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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 drobbins 1.21 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc2 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10     <mail link="jerry@gentoo.org">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11     </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32     </author>
33 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
34 drobbins 1.21 Linux 1.4_rc2. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
35 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
36     scratch.
37     </abstract>
38 zhen 1.45 <version>2.3.10</version>
39 zhen 1.44 <date>15 January 2003</date>
40 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
41     <title>About the Install</title>
42     <section>
43     <body>
44 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
45 drobbins 1.21 as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
46     Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
47     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
48     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
49     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
50     establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and download
51     files. </p>
52 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
53 drobbins 1.21 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully
54     built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
55     slow under those conditions.)</p>
56 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
57 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
58     The stage1 tarball is used when one wants to bootstrap and build the entire
59     system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
60     from scratch, except for the bootstrap part which is already performed for you.
61     And the stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
62     been optimized for your system.</p>
63 zhen 1.33 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you'll want to decide
64 drobbins 1.21 which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
65 drobbins 1.23 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</uri>.
66 drobbins 1.22 In this directory, you'll see several subdirectories such as <c>athlon</c>
67 drobbins 1.24 for each of our various architecture-specific builds. Here's a low-down on
68     each arch directory and what it contains:</p>
69 zhen 1.26 <table>
70     <tr>
71     <th>Architecture</th>
72     <th>Description</th>
73     </tr>
74     <tr>
75     <ti>x86</ti>
76     <ti>Stage 1 tarballs and &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; liveCD -- will work on anything.</ti>
77     </tr>
78     <tr>
79     <ti>i586</ti>
80     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i586+ CPUs</ti>
81     </tr>
82     <tr>
83     <ti>i686</ti>
84     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i686+ CPUs</ti>
85     </tr>
86     <tr>
87     <ti>athlon</ti>
88     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon CPUs</ti>
89     </tr>
90     <tr>
91     <ti>athlon-xp</ti>
92     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon XP CPUs</ti>
93     </tr>
94     <tr>
95     <ti>athlon-mp</ti>
96     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon MP CPUs</ti>
97     </tr>
98     <tr>
99     <ti>pentium3</ti>
100     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for Intel Pentium III and Pentium 4 CPUs</ti>
101     </tr>
102     </table>
103     <p>Inside each of these directories,
104 drobbins 1.22 you'll find a <path>livecd/</path> directory that contains LiveCDs. While these LiveCDs
105     will boot on any architecture, the install-related tarballs are optimized for a particular
106 zhen 1.26 CPU type and will not work on all systems, except for the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; LiveCD in the <path>x86</path>
107 drobbins 1.24 directory which can be used to install on anything.
108 drobbins 1.22 </p>
109 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
110 drobbins 1.24 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
111 zhen 1.26 carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size and lives
112 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
113     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
114     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
115 zhen 1.26 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labelled &quot;livecd-grp.&quot;
116 drobbins 1.24 These CDs (found in their respective <path>arch/livecd</path> directories)
117     contain stage1, 2 and 3 tarballs, and also contain a set of GRP packages
118     optimized for a specific architecture. Using these LiveCDs, it will be possible
119     for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly. The
120     downside is that these ISO images are large -- around 600MB -- so they can take
121     a while to download.</p>
122 zhen 1.26 <info>If for some reason your install gets interrupted at some point, you can
123 drobbins 1.24 reboot and restart. For example, if you have partitioned, installed the stageX
124     tarball, and are ready to chroot, you can restart the install if necessary.
125     Just re-boot with the LiveCD, then mount your drives/partitions to
126     <path>/mnt</path> as normal. Basically, you can do this at about any point
127     during the install, just not before partitioning for obvious reasons. </info>
128 zhen 1.26 <warn>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
129 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
130     needs to be moved upstream to the package maintainers (ie KDE) the
131     <e>developers</e> will take care of that. </warn>
132 zhen 1.26 <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. First, we'll download, burn
133 drobbins 1.21 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we'll create partitions, create
134     our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
135     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
136     our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure them
137     (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and have a
138     fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
139     process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation: </p>
140 zhen 1.26 <table>
141 zhen 1.16 <tr>
142     <th>stage tarball</th>
143     <th>requirements for installation</th>
144     </tr>
145     <tr>
146     <ti>1</ti>
147     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
148     </tr>
149     <tr>
150     <ti>2</ti>
151     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
152     </tr>
153     <tr>
154     <ti>3</ti>
155     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
156     </tr>
157     </table>
158     </body>
159     </section>
160     </chapter>
161     <chapter>
162     <title>Booting</title>
163     <section>
164     <body>
165 drobbins 1.21 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. If detected properly, you should see a fancy boot screen
166     with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
167     hit F2 for help, or pass kernel boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c>, etc.
