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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 drobbins 1.21 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc2 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10     <mail link="jerry@gentoo.org">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11     </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32     </author>
33 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
34 drobbins 1.21 Linux 1.4_rc2. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
35 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
36     scratch.
37     </abstract>
38 zhen 1.53 <version>2.3.14</version>
39     <date>09 Feb 2003</date>
40 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
41     <title>About the Install</title>
42     <section>
43     <body>
44 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
45 drobbins 1.21 as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
46     Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
47     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
48     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
49     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
50     establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and download
51     files. </p>
52 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
53 drobbins 1.21 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully
54     built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
55     slow under those conditions.)</p>
56 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
57 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
58     The stage1 tarball is used when one wants to bootstrap and build the entire
59     system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
60     from scratch, except for the bootstrap part which is already performed for you.
61     And the stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
62     been optimized for your system.</p>
63 zhen 1.33 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you'll want to decide
64 drobbins 1.21 which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
65 drobbins 1.23 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</uri>.
66 drobbins 1.22 In this directory, you'll see several subdirectories such as <c>athlon</c>
67 drobbins 1.24 for each of our various architecture-specific builds. Here's a low-down on
68     each arch directory and what it contains:</p>
69 zhen 1.26 <table>
70     <tr>
71     <th>Architecture</th>
72     <th>Description</th>
73     </tr>
74     <tr>
75     <ti>x86</ti>
76     <ti>Stage 1 tarballs and &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; liveCD -- will work on anything.</ti>
77     </tr>
78     <tr>
79     <ti>i586</ti>
80     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i586+ CPUs</ti>
81     </tr>
82     <tr>
83     <ti>i686</ti>
84     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i686+ CPUs</ti>
85     </tr>
86     <tr>
87     <ti>athlon</ti>
88     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon CPUs</ti>
89     </tr>
90     <tr>
91     <ti>athlon-xp</ti>
92     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon XP CPUs</ti>
93     </tr>
94     <tr>
95     <ti>athlon-mp</ti>
96     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon MP CPUs</ti>
97     </tr>
98     <tr>
99     <ti>pentium3</ti>
100     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for Intel Pentium III and Pentium 4 CPUs</ti>
101     </tr>
102     </table>
103     <p>Inside each of these directories,
104 drobbins 1.22 you'll find a <path>livecd/</path> directory that contains LiveCDs. While these LiveCDs
105     will boot on any architecture, the install-related tarballs are optimized for a particular
106 zhen 1.26 CPU type and will not work on all systems, except for the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; LiveCD in the <path>x86</path>
107 drobbins 1.24 directory which can be used to install on anything.
108 drobbins 1.22 </p>
109 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
110 drobbins 1.24 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
111 zhen 1.26 carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size and lives
112 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
113     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
114     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
115 zhen 1.26 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labelled &quot;livecd-grp.&quot;
116 drobbins 1.24 These CDs (found in their respective <path>arch/livecd</path> directories)
117     contain stage1, 2 and 3 tarballs, and also contain a set of GRP packages
118 zhen 1.50 optimized for a specific architecture. GRP is simply precompiled packages for
119     very large applications, such as XFree86. KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice, etc.
120     Using these LiveCDs, it will be possible
121 drobbins 1.24 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly. The
122     downside is that these ISO images are large -- around 600MB -- so they can take
123     a while to download.</p>
124 zhen 1.26 <info>If for some reason your install gets interrupted at some point, you can
125 drobbins 1.24 reboot and restart. For example, if you have partitioned, installed the stageX
126     tarball, and are ready to chroot, you can restart the install if necessary.
127     Just re-boot with the LiveCD, then mount your drives/partitions to
128     <path>/mnt</path> as normal. Basically, you can do this at about any point
129     during the install, just not before partitioning for obvious reasons. </info>
130 zhen 1.26 <warn>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
131 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
132     needs to be moved upstream to the package maintainers (ie KDE) the
133     <e>developers</e> will take care of that. </warn>
134 zhen 1.26 <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. First, we'll download, burn
135 drobbins 1.21 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we'll create partitions, create
136     our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
137     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
138     our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure them
139     (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and have a
140     fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
141     process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation: </p>
142 zhen 1.26 <table>
143 zhen 1.16 <tr>
144     <th>stage tarball</th>
145     <th>requirements for installation</th>
146     </tr>
147     <tr>
148     <ti>1</ti>
149     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
150     </tr>
151     <tr>
152     <ti>2</ti>
153     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
154     </tr>
155     <tr>
156     <ti>3</ti>
157     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
158     </tr>
159     </table>
160     </body>
161     </section>
162     </chapter>
163     <chapter>
164     <title>Booting</title>
165     <section>
166     <body>
167 drobbins 1.21 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. If detected properly, you should see a fancy boot screen
168     with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
169     hit F2 for help, or pass kernel boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c>, etc.
170     Once you hit Enter, you'll be
171 zhen 1.6 greeted with a lot of text output
172     followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
173 drobbins 1.21 You will be automatically logged in as &quot;root&quot; and the root password will be
174     set to a random string for security purposes.
175 zhen 1.16 You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt on the current
176 drobbins 1.21 console, and can also open new root consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4.
