
1078     <body>
1079     <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1080 zhen 1.6 It's used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1081     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here's a template for this file:
1082     </p>
1083 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1084 drobbins 1.1 localhost
1085     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1086 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1087 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1088 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1089 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1090     </note>
1091 zhen 1.16 </body>
1092     </section>
1093     </chapter>
1094     <chapter>
1095     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1096     <section>
1097     <body>
1098     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1099 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1100     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1101     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1102     it as a module:
1103     </p>
1104 stocke2 1.29 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1105     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1106 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1107 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1108 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1109 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1110 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Boottime Network Configuration">
1111 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1112     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1113 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1114 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1115 zhen 1.6 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1116 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1117 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1118     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1119     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1120 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1121 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1122 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1123 zhen 1.10 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/ethx</path>:
1124 zhen 1.6 </p>
1125 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1126 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1127     need pcmcia
1128     }
1129 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1130 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1131 zhen 1.10 </p>
1132 zhen 1.16 </body>
1133     </section>
1134     </chapter>
1135     <chapter>
1136     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1137     <section>
1138     <body>
1139     <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1140 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1141 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1142 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1143 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1144     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1145     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1146     possibilities).
1147     </p>
1148 zhen 1.16 </body>
1149     </section>
1150     </chapter>
1151     <chapter>
1152     <title>Final steps: Configure GRUB</title>
1153     <section>
1154     <body>
1155     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1156 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1157     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1158 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1159 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1160     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1161     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1162     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1163     a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1164     <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1166     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1167     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1168     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1169     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1170     it's time to install GRUB.
1171     </p>
1172 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1173     <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1174 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1175 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1176 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1177 zhen 1.6 this time.
1178     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1179     grub setup for RAID controllers
1180     </impo>
1181 zhen 1.16 <p>You'll be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1182 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1183     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1184     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1185     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1186     I want to type are:
1187     </p>
1188 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="GRUB Commands">
1189 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c>
1190     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c>
1191     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1192 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1193 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1194 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1195     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1196     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1197     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1198     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1199     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1200     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1201     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1202     I'd specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1203     boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1205     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1206     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1207     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1208     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1209     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1210     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1212     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1213     to make the right choice.
1214     </note>
1216     Gentoo Linux is now
1217     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1218     we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here's how to do it.
1219     </p>
1220 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1221 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1222     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1223 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1224 zhen 1.6 </p>
1225 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1226 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1227     timeout 30
1228     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1230     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1231     root (hd0,0)
1232     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1234     <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1235     title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1236     root (hd0,0)
1237     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/discX/partY
1239     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1240     title=Windows NT Workstation
1241     root (hd0,5)
1242     chainloader +1
1243 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1244 zhen 1.16 <note>
1245 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1246     </note>
1247 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1248 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1249 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1250     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1251 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1252 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1253 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1254     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1255     </p>
1256 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1257 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1258     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1259     loader.
1260 zhware 1.9 </note>
1261 zhen 1.16 <note>
1262 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1263 zhen 1.6 </note>
1264 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1265 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1266     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1267     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1268     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1269     </p>
1270 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1271 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1272     devfs is enabled by default.
1273     </note>
1274 zhen 1.16 </body>
1275     </section>
1276     </chapter>
1277     <chapter>
1278     <title>Final steps: Configure LILO</title>
1279     <section>
1280     <body>
1281 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1282     LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here's how to install
1283     LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1284 zhen 1.16 </p>
1285     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1286     </p>
1287     <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1288     # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1289     </pre>
1290     <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. I will give you a small <i>lilo.conf</i> to use, and I will explain
1291     the different parts of the file.
1292     </p>
1293     <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1294     boot=/dev/hda
1295     map=/boot/map
1296     install=/boot/boot.b
1297     prompt
1298     timeout=50
1299     message=/boot/message
1300     lba32
1301     default=linux
1303     image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1304     label=linux
1305     initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.20.img
1306     read-only
1307     root=/dev/hda5
1309     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1310     other=/dev/hda1
1311     label=dos
1313     </pre>
1314     <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1315     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1316     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1317     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1318     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1319     <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to show you whatever is referenced in the message line.
1320     While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1321     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1322     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1323     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1324     <li><i>message=/boot/message</i> refers to the screen that LILO displays to let you select the
1325     operating system or kernel to boot. </li>
1326     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1327     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1328     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1329     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1330     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1331     <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1332     <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1333     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1334     <li><i>initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.20.img</i> refers to the initial ram disk image that is used at boot time
1335     to actually initialize and start the devices that makes booting the kernel possible. The initial
1336     ram disk is a collection of machine-specific drivers necessary to operate a SCSI card, hard drive, or any
1337     other device needed to load the kernel. You should never try to share initial ram disks between machines. </li>
1338     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1339     altered during the boot process. </li>
1340     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1341     <note>Thanks to <uri link="http://www.redhat.com">Redhat.com</uri> for this information.
1342     </note>
1343     <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1344     into the MBR:
1345     </p>
1346     <pre caption="Running LILO">
1347     # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1348     </pre>
1349     <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1350     </p>
1351     </body>
1352     </section>
1353     </chapter>
1354     <chapter>
1355     <title>Final steps: Bootdisks</title>
1356     <section>
1357     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1358     <body>
1359 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1360 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1361 drobbins 1.21 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1362     disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1363     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1364     make a GRUB
1365     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1366 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1367     bootdisk like this:
1368     </p>
1369 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1370 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1371     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1372     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1373     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1374     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1376     # <c>grub</c>
1378     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1379     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1380     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1381 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1382 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1383 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1384 zhen 1.16 </body>
1385     </section>
1386     <section>
1387     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1388     <body>
1389     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1390     </p>
1391 zhen 1.18 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1392     # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1393     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1394     </pre>
1395 zhen 1.16 </body>
1396     </section>
1397     </chapter>
1398     <chapter>
1399     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1400     <section>
1401     <body>
1402     <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to exit the chrooted shell,
1403 zhen 1.6 udpate necessary configuration files,
1404     safely unmount your partitions
1405     and reboot the system:
1406     </p>
1407 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1408 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1409     # <c>exit</c>
1410     <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1411     # <c>cd / </c>
1412     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1413     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1414 drobbins 1.36 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/dev</c>
1415 drobbins 1.1 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1416     # <c>reboot</c>
1417 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1418 zhen 1.16 <note>
1419 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1420     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1421     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1422     </note>
1423 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1424 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1425     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1426 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1427 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1428 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1429 zhen 1.16 (there's a &quot;click to subscribe&quot; link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1430 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1431     that will
1432     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1433     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1434     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1435 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1436 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1437 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1438 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1439     </p>
1440 zhen 1.16 </body>
1441     </section>
1442     </chapter>
1443     <chapter>
1444     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1445     <section>
1446     <body>
1447     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1448 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1449     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1450     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1451     </p>
1452 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1453 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1454     to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1455     other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1456     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1457 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1458 zhen 1.6 </p>
1459 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1460     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1461     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1462     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1463     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1464     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1465     </ul>
1466     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1467 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
1468     </p>
1469 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1470     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1471 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1472 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1473     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1474     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1475     </ul>
1476     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1477 zhen 1.6 </p>
1478 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1479 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1480     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1481 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1482 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1483 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1484     to see additional configuration options.
1485     </p>
1486 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1487 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1488     </p>
1489 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1490     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1491     </pre>
1492     <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1493 zhen 1.6 viewed with your favortive pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1494 zhen 1.16 </body>
1495     </section>
1496     </chapter>
1497 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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