168     Once you hit Enter, you'll be
169 zhen 1.6 greeted with a lot of text output
170     followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
171 drobbins 1.21 You will be automatically logged in as &quot;root&quot; and the root password will be
172     set to a random string for security purposes.
173 zhen 1.16 You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt on the current
174 drobbins 1.21 console, and can also open new root consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4.
175     Get back to the one you started on by pressing (you guessed it) Alt-F1.
176 zhen 1.6 </p>
177 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
178 drobbins 1.21 explaining how to do things like configure your network devices and where you can find
179     the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
180 zhen 1.6 </p>
181 zhen 1.16 </body>
182     </section>
183     </chapter>
184     <chapter>
185     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
186     <section>
187     <body>
188     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
189 zhen 1.6 will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
190     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
191     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
192     type:
193     </p>
194 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
195 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
196 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
197     </pre>
198 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
199 drobbins 1.21 during the initial boot autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
200 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
201     </p>
202 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
203 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
204     # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
205 zhen 1.6 </pre>
206 zhen 1.16 <p><c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks.
207 zhen 1.6 <note>
208 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
209 zhen 1.16 </note></p>
210 drobbins 1.21 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you'll need to load the
211 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
212     </p>
213 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
214 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
215     # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
216 drobbins 1.1 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
217 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
218 drobbins 1.1 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
219 zhen 1.6 </pre>
220 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
221 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
222 zhen 1.26 <pre caption="Setting DMA"><comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
223 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
224     # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 <comment>Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options</comment>
225 zhen 1.26 # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX <comment>Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up</comment></pre>
226 zhen 1.16 </body>
227     </section>
228     </chapter>
229     <chapter>
230     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
231     <section>
232     <body>
233     <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to do some additional
234 zhen 1.6 trickery.
235     </p>
236 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
237 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
238 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
239 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
240     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
241     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
242 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
243 zhen 1.6 </pre>
244 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
245 zhen 1.6 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
246 drobbins 1.21 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that's
247 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
248 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
249 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
250     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
251 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
252 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
253 zhen 1.16 </body>
254     </section>
255     </chapter>
256     <chapter>
257     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
258     <section>
259     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
260     <body>
261     <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has
262 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
263 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
264     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
265     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
266 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
267 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
268     # <c> adsl-start </c>
269     </pre>
270 zhen 1.16 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
271 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
272     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
273 zhen 1.16 </body>
274     </section>
275     <section>
276     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
277     <body>
278     <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use
279 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
280 zhen 1.6 Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
281     Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
282     the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
283     The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
284     script. </p>
285 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
286 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
287 zhen 1.6 </pre>
288 zhen 1.16 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. </p>
289     </body>
290     </section>
291     <section>
292     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
293     <body>
294     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
295     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
296     <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
297 drobbins 1.1 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
298 zhen 1.6 </pre>
299 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
300 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
301     </note>
302 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
303 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
304 zhen 1.16 </body>
305     </section>
306     <section>
307     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
308     <body>
309     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
310 zhen 1.6 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
311     Type in the following commands, replacing
312     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
313     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
314     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
315     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
316     </p>
317 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
318 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
319     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
320 zhen 1.6 </pre>
321 zhen 1.16 <p>Now it's time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
322 zhen 1.6 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
323 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
324     <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
325 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
326     nameserver 10.0.0.1
327     nameserver 10.0.0.2
328 zhen 1.6 </pre>
329 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
330 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
331 zhen 1.16 </body>
332     </section>
333     <section>
334     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
335     <body>
336     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
337 zhen 1.6 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
338     </p>
339 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
340     # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
341 seo 1.42 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
342     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
343 zhen 1.6 </pre>
344 zhen 1.16 </body>
345     </section>
346     <section>
347     <title>Network Testing</title>
348     <body>
349     <p>Now that your network has been configured, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig -a</c> command should show
350 zhen 1.6 that your network card is working (look for <e>UP</e> and <e>RUNNING</e> in the output). </p>
351 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
352 drobbins 1.1 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
353     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
354     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
355     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
356     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
357     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
358     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
359     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
360     Interrupt:11
361 zhen 1.6 </pre>
362 zhen 1.16 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
363 zhen 1.14 and a website of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
364     resolution is working correctly, etc.
