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1 zhen 1.4 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
7     <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author"><mail link="jerry@gentoo.org">Jerry Alexandratos</mail></author>
10     <author title="Ghost"><mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail></author>
11     <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
12     <author title="Editor"><mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail></author>
13     <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
14     <author title="Editor"><mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail></author>
15    
16     <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
17     Linux 1.4_rc1. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
18     approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
19     scratch.</abstract>
20    
21     <version>2.1</version>
22 zhen 1.5 <date>20 November 2002</date>
23 drobbins 1.1
24     <chapter>
25     <title>About the Install</title>
26     <section>
27     <body>
28    
29     <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
30     as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
31     Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE)
32     (built-in to the kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as
33     modules). In addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network
34     card that Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your
35     network and establish outbound <c>ssh</c> connections and download files. </p>
36    
37     <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
38     ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully
39     built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
40     slow under those conditions.) To begin the install process, first grab the
41     livecd ISO images from
42     <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc1/</uri>. The three stages make our life
43     easy with Gentoo. The stage1 is for building the entire system from scratch. Stage2 is for building
44     some of the system from scratch, and stage3 saves a lot of time because it is already
45     optimized for you specific system. At the moment only the stage1 tarball is
46     stored on the livecd, but you will be able to download a stage2 or
47     stage3 tarball optimized for your system after booting the livecd. </p>
48    
49     <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. We'll create partitions,
50     create our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball.
51     If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps
52     to get our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure
53     them (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and
54     have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
55     process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation:</p>
56    
57     <table>
58     <tr><th>stage tarball</th><th>requirements for installation</th></tr>
59     <tr><ti>1</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti></tr>
60     <tr><ti>2</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti></tr>
61     <tr><ti>3</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti></tr>
62     </table>
63    
64     </body>
65     </section>
66     </chapter>
67     <chapter>
68     <title>Booting</title>
69     <section>
70     <body>
71    
72     <p>Start by booting the livecd. You'll be
73     greeted with a lot of text output
74     followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
75     Login as "root" (just hit &lt;enter&gt; for the password),
76     and then use the <c>passwd</c> command to change the root
77     password. (This root password is only for this installation session.
78     The reason for changing the password is that you will have to connect
79     to the net to complete the installation. Connecting to the internet with
80     the default root password is a <i>really</i> bad idea!)
81     You should have a root ("<c>#</c>") prompt on the current
82     console, and can also open new consoles by typing alt-f2, alt-f3, etc and then
83     hitting enter.</p>
84    
85 zhen 1.5 <p>Next, you will be greeted with instructions for setting up your network,
86     and optional PCI autodetection. The PCI autodetection process will automatically
87 drobbins 1.1 load the appropriate kernel modules for many popular PCI SCSI and ethernet
88     devices. After this, you should have a root ("<c>#</c>") prompt on the current
89     console, and can also open new consoles by typing Alt-F2, Alt-F3, etc and then
90     hitting enter.</p>
91    
92     </body>
93     </section>
94     </chapter>
95    
96     <chapter>
97     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
98     <section>
99     <body>
100    
101    
102     <p>Hopefully you need only type <c>pci-setup</c> at the root prompt to
103     autodetect the hardware on your system and to load the appropriate
104     kernel modules.
105     </p>
106    
107     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
108     will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
109     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
110     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
111     type: </p>
112    
113     <pre caption = "PCI Modules Configuration">
114     # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
115     <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
116     </pre>
117    
118     <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
119     during the PCI autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
120     modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:</p>
121    
122     <pre caption = "Loading SCSI Modules">
123     # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
124     # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
125     </pre>
126    
127     <p>
128     <c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks.
129     <note>
130     Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs in build-in in the kernel.