365 zhen 1.6 </p>
366 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
367 zhen 1.15 # <c>ping www.some_website.com </c>
368 zhen 1.6 </pre>
369 zhen 1.16 </body>
370     </section>
371     <section>
372     <title>Networking is go!</title>
373     <body>
374     <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
375 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
376 zhen 1.16 </body>
377     </section>
378     </chapter>
379     <chapter>
380     <title>Partition Configuration</title>
381     <section>
382     <body>
383     <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
384 zhen 1.6 to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
385     </p>
386 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
387 zhen 1.6 We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
388     partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
389     The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
390     your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
391     everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
392     your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. This prevents your kernel
393     from being made unavailable to GRUB (due to filesystem corruption) in the event
394     of a system crash, preventing the chicken-and-egg problem where GRUB can't read
395     your kernel (since your filesystem isn't consistent) but you can't bring your
396     filesystem back to a consistent state (since you can't boot!)
397     </p>
398 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have four filesystem options:
399 zhen 1.6 XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling) and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
400     filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
401     ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
402     providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
403     that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
404     ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
405     10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
406     As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
407     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
408 drobbins 1.21 is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but
409     is generally not recommended due to its tendency to lose recently-modified
410     data if your system locks up or unexpectedly reboots (due to a power failure, for instance.)
411 zhen 1.6 </p>
412 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
413 zhen 1.6 for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
414     high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
415 drobbins 1.21 mature and refined.
416 zhen 1.6 Here are our basic recommended filesystem
417     sizes and types:
418     </p>
419 zhen 1.16 <table>
420     <tr>
421     <th>Partition</th>
422     <th>Size</th>
423     <th>Type</th>
424     <th>example device</th>
425     </tr>
426     <tr>
427     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
428     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
429     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
430     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
431     </tr>
432     <tr>
433     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit)</ti>
434     <ti>&gt;=2*Amount of RAM in this system is recommended but no longer (as of kernel 2.4.10) required</ti>
435     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
436     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
437     </tr>
438     <tr>
439     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
440     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
441     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
442     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
443     </tr>
444     </table>
445 drobbins 1.21 <p>Before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
446     beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
447     will not be mis-indentified by Linux's mounting code.
448     This can be done as follows:
449 zhen 1.6 </p>
450 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
451 zhen 1.34 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdxy bs=1K count=1</c>
452 zhen 1.26 <comment>Replace /dev/hdxy with the device you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;</comment>
453 zhen 1.6 </pre>
454 zhware 1.43 <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hdxy</path>.
455     Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
456     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
457     </warn>
458 drobbins 1.21 <p>At this point, create your partitions using <c>fdisk</c>. Note that your partitions
459     should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS, ext2/3 or other). </p>
460     <note><c>cfdisk</c> is included on the install CD, and it is <i>considerably</i> easier to use than
461     <c>fdisk</c>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it; by default, cfdisk will work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not the hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note>
462 zhen 1.26 <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to allow your system to detect the
463 drobbins 1.21 new partition configuration.</note>
464 zhen 1.26 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
465 drobbins 1.21 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X is
466     the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
467     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
468 zhen 1.26 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
469 zhen 1.6 the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p>
470 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
471 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
472 zhen 1.6 </pre>
473 zhen 1.16 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
474     <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
475 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
476 zhen 1.6 </pre>
477 zhen 1.16 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
478     <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
479 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
480 zhen 1.6 </pre>
481 zhen 1.16 <note>
482 zhen 1.6 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
483     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
484     the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
485     so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5.
486     The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
487     </note>
488 zhen 1.16 <warn>
489 zhen 1.6 If you are installing an XFS partition over a previous ReiserFS partition,
490     later attempts to mount may fail without an explicit <c>mount -t xfs</c>.
491     The solution is to zero out the partition before creating the XFS filesystem:
492     <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hd<comment>x</comment> bs=1k</c>.
493     </warn>
494 zhen 1.16 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
495     <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
496 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
497 zhen 1.6 </pre>
498 seo 1.32 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
499     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
500     </note>
501 zhen 1.16 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
502     <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
503 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
504 zhen 1.6 </pre>
505 zhen 1.16 </body>
506     </section>
507     </chapter>
508     <chapter>
509     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
510     <section>
511     <body>
512     <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that
513 zhen 1.6 provides later:
514     </p>
515 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
516 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
517 zhen 1.6 </pre>
518 zhen 1.16 <p>Next, we'll create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mountpoints,
519 zhen 1.6 and we'll mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
520 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
521 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
522     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
523     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
524     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
525 zhen 1.6 </pre>
526 zhen 1.26 <p>
527 zhen 1.6 If you are setting up Gentoo
528     Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
529     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
530     </p>
531 zhen 1.27 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
532 zhen 1.6 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
533     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
534     We'll get to that in a bit.
535     </impo>
536 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
537 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
538 zhen 1.16 </body>
539     </section>
540     </chapter>
541     <chapter>
542     <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
543     <section>
544     <body>
545     <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set
546 drobbins 1.21 to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path>.
547 zhen 1.6 On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3
548     tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it
549     (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest)
550 zhen 1.14 from one of the Gentoo mirror sites. </p>
551 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
552 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
553 zhen 1.14 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball</comment>
554 drobbins 1.21 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</c>
555 zhen 1.14 # <c>wget <comment>insert required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
556 zhen 1.6 </pre>
557 zhen 1.16 </body>
558     </section>
559     </chapter>
560     <chapter>
561     <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
562     <section>
563     <body>
564     <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
565 zhen 1.26 Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
566 drobbins 1.21 Gentoo Linux system.
567 zhen 1.6 </p>
568 zhen 1.16 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
569 drobbins 1.21 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
570 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install method,
571 zhen 1.6 you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
572     If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
573     These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
574 zhen 1.12 compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.)
575 zhen 1.6 </p>
576 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
577 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
578 drobbins 1.21 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
579 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
580 zhen 1.44
581     <!--# <c>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</c>
582 drobbins 1.35 <comment>The /dev bind-mount is required for perl to build properly for some people.</comment>
583 zhen 1.44 -->
584 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
585 zhen 1.6 </pre>
586 zhen 1.30 <p>If you are going to use GRP, now would be a good time to execute the following commands:
587     </p>
588    
589     <pre caption="Getting ready for GRP">
590     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/GRP</c>
591     # <c>mount -o bind /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/packages /mnt/gentoo/GRP</c>
592     </pre>
593    
594 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Entering the chroot Environment">
595 drobbins 1.1 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
596     # <c>env-update</c>
597     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
598     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
599 zhen 1.6 </pre>
600 zhen 1.16 <p>After you execute these commands, you'll be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment.
601 zhen 1.6 </p>
602 zhen 1.16 </body>
603     </section>
604     </chapter>
605     <chapter>
606     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using Rsync</title>
607     <section>
608     <body>
609     <p>Now, you'll need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
610 zhen 1.6 you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
611 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Updating Using Rsync">
612 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
613     </pre>
614 zhen 1.16 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
615 zhen 1.6 it's about 90Mb in size without tarballs.
616     </p>
617 zhen 1.16 </body>
618     </section>
619     </chapter>
620     <chapter>
621     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
622     <section>
623     <body>
624     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, people using stage1 to
625 zhen 1.6 install will need to bootstrap their Gentoo Linux system as follows. First
626     edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
627     <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
628     like to be built into packages; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
629     or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
630     More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
631     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
632 zhen 1.38 A complete list of current USE flags can be found
633     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
634 zhen 1.6 </p>
635 zhen 1.16 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
636 zhen 1.6 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
637     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) Your best friend
638     is <path>man gcc</path> to figure out what additional <c>CFLAGS</c> and
639     <code>CXXFLAGS</code> are available. Search for 'Optimization'.
640     </p>
641 zhen 1.16 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
642 zhen 1.6 firewall.
643     </p>
644 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
645 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
646 zhen 1.6 </pre>
647 zhen 1.16 <note>
648 zhen 1.6 People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
649     the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
650     should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
651     be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
652     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
653     interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
654 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
655 zhen 1.6 in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
656     </note>
657 zhen 1.16 </body>
658     </section>
659     </chapter>
660     <chapter>
661 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
662 zhen 1.16 <section>
663     <body>
664 zhen 1.18 <p>The stage1 tarball is for ultimate tweakage. If you have picked this tarball,
665     you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized system. Have fun, because optimization
666     is what Gentoo Linux is all about!
667     </p>
668 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, it's time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
669 zhen 1.6 my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped
670 zhen 1.18 for compiling the rest of the system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
671 zhen 1.6 These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process.
672     </p>
673 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
674 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
675     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
676 zhen 1.6 </pre>
677 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
678 zhen 1.6 </p>
679 zhen 1.16 <note>
680 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
681     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
682     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
683     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
684     </note>
685 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
686     # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
687 zhen 1.6 </pre>
688 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
689 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
690     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
691 zhen 1.27 Have a nice nap. Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
692 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
693 zhen 1.6 </p>
694 zhen 1.16 </body>
695     </section>
696     </chapter>
697     <chapter>
698 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage2</title>
699 zhen 1.16 <section>
700     <body>
701 zhen 1.18 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
702     to do is install the rest of the system.