131     </note>
132     </p>
133    
134     <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you need to load the
135     ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller. </p>
136    
137     <pre caption = "Loading RAID Modules">
138     # <c>insmod ataraid</c>
139     # <c>insmod pdcraid</c>
140     <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
141     # <c>insmod hptraid</c>
142     <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
143     </pre>
144    
145     <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
146     <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
147    
148     <pre caption = "Setting DMA">
149     <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device. </comment>
150     # <c>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX </c>
151     <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
152     # <c>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX </c>
153     <comment>Enables Ultra-DMA </comment>
154     </pre>
155    
156     </body>
157     </section>
158     </chapter>
159    
160     <chapter>
161     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
162     <section>
163     <body>
164    
165     <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to do some additional
166     trickery.</p>
167    
168     <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
169     portion of the install. </warn>
170    
171     <pre caption = "Loading PCMCIA Modules">
172     # <i>insmod pcmcia_core</i>
173     # <i>insmod i82365</i>
174     # <i>insmod ds</i>
175     # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
176     </pre>
177    
178     <p>As cardmgr detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
179     few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
180     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading cardmgr too, if that's
181     preferable. (Technically, you need not run
182     <i>cardmgr</i> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
183     But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
184     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
185     drop by. <i>cardmgr</i> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
186     remove it). </p>
187    
188     </body>
189     </section>
190     </chapter>
191    
192     <chapter>
193     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
194     <section>
195     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
196     <body>
197    
198     <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has
199     made things easy for you by including <i>rp-pppoe</i>. Use the provided <i>adsl-setup </i>
200     script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
201     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
202     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
203    
204     <pre caption = "Configuring PPPoE">
205     # <i> adsl-setup </i>
206     # <i> adsl-start </i>
207     </pre>
208    
209     <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
210     your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
211     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
212    
213     </body>
214     </section>
215    
216     <section>
217     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
218     <body>
219    
220     <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use
221     <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
222     Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
223     Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
224     the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
225     The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
226     script. </p>
227    
228     <pre caption = "Net-Setup Script">
229     # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
230     </pre>
231    
232     <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. </p>
233    
234     </body>
235     </section>
236    
237     <section>
238     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
239     <body>
240    
241     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
242     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
243    
244     <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
245     # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
246     </pre>
247    
248     <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
249     add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
250     </note>
251    
252     <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
253     are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
254    
255     </body>
256     </section>
257    
258     <section>
259     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
260     <body>
261    
262     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
263     sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
264     Type in the following commands, replacing
265     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
266     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
267     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
268     $GTWAY with your default gateway. </p>
269    
270     <pre caption = "Static IP Network Configuration">
271     # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
272     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
273     </pre>
274    
275     <p>Now it's time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
276     file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
277    
278     <p>Here's a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
279    
280     <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
281     domain mydomain.com
282     nameserver 10.0.0.1
283     nameserver 10.0.0.2
284     </pre>
285    
286     <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
287     primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
288     </body>
289     </section>
290    
291     <section>
292     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
293     <body>
294     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
295     you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly. </p>
296     <pre>
297     # <c>export http_proxy="machine.company.com:1234" </c>
298     # <c>export ftp_proxy="$http_proxy" </c>
299     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY="$http_proxy" </c>
300     </pre>
301    
302     </body>
303     </section>
304    
305     <section>
306     <title>Network Testing</title>
307     <body>
308     <p>Now that your network has been configured, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig -a</c> command should show
309     that your network card is working (look for <e>UP</e> and <e>RUNNING</e> in the output). </p>
310    
311     <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
312     eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
313     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
314     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
315     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
316     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
317     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
318     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
319     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
320     Interrupt:11
321     </pre>
322    
323     </body>
324     </section>
325    
326     <section>
327     <title>Networking is go!</title>
328     <body>
329     <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
330     <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
331     </body>
332     </section>
333     </chapter>
334    
335     <chapter>
336     <title>Partition Configuration</title>
337     <section>
338     <body>
339    
340     <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
341     to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.</p>
342    
343     <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
344     We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
345     partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
346     The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
347     your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
348     everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
349     your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. This prevents your kernel
350     from being made unavailable to GRUB (due to filesystem corruption) in the event
351     of a system crash, preventing the chicken-and-egg problem where GRUB can't read
352     your kernel (since your filesystem isn't consistent) but you can't bring your
353     filesystem back to a consistent state (since you can't boot!) </p>
354    
355     <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have four filesystem options:
356     XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling) and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
357     filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
358     ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
359     providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
360     that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
361     ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
362     10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
363     As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
364     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
365     is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but be warned that it
366     is highly unstable at this time.
367     </p>
368    
369     <p>
370     If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
371     for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
372     high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
373     mature and refined. Please be careful with XFS; this filesystem has a tendency to fry lots of data
374     if the system crashes or you lose power. Originally, it seemed like a promising filesystem but it
375     now appears that this tendency to lose data is a major achilles' heel.