703 zhen 1.6 </p>
704 zhen 1.16 <note>
705 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
706     </note>
707 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
708 drobbins 1.25 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;-*&quot;</c>
709 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
710     <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
711     # <c>emerge system</c>
712 zhen 1.6 </pre>
713 drobbins 1.25 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;-*&quot;</c> line ensures that any new scripts
714 zhen 1.6 installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
715     <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
716     management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
717 zhen 1.16 <p>It's going to take a while
718 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
719     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
720 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
721 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
722     </p>
723     <p>When this process completes, your system will be the equivalent of a stage3 system. You have
724     a couple of choices on how to continue
725     at this point. You can move onto the stage3 instructions and complete those. Doing that will
726     get your system right up to date with what is in the current Portage tree. This is not necessary,
727     but it is highly recommended. If you do not choose to get up to date with the stage3 instructions,
728     you can move onto the GRP install section. If you do not wish to use GRP, you can move
729     onto <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml#doc_chp16">Chapter 16: Final Steps</uri>.
730 zhen 1.18 </p>
731     </body>
732     </section>
733     </chapter>
734     <chapter>
735     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
736     <section>
737     <body>
738     <p>The stage3 tarball is already configured for your system. There is not much to do for this stage,
739     but it is a very good idea to update your system to the newest available packages. </p>
740     <note>If you have not already edited <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to fit your specifications,
741     now would be a good time to do so. </note>
742     <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
743     # <c>emerge sync</c>
744     # <c>emerge -up world</c>
745     <comment>lists [<i>packages</i>] to be installed</comment>
746     # <c>emerge -u world</c>
747     </pre>
748 zhen 1.37 <p>Once you complete this step, you have some options on how to continue. If you are going to be using GRP,
749     please move onto the GRP section. If you are not going to use GRP, you may continue onto
750     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml#doc_chp16">Chapter 16: Final Steps</uri>.
751 zhen 1.27 </p>
752 zhen 1.18 </body>
753     </section>
754     </chapter>
755     <chapter>
756 zhen 1.26 <title>Using GRP</title>
757     <section>
758     <body>
759 zhen 1.28 <p>You can take advantage of pre-built GRP package sets to avoid compiling certain popular and large packages. Currently, we provide full builds of everything you need for <c>openoffice-bin</c>,
760 zhen 1.27 <c>GNOME</c>, <c>KDE</c> and <c>xfree</c>.
761     </p>
762 seo 1.41 <p>First, you will need to <c>cd</c> to the location of the packages directory. We have already
763     mounted the directory at <path>/GRP</path>. In that directory you
764 zhen 1.27 will find the <c>grp-install.sh</c> script, an <i>All</i> directory that contains all of the binary
765     packages, and a list of available GRP packages. To install any/all of these
766     package sets you should do the following: </p>
767 zhen 1.26 <pre caption="Using GRP">
768 seo 1.41 # <c>cd /GRP</c>
769 zhen 1.27 # <c>sh grp-install.sh &lt;list of package lists&gt;</c>
770     <comment>where &lt;list of package lists&gt; may be any of the *-list.txt files found in the same directory.</comment>
771 drobbins 1.21 </pre>
772 zhen 1.27 <p><c>grp-install.sh</c> can be run multiple times without replacing existing installations. You can
773     do a <c>sh grp-install.sh</c> for a basic usage description if you are still a bit foggy.
774     </p>
775 zhen 1.26 </body>
776     </section>
777     </chapter>
778 drobbins 1.21 <chapter>
779 zhen 1.18 <title>Final Steps: Timezone</title>
780     <section>
781     <body>
782     <p>At this point, you should have system that's ready for final configuration.
783     We'll start the configuration process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building
784     the kernel we ensure that users get reasonable <c>uname -a</c> output.
785     </p>
786     <p>Look for your timezone (or GMT if you using Greenwich Mean Time) in
787     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:
788     </p>
789     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for timezome">
790     # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
791     </pre>
792     <p>You might also want to check <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to make sure your timezone settings
793     are correct.