376     Here are our basic recommended filesystem
377     sizes and types: </p>
378    
379     <table>
380     <tr>
381     <th>Partition</th>
382     <th>Size</th>
383     <th>Type</th>
384     <th>example device</th>
385     </tr>
386     <tr>
387     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
388     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
389     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
390     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
391     </tr>
392     <tr>
393     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit)</ti>
394     <ti>&gt;=2*Amount of RAM in this system is recommended but no longer (as of kernel 2.4.10) required</ti>
395     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
396     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
397     </tr>
398     <tr>
399     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
400     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
401     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
402     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
403     </tr>
404     </table>
405    
406     <p>Before creating your partitions, it is a <e>very</e> good idea to initialize the beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that you have no issues with mounting previously <i>fat32</i> partitions, like <path>/boot</path> for example. To do this you would do:</p>
407    
408     <pre caption = "Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
409     # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdaBOOT bs=1024 count=1024 </c>
410     <comment>BOOT is the partition that holds your <path>/boot</path>.</comment>
411     </pre>
412    
413     <p>At this point, create your partitions using fdisk. Note that your partitions
414     should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS <e>or</e> ext2/3). </p>
415    
416     <note><i>cfdisk</i> is included on the install CD, and it is *considerably* easier to use than
417     <i>fdisk</i>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it. </note>
418    
419     <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little
420     different.
421     You will have the partitions like this:
422     <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path>
423     X is the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1
424     array, then it will
425     be disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path>
426     </note>
427    
428    
429     <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
430     the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p>
431    
432     <pre caption= "Initializing Swap">
433     # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
434     </pre>
435    
436     <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
437    
438     <pre caption = "Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
439     # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
440     </pre>
441    
442     <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
443    
444     <pre caption = "Creating a XFS Filesystem">
445     # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
446     </pre>
447    
448     <note>
449     You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
450     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
451     the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
452     so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command
453     increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
454     </note>
455    
456     <warn>
457     If you are installing an XFS partition over a previous ReiserFS partition, later attempts to mount may fail without
458     an explicit <c>mount -t xfs</c>. The solution is to zero out the partition before creating the XFS filesystem:
459     <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hd<comment>x</comment> bs=1k</c>.
460     </warn>
461     <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
462    
463     <pre caption = "Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
464     # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
465     </pre>
466    
467     <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
468     <pre caption = "Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
469     # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
470     </pre>
471    
472     <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
473    
474     </body>
475     </section>
476     </chapter>
477    
478     <chapter>
479     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
480     <section>
481     <body>
482    
483     <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that
484     provides later: </p>
485    
486     <pre caption = "Activating Swap">
487     # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
488     </pre>
489    
490     <p>Next, we'll create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mountpoints,
491     and we'll mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
492    
493     <pre caption = "Creating Mount Points">
494     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
495     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
496     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
497     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
498     </pre>
499    
500     <p>If you are setting up Gentoo
501     Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
502     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively. </p>
503    
504     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
505     with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
506     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
507     We'll get to that in a bit.</impo>
508    
509     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
510     <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
511     </body>
512     </section>
513     </chapter>
514    
515     <chapter>
516     <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
517     <section>
518     <body>
519    
520     <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set
521     to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/cdroot/nocompress</path>.
522     On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3
523     tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it
524     (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest)
525     from one of the Gentoo mirror sites: </p>
526    
527     <pre caption = "Downloading Required Stages">
528     # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
529     # <c>env TMPDIR="/mnt/gentoo" lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc1/x86/</c>
530     </pre>
531     </body>
532     </section>
533     </chapter>
534    
535     <chapter>
536     <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
537     <section>
538     <body>
539    
540     <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation. </p>
541    
542     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will cause certain files to contain incorrect permissions.</impo>
543    
544     <p>If you are using the "from scratch, build everything" install method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
545     If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save time at the
546     expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stage3 image now also includes complete linux sources and a Portage tree snapshot, eliminating the need to do an <c>emerge sync</c> later, but it is highly recommended to do so anyway. </p>
547    
548     <pre caption = "Unpacking the Stages">
549     # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
550     # <c>tar -xvjpf /path/to/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
551     # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
552     # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
553     </pre>
554    
555     <pre caption = "Entering the chroot Environment">
556     # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
557     # <c>env-update</c>
558     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
559     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
560     </pre>
561    
562     <p>After you execute these commands, you'll be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux environment. </p>
563    
564     </body>
565     </section>
566     </chapter>
567    
568     <chapter>
569     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using Rsync</title>
570     <section>
571     <body>
572     <p>Now, you'll need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
573     you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
574    
575     <pre caption = "Updating Using Rsync">
576     # <c>emerge sync</c>
577     </pre>
578    
579     <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
580     it's about 90Mb in size without tarballs.</p>
581     </body>
582     </section>
583     </chapter>
584    
585     <chapter>
586     <title>Progressing from stage1 to stage2</title>
587     <section>
588     <body>
589    
590     <p>If you are a stage2 or stage3 tarball, then we've already bootstrapped
591     for you. There is no reason for you to bootstrap again, unless you decided to
592     do an <c>emerge sync</c> and want to ensure that you have an up-to-the-minute
593     current Gentoo Linux system. Most people using stage2 or stage3 tarballs will
594     <i>not</i> want to bootstrap again, since it can take over two hours even on
595     very fast machines.</p>
596    
597     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, people using stage1 to
598     install will need to bootstrap their Gentoo Linux system as follows. First
599     edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
600     <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
601     like to be built into packages; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
602     or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
603     More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
604     </p>
605    
606    
607     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
608     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
609     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) Your best friend
610     is <path>man gcc</path> to figure out what additional <c>CFLAGS</c> and
611     <code>CXXFLAGS</code> are available. Search for 'Optimization'.
612     </p>
613    
614     <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
615     firewall.</p>
616    
617     <pre caption = "Setting make.conf Options">
618     # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
619     </pre>
620    
621     <note>
622     People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
623     the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
624     should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
625     be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
626     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
627     interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
628     If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE="-foo"</c>
629     in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
630     </note>
631    
632     <p>Now, it's time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes about two hours on
633     my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped for compiling the rest ofthe system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
634     These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process. </p>
635    
636     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping">
637     # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
638     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
639     </pre>
640    
641     <p>The "bootstrap" process will now begin.</p>
642     <note>
643    
644     Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
645     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
646     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
647     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
648     </note>
649    
650     <pre caption = "Changing Portage's Storage Path">
651     # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</c>
652     </pre>
653    
654     <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
655     and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
656     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
657     Have a nice nap. Once this process completes, your system will be in a "stage2" state. </p>
658    
659     </body>
660     </section>
661     </chapter>
662    
663     <chapter>
664     <title>Timezone</title>
665     <section>
666     <body>
667    
668     <impo>It is extremely important that this step is completed, no matter which stage tarball you use. Major clock drift will be experienced if you do not set localtime correctly, let alone subtle issues when emerging packages later.</impo>
669    
670     <p>At this point, you should have a stage2 system that's ready for final configuration. We'll start this process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building the kernel we ensure that users get reasonable <c>uname -a</c> output.</p>
671    
672     <p>Look for your timezone (or GMT if you using Greenwich Mean Time) in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:</p>
673    
674     <pre caption = "Creating a symbolic link for timezome">
675     # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
676     </pre>
677    
678     <p>You might also want to check <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to make sure your timezone settings
679     are correct.</p>
680     </body>
681     </section>
682     </chapter>
683    
684     <chapter>
685     <title>Progressing from stage2 to stage3</title>
686     <section>
687     <body>
688     <p>Once your build image has been bootstrapped and you're at stage2 (again, if you are using a stage3 tarball than these steps are not required)
689     it's time to build or install the rest of the base
690     system.</p>
691    
692     <note>
693     If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
694     </note>
695    
696     <pre caption = "Installing the Rest of the System">
697     # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=""</c>
698     # <c>emerge -p system</c>
699     <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
700     # <c>emerge system</c>
701     </pre>
702    
703     <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=""</c> line ensures that any new scripts
704     installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
705     <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
706     management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
707    
708     <p>It's going to take a while
709     to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
710     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
711     way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests "Star
712     Wars - Super Bombad Racing" for the PS2. When <c>emerge system</c> completes,
713     you'll have a stage3 Gentoo Linux system.</p>
714    
715     </body>
716     </section>
717     </chapter>
718     <chapter>
719    
720     <title>Final steps: kernel and system logger</title>
721     <section>
722     <body>
723    
724     <note>
725     If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
726     </note>
727    
728     <p>You now need to merge Linux source ebuilds. Here are the ones we currently
729     offer:</p>
730    
731     <table>
732     <tr><th>ebuild</th><th>description</th></tr>
733     <tr><ti><path>gentoo-sources</path></ti><ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel based on -ac.</ti></tr>
734     <tr><ti><path>xfs-sources</path></ti><ti>A snapshot of the SGI XFS CVS Linux source tree; this is the kernel to run if you want bleeding edge(cvs) xfs support.</ti></tr>
735     <tr><ti><path>openmosix-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti></tr>
736     <tr><ti><path>usermode-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. ("Linux inside Linux" technology)</ti></tr>
737     <tr><ti><path>vanilla-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti></tr>
738     </table>
739    
740     <warn>Please note that <i>gentoo-sources</i> is heavily patched and may not be stable. Using <i>vanilla-sources</i> might be a better idea if you encounter numerous problems. If you are using
741     <i>gentoo-sources</i> beware of <i>grsecurity</i>, especially with <i>X</i>. It is best to disable <i>grsecurity</i>unless you are absolutely
742     sure that you need it.