794 zhen 1.6 </p>
795 zhen 1.16 </body>
796     </section>
797     </chapter>
798     <chapter>
799     <title>Final steps: kernel and system logger</title>
800     <section>
801     <body>
802     <note>
803 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
804     </note>
805 zhen 1.16 <p>You now need to merge Linux source ebuilds. Here are the ones we currently
806 zhen 1.6 offer:
807     </p>
808 zhen 1.16 <table>
809     <tr>
810     <th>ebuild</th>
811     <th>description</th>
812     </tr>
813     <tr>
814     <ti>
815     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
816     </ti>
817 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
818 zhen 1.16 </tr>
819     <tr>
820     <ti>
821     <path>xfs-sources</path>
822     </ti>
823 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
824 zhen 1.16 </tr>
825     <tr>
826     <ti>
827     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
828     </ti>
829     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
830     </tr>
831     <tr>
832     <ti>
833     <path>usermode-sources</path>
834     </ti>
835     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
836     </tr>
837     <tr>
838     <ti>
839     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
840     </ti>
841     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti>
842     </tr>
843     </table>
844 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
845     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
846     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
847 zhen 1.6 </warn>
848 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
849 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
850 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
851 zhen 1.6 </pre>
852 zhen 1.16 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel.
853 zhen 1.6 </p>
854 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
855     which is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
856     If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
857     to the correct one before proceeding.
858     </p>
859 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
860 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
861     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
862     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
863     # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
864     <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
865     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
866 zhen 1.6 </pre>
867 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
868 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
869 zhen 1.16 compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>&quot;Code maturity
870     level options --&gt; Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;</i>
871 zhen 1.6 option to see several of these selections.
872 zhen 1.16 Under the &quot;File systems&quot; section, be sure to enable the <i>&quot;Device File System&quot;</i> (note that
873     you <e>don't</e> need to enable the &quot;/dev/pts file system support&quot; option). You'll also
874     need to enable the <i>&quot;Virtual Memory Filesystem&quot;</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
875     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
876     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot;
877 zhen 1.6 option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
878     enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
879 zhen 1.16 want to enable the &quot;USE DMA by default&quot; option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
880     very poorly. Of course, remember to enable &quot;IDE disk&quot; support as well -- otherwise your
881 zhen 1.6 kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
882     </warn>
883 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
884 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
885     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
886     support for IDE RAID
887     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
888     </p>
889 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
890 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
891 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
892     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
893     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
894 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
895     </p>
896 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
897     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
898     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
899     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
900     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
901     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
902     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
903 zhen 1.6 </p>
904 zhen 1.16 <note>
905 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
906     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
907 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
908 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
909     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
910     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
911 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
912     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
913 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
914     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
915     line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
916     for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
917     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
918     </note>
919 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
920 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
921     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
922     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
923     newer alternatives.
924     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
925     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
926     </p>
927 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
928 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
929     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
930     <comment>or</comment>
931     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
932     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
933     <comment>or</comment>
934     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
935     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
936     <comment>or</comment>
937     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
938     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
939 zhen 1.6 </pre>
940 zhen 1.16 <warn>
941 zhen 1.6 In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
942     <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
943     See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
944     for a sample configuration file.
945     </warn>
946 zhen 1.16 <impo>
947 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
948     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
949     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
950     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
951     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
952     in real time, as expected),
953     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
954 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
955     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
956 zhen 1.6 </impo>
957 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you'd like to use.
958 zhen 1.6 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you don't know which one to choose,
959     you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
960     </p>
961 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
962 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
963     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
964     <comment>or</comment>
965     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
966     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
967     <comment>or</comment>
968     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
969 zhen 1.2 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
970 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
971     # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
972 zhen 1.6 </pre>
973 zhen 1.26 <!--<p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux,
974 drobbins 1.21 see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>-->
975 zhen 1.16 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
976 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
977 zhen 1.6 </p>
978 zhen 1.16 </body>
979     </section>
980     </chapter>
981     <chapter>
982     <title>Final steps: Install Additional Packages</title>
983     <section>
984     <body>
985     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
986 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
987 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
988 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
989 zhen 1.6 </pre>
990 zhen 1.40
991     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
992     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
993     X support later.
994     </note>
995 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
996 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
997     for the first time.
998     </note>
999 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1000 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1001     using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> ebuild:
1002     </p>
1003 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1004 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1005     <comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1006     # <c> emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1007     <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1008 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1009 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1010 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1011 zhen 1.6 real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1012     </p>
1013 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1014 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1015 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1016 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1017 zhen 1.10 to work.