743     </warn>
744    
745     <p>Choose one and then merge as follows:</p>
746    
747     <pre caption = "Emerging Kernel Sources">
748     # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
749     </pre>
750    
751     <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel. </p>
752    
753     <pre caption = "Compiling the Linux Kernel">
754     # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
755     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
756     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
757     # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
758     <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
759     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
760     </pre>
761    
762     <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
763     need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
764     compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>"Code maturity
765     level options --> Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers"</i>
766     option to see several of these selections.
767     Under the "File systems" section, be sure to enable the <i>"Device File System"</i> (note that
768     you <e>don't</e> need to enable the "/dev/pts file system support" option). You'll also
769     need to enable the <i>"Virtual Memory Filesystem"</i>. Be sure to enable "ReiserFS" if you have
770     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for "Ext3". If you're using XFS, enable the
771     "SGI XFS filesystem support"
772     option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
773     enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
774     want to enable the "USE DMA by default" option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
775     very poorly. Of course, remember to enable "IDE disk" support as well -- otherwise your
776     kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
777     </warn>
778    
779     <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
780     For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
781     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support, support for IDE RAID
782     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))</p>
783    
784     <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
785     options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
786     "PPP (point-to-point protocol) support", "PPP support for async serial ports",
787     "PPP support for sync tty ports". The two compression options won't harm but
788     are not definitely needed, neither does the "PPP over Ethernet" option,
789     that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
790     </p>
791    
792     <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
793     kernel. Turn on "ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support" ---> "IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
794     devices" ---> "SCSI emulation support" (I usually make it a module), then
795     under "SCSI support" enable "SCSI support", "SCSI CD-ROM support" and
796     "SCSI generic support" (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
797     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e "ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod"
798     >> /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time. </p>
799    
800     <note>
801     For those who prefer it,
802     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
803     Such stability will come at a price:
804     you will lose many of the nifty features that
805     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
806     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
807     patched with Reiserfs and devfs support.
808     Gentoo linux bootscripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
809     2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
810     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
811     line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
812     for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
813     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
814     </note>
815    
816     <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
817     logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
818     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
819     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
820     newer alternatives.
821     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
822     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines: </p>
823    
824    
825     <pre caption = "Emerging System Logger of Choice">
826     # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
827     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
828     <comment>or</comment>
829     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
830     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
831     <comment>or</comment>
832     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
833     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
834     <comment>or</comment>
835     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
836     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
837     </pre>
838    
839     <warn>
840     In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
841     <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
842     See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
843     for a sample configuration file.
844     </warn>
845    
846     <impo>
847     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
848     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your
849     Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
850     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
851     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
852     in real time, as expected),
853     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
854     again.