1018     </warn>
1019 zhen 1.16 </body>
1020     </section>
1021     </chapter>
1022     <chapter>
1023     <title>Final steps: /etc/fstab</title>
1024     <section>
1025     <body>
1026     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1027 zhen 1.6 a few important system files and install the GRUB boot loader.
1028     The first file we need to
1029     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1030     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1031     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1032     </p>
1033 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1034     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1035     <pre caption="Editing fstab"><comment>
1036 drobbins 1.1 # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1037     #
1038 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1039 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1040     # efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1041     # switch between notail and tail freely.
1042    
1043     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1044    
1045     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1046     </comment>
1047     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1048     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1049     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1050     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1051     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1052 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1053 zhen 1.16 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boottime.
1054 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1055     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1056     </warn>
1057 zhen 1.16 </body>
1058     </section>
1059     </chapter>
1060     <chapter>
1061     <title>Final steps: Root Password</title>
1062     <section>
1063     <body>
1064     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1065     <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1066     # <c>passwd</c>
1067 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1068 zhen 1.16 </body>
1069     </section>
1070     </chapter>
1071     <chapter>
1072     <title>Final steps: /etc/hostname</title>
1073     <section>
1074     <body>
1075     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1076 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1077     </p>
1078 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1079     # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1080 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1081 zhen 1.16 </body>
1082     </section>
1083     </chapter>
1084     <chapter>
1085     <title>Final steps: /etc/hosts</title>
1086     <section>
1087     <body>
1088     <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1089 zhen 1.6 It's used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1090     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here's a template for this file:
1091     </p>
1092 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1093 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
1094     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1095     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1096 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1097 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1098 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1099     </note>
1100 zhen 1.16 </body>
1101     </section>
1102     </chapter>
1103     <chapter>
1104     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1105     <section>
1106     <body>
1107     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1108 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1109     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1110     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1111     it as a module:
1112     </p>
1113 stocke2 1.29 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1114     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1115 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1116 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1117 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1118 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1119 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Boottime Network Configuration">
1120 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1121     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1122 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1123 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1124 zhen 1.6 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1125 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1126 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1127     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1128     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1129 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1130 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1131 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1132 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1133 zhen 1.6 </p>
1134 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1135 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1136     need pcmcia
1137     }
1138 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1139 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1140 zhen 1.10 </p>
1141 zhen 1.16 </body>
1142     </section>
1143     </chapter>
1144     <chapter>
1145     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1146     <section>
1147     <body>
1148     <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1149 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1150 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1151 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1152 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1153     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1154     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1155     possibilities).
1156     </p>
1157 zhen 1.16 </body>
1158     </section>
1159     </chapter>
1160     <chapter>
1161     <title>Final steps: Configure GRUB</title>
1162     <section>
1163     <body>
1164     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1165 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1166     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1167 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1168 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1169     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1170     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1171     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1172     a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1173     <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1174    
1175     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1176     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1177     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1178     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1179     it's time to install GRUB.
1180     </p>
1181 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1182     <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1183 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1184 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1185 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1186 zhen 1.6 this time.
1187     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1188     grub setup for RAID controllers
1189     </impo>
1190 zhen 1.16 <p>You'll be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1191 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1192     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1193     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1194     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1195     I want to type are:
1196     </p>
1197 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="GRUB Commands">
1198 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c>
1199     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c>
1200     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1201 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1202 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1203 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1204     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1205     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1206     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1207     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1208     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1209     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1210     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1211     I'd specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1212     boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1213    
1214     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1215     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1216     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1217     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1218     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1219     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1220    
1221     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1222     to make the right choice.
1223     </note>
1224    
1225     Gentoo Linux is now
1226     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1227     we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here's how to do it.
1228     </p>
1229 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1230 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1231     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1232 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1233 zhen 1.6 </p>
1234 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1235 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1236     timeout 30
1237     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1238    
1239     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1240     root (hd0,0)
1241     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1242    
1243     <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1244     title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1245     root (hd0,0)
1246     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/discX/partY
1247    
1248     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1249     title=Windows NT Workstation
1250     root (hd0,5)
1251     chainloader +1
1252 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1253 zhen 1.16 <note>
1254 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1255     </note>
1256 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1257 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1258 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1259     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1260 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1261 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1262 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1263     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1264     </p>
1265 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1266 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1267     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1268     loader.
1269 zhware 1.9 </note>
1270 zhen 1.16 <note>
1271 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1272 zhen 1.6 </note>
1273 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1274 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1275     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1276     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1277     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1278     </p>
1279 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1280 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1281     devfs is enabled by default.