855     </impo>
856    
857     <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you'd like to use. Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you don't know which one to choose, you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:</p>
858    
859     <pre caption = "Choosing a CRON Daemon">
860     # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
861     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
862     <comment>or</comment>
863     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
864     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
865     <comment>or</comment>
866     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
867 zhen 1.2 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
868 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
869     # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
870     </pre>
871    
872     <p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux, see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>
873     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the <uri link="/doc/rc-scripts.html">rc-script guide</uri>. </p>
874     </body>
875     </section>
876     </chapter>
877    
878     <chapter>
879     <title>Final steps: Install Additional Packages</title>
880     <section>
881     <body>
882    
883     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
884     it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
885    
886     <pre caption = "Installing rp-pppoe">
887     # <c>emerge rp-pppoe</c>
888     </pre>
889    
890     <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
891     You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
892     for the first time. </note>
893    
894    
895     <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
896     if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
897     using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> ebuild: </p>
898    
899     <pre caption = "Emerging Filesystem Tools">
900     # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
901     <comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
902     # <c> emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
903     <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
904     # <c>emerge --usepkg sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
905     </pre>
906    
907    
908     <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
909     real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package. </p>
910    
911     <pre caption = "Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
912     # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
913     </pre>
914    
915     </body>
916     </section>
917     </chapter>
918    
919     <chapter>
920     <title>Final steps: /etc/fstab</title>
921     <section>
922     <body>
923     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
924     a few important system files and install the GRUB boot loader.
925     The first file we need to
926     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
927     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
928     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.</p>
929    
930     <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace "BOOT",
931     "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
932     <pre caption = "Editing fstab">
933     <comment>
934     # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
935     #
936     # noatime turns of atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
937     # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
938     # efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
939     # switch between notail and tail freely.
940    
941     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
942    
943     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
944     </comment>
945     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
946     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
947     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
948     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
949     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
950     </pre>
951    
952     <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boottime. This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
953     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
954     </warn>
955    
956     </body>
957     </section>
958     <section>
959     <title>Final steps: Root Password</title>
960     <body>
961     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
962    
963     <pre caption = "Setting the root Password">
964     # <i>passwd</i>
965     </pre>
966    
967     </body>
968     </section>
969    
970     <section>
971     <title>Final steps: /etc/hostname</title>
972     <body>
973     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>. </p>
974    
975     <pre caption = "Configuring Hostname">
976     # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com > /etc/hostname</c>
977     </pre>
978    
979     </body>
980     </section>
981    
982     <section>
983     <title>Final steps: /etc/hosts</title>
984     <body>
985     <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames. It's used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
986     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here's a template for this file: </p>
987    
988     <pre caption = "Hosts Template">
989     127.0.0.1 localhost
990     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
991     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
992     </pre>
993    
994     <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
995     actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
996     </note>
997    
998     </body>
999     </section>
1000    
1001     <section>
1002     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1003     <body>
1004    
1005    
1006     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1007     <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1008     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1009     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1010     it as a module:
1011     </p>
1012    
1013     <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload">
1014     <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card. Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your
1015     card. </comment>
1016     3c59x
1017     </pre>
1018    
1019     <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1020     first boot: </p>
1021    
1022     <pre caption = "Boottime Network Configuration">
1023     # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1024     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1025     </pre>
1026    
1027    
1028     <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1029     scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1030    
1031     <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1032     # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1033     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1034     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1035     </pre>
1036    
1037    
1038     <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1039     <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1040     then add </p>
1041    
1042     <pre caption = "PCMCIA Options">
1043     depend() {
1044     need pcmcia
1045     }
1046     </pre>
1047    
1048     <p>to the top of your <path>/etc/init.d/net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> file.
1049     This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded. </p>
1050    
1051     </body>
1052     </section>
1053    
1054     <section>
1055     <title>Final steps: configure basic settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1056     <body>
1057    
1058     <pre caption="basic configuration">
1059     # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1060     </pre>
1061    
1062     <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1063     All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1064     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1065     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1066     possibilities). </p>
1067    
1068     </body>
1069     </section>
1070    
1071     <section>
1072     <title>Final steps: Configure GRUB</title>
1073     <body>
1074    
1075     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions.
1076     Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1077     Hard drives count from zero rather than "a", and partitions start at zero rather than one. Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted,
1078     not atapi-ide devices such as cdrom players, burners, and that the same
1079     construct can be used with scsi drives. (Normally they get higher numbers
1080     than ide drives except when the bios is configured to boot from scsi devices.)
1081    
1082     Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1083     a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example,
1084     and no scsi harddrive
1085     <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1086    
1087     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1088     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1089     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1090     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1091     it's time to install GRUB.
1092     </p>
1093    
1094     <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1095    
1096     <pre caption = "Installing GRUB">
1097     # <c>grub</c>
1098     </pre>
1099    
1100     <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1101     this time.