1282     </note>
1283 zhen 1.16 </body>
1284     </section>
1285     </chapter>
1286     <chapter>
1287     <title>Final steps: Configure LILO</title>
1288     <section>
1289     <body>
1290 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1291     LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here's how to install
1292     LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1293 zhen 1.16 </p>
1294     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1295     </p>
1296     <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1297     # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1298     </pre>
1299     <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. I will give you a small <i>lilo.conf</i> to use, and I will explain
1300     the different parts of the file.
1301     </p>
1302     <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1303     boot=/dev/hda
1304     map=/boot/map
1305     install=/boot/boot.b
1306     prompt
1307     timeout=50
1308     message=/boot/message
1309     lba32
1310     default=linux
1311    
1312     image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1313     label=linux
1314     initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.20.img
1315     read-only
1316     root=/dev/hda5
1317    
1318     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1319     other=/dev/hda1
1320     label=dos
1321    
1322     </pre>
1323     <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1324     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1325     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1326     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1327     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1328     <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to show you whatever is referenced in the message line.
1329     While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1330     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1331     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1332     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1333     <li><i>message=/boot/message</i> refers to the screen that LILO displays to let you select the
1334     operating system or kernel to boot. </li>
1335     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1336     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1337     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1338     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1339     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1340     <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1341     <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1342     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1343     <li><i>initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.20.img</i> refers to the initial ram disk image that is used at boot time
1344     to actually initialize and start the devices that makes booting the kernel possible. The initial
1345     ram disk is a collection of machine-specific drivers necessary to operate a SCSI card, hard drive, or any
1346     other device needed to load the kernel. You should never try to share initial ram disks between machines. </li>
1347     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1348     altered during the boot process. </li>
1349     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1350     <note>Thanks to <uri link="http://www.redhat.com">Redhat.com</uri> for this information.
1351     </note>
1352     <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1353     into the MBR:
1354     </p>
1355     <pre caption="Running LILO">
1356     # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1357     </pre>
1358     <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1359     </p>
1360     </body>
1361     </section>
1362     </chapter>
1363     <chapter>
1364     <title>Final steps: Bootdisks</title>
1365     <section>
1366     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1367     <body>
1368 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1369 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1370 drobbins 1.21 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1371     disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1372     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1373     make a GRUB
1374     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1375 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1376     bootdisk like this:
1377     </p>
1378 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1379 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1380     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1381     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1382     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1383     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1384    
1385     # <c>grub</c>
1386    
1387     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1388     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1389     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1390 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1391 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1392 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1393 zhen 1.16 </body>
1394     </section>
1395     <section>
1396     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1397     <body>
1398     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1399     </p>
1400 zhen 1.18 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1401     # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1402     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1403     </pre>
1404 zhen 1.16 </body>
1405     </section>
1406     </chapter>
1407     <chapter>
1408     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1409     <section>
1410     <body>
1411     <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to exit the chrooted shell,
1412 zhen 1.6 udpate necessary configuration files,
1413     safely unmount your partitions
1414     and reboot the system:
1415     </p>
1416 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1417 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1418     # <c>exit</c>
1419     <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1420     # <c>cd / </c>
1421     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1422     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1423 drobbins 1.36 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/dev</c>
1424 drobbins 1.1 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1425     # <c>reboot</c>
1426 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1427 zhen 1.16 <note>
1428 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1429     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1430     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1431     </note>
1432 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1433 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1434     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1435 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1436 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1437 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1438 zhen 1.16 (there's a &quot;click to subscribe&quot; link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1439 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1440     that will
1441     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1442     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1443     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1444 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1445 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1446 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1447 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1448     </p>
1449 zhen 1.16 </body>
1450     </section>
1451     </chapter>
1452     <chapter>
1453     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1454     <section>
1455     <body>
1456     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1457 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1458     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1459     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1460     </p>
1461 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1462 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1463     to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1464     other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1465     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1466 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1467 zhen 1.6 </p>
1468 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1469     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1470     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1471     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1472     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1473     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1474     </ul>
1475     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1476 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
1477     </p>
1478 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1479     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1480 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1481 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1482     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1483     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1484     </ul>
1485     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1486 zhen 1.6 </p>
1487 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1488 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1489     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1490 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1491 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1492 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1493     to see additional configuration options.
1494     </p>
1495 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1496 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1497     </p>
1498 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1499     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1500     </pre>
1501     <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1502 zhen 1.6 viewed with your favortive pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1503 zhen 1.16 </body>
1504     </section>
1505     </chapter>
1506 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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