1102     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1103     grub setup for RAID controllers</impo>
1104    
1105     <p>You'll be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1106     command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1107     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1108     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1109     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1110     I want to type are:</p>
1111    
1112     <pre caption = "GRUB Commands">
1113     grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c>
1114     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c>
1115     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1116     </pre>
1117    
1118     <p>Here's how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1119     the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1120     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )</c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1121     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1122     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1123     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>). If I were using
1124     another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1125     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1126     I'd specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1127     boot record has been
1128     successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1129     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1130     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1131     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1132     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1133     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1134     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1135    
1136     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1137     to make the right choice.
1138     </note>
1139     Gentoo Linux is now
1140     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1141     we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here's how to do it.</p>
1142    
1143     <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1144     <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1145     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1146    
1147     <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it: </p>
1148    
1149     <pre caption = "Grub.conf for GRUB">
1150     default 0
1151     timeout 30
1152     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1153    
1154     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1155     root (hd0,0)
1156     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1157    
1158     <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1159     title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1160     root (hd0,0)
1161     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/discX/partY
1162    
1163     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1164     title=Windows NT Workstation
1165     root (hd0,5)
1166     chainloader +1
1167     </pre>
1168    
1169     <note>
1170     (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1171     </note>
1172    
1173     <impo>
1174     If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1175     actually work you need to add an "hdx=ide-scsi" fragment to the kernel
1176     line in grub.conf (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd burner).
1177     </impo>
1178    
1179     <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1180     tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional, and shows you how to
1181     use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.</p>
1182    
1183     <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
1184     (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1185     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1186     loader.</note>
1187    
1188     <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1189     add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1190     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1191     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1192     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1193     </p>
1194    
1195     <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1196     <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1197     devfs is enabled by default.
1198     </note>
1199    
1200     <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you must make a GRUB boot
1201     disk. With hardware RAID
1202     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. So we
1203     will make a GRUB
1204     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time we will install GRUB
1205     to the MBR. Make your
1206     bootdisk like this: </p>
1207    
1208     <pre caption = "Creating a RAID Bootdisk">
1209     # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1210     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1211     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1212     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1213     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1214    
1215     # <c>grub</c>
1216    
1217     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1218     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1219     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1220     </pre>
1221    
1222    
1223     </body>
1224     </section>
1225     </chapter>
1226    
1227     <chapter>
1228     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1229     <section>
1230     <body>
1231     <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to exit the chrooted shell,
1232     udpate necessary configuration files,
1233     safely unmount your partitions
1234     and reboot the system: </p>
1235    
1236     <pre caption = "Rebooting the System">
1237     # <c>etc-update</c>
1238     # <c>exit</c>
1239     <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1240     # <c>cd / </c>
1241     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1242     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1243     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1244     # <c>reboot</c>
1245     </pre>
1246    
1247     <note>
1248     After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1249     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1250     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1251     </note>
1252    
1253     <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1254     use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1255     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1256     time. You are done, congratulations</impo>
1257    
1258     <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1259     consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1260     (there's a "click to subscribe" link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1261     We also have a handy <uri link="/doc/desktop.html">Desktop configuration guide</uri> that will
1262     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1263     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/portage-user.html">Portage user guide</uri>
1264     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1265     <uri link = "http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>.
1266     Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!</p>
1267     </body>
1268     </section>
1269     </chapter>
1270    
1271     <chapter>
1272     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1273     <body>
1274     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.</p>
1275    
1276     <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system. This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring right now through our "gentoo-stats" program:</p>
1277     <ul>
1278     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1279     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx" or "3dnow")</li>
1280     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1281     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1282     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1283     </ul>
1284    
1285     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users (just as it is to the developers).</p>
1286    
1287     <ul>
1288     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1289     <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1290     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID" pairs.</li>
1291     </ul>
1292    
1293     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:</p>
1294    
1295     <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1296     # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1297     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1298     </pre>
1299    
1300     <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file to see additional configuration options.</p>
1301    
1302     <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:</p>
1303    
1304     <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1305     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update > /dev/null</c>
1306     </pre>
1307    
1308     <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be viewed with your favortive pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>.</p>
1309    
1310     </body>
1311     </chapter>
1312    
1313    
1314    
1315    
1316     </guide>

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