177     Get back to the one you started on by pressing (you guessed it) Alt-F1.
178 zhen 1.6 </p>
179 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
180 drobbins 1.21 explaining how to do things like configure your network devices and where you can find
181     the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
182 zhen 1.6 </p>
183 zhen 1.16 </body>
184     </section>
185     </chapter>
186     <chapter>
187     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
188     <section>
189     <body>
190     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
191 zhen 1.6 will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
192     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
193     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
194     type:
195     </p>
196 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
197 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
198 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
199     </pre>
200 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
201 drobbins 1.21 during the initial boot autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
202 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
203     </p>
204 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
205 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
206     # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
207 zhen 1.6 </pre>
208 zhen 1.52 <p><c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks. </p>
209 zhen 1.6 <note>
210 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
211 zhen 1.52 </note>
212 drobbins 1.21 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you'll need to load the
213 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
214     </p>
215 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
216 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
217     # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
218 drobbins 1.1 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
219 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
220 drobbins 1.1 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
221 zhen 1.6 </pre>
222 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
223 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
224 zhen 1.26 <pre caption="Setting DMA"><comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
225 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
226 zhware 1.48 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options</comment>
227 zhen 1.26 # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX <comment>Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up</comment></pre>
228 zhen 1.16 </body>
229     </section>
230     </chapter>
231     <chapter>
232     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
233     <section>
234     <body>
235     <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to do some additional
236 zhen 1.6 trickery.
237     </p>
238 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
239 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
240 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
241 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
242     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
243     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
244 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
245 zhen 1.6 </pre>
246 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
247 zhen 1.6 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
248 drobbins 1.21 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that's
249 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
250 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
251 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
252     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
253 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
254 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
255 zhen 1.16 </body>
256     </section>
257     </chapter>
258     <chapter>
259     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
260     <section>
261     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
262     <body>
263     <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has
264 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
265 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
266     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
267     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
268 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
269 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
270     # <c> adsl-start </c>
271     </pre>
272 zhen 1.16 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
273 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
274     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
275 zhen 1.16 </body>
276     </section>
277     <section>
278     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
279     <body>
280     <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use
281 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
282 zhen 1.6 Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
283     Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
284     the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
285     The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
286     script. </p>
287 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
288 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
289 zhen 1.6 </pre>
290 zhen 1.16 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. </p>
291     </body>
292     </section>
293     <section>
294     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
295     <body>
296     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
297     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
298     <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
299 drobbins 1.1 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
300 zhen 1.6 </pre>
301 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
302 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
303     </note>
304 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
305 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
306 zhen 1.16 </body>
307     </section>
308     <section>
309     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
310     <body>
311     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
312 zhen 1.6 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
313     Type in the following commands, replacing
314     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
315     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
316     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
317     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
318     </p>
319 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
320 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
321     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask metric 1</c>
322 zhen 1.6 </pre>
323 zhen 1.16 <p>Now it's time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
324 zhen 1.6 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
325 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
326     <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
327 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
328     nameserver
329     nameserver
330 zhen 1.6 </pre>
331 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c></c> and <c></c> with the IP addresses of your
332 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
333 zhen 1.16 </body>
334     </section>
335     <section>
336     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
337     <body>
338     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
339 zhen 1.6 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
340     </p>
341 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
342     # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
343 seo 1.42 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
344     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
345 zhen 1.6 </pre>
346 zhen 1.16 </body>
347     </section>
348     <section>
349     <title>Network Testing</title>
350     <body>
351     <p>Now that your network has been configured, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig -a</c> command should show
352 zhen 1.6 that your network card is working (look for <e>UP</e> and <e>RUNNING</e> in the output). </p>
353 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
354 drobbins 1.1 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
355     inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
356     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
358     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
359     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
360     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
361     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
362     Interrupt:11
363 zhen 1.6 </pre>
364 zhen 1.16 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
365 zhen 1.14 and a website of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
366     resolution is working correctly, etc.
367 zhen 1.6 </p>
368 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
369 zhen 1.15 # <c>ping www.some_website.com </c>
370 zhen 1.6 </pre>
371 zhen 1.16 </body>
372     </section>
373     <section>
374     <title>Networking is go!</title>
375     <body>
376     <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
377 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
378 zhen 1.16 </body>
379     </section>
380     </chapter>
381     <chapter>
382     <title>Partition Configuration</title>
383     <section>
384     <body>
385     <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
386 zhen 1.6 to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
387     </p>
388 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
389 zhen 1.6 We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
390     partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
391     The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
392     your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
393     everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
394     your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. This prevents your kernel
395     from being made unavailable to GRUB (due to filesystem corruption) in the event
396     of a system crash, preventing the chicken-and-egg problem where GRUB can't read
397     your kernel (since your filesystem isn't consistent) but you can't bring your
398     filesystem back to a consistent state (since you can't boot!)
399     </p>
400 zhen 1.50 <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have five filesystem options:
401     XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling), jfs, and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
402 zhen 1.6 filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
403     ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
404     providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
405     that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
406     ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
407     10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
408     As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
409     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
410 drobbins 1.21 is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but
411     is generally not recommended due to its tendency to lose recently-modified
412     data if your system locks up or unexpectedly reboots (due to a power failure, for instance.)
413 zhen 1.50 Finially, jfs is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. Since it is obscure, we cannot comment either positvely nor negatively on its stability.</p>
414 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
415 zhen 1.6 for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
416     high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
417 drobbins 1.21 mature and refined.
418 zhen 1.6 Here are our basic recommended filesystem
419     sizes and types:
420     </p>
421 zhen 1.16 <table>
422     <tr>
423     <th>Partition</th>
424     <th>Size</th>
425     <th>Type</th>
426     <th>example device</th>
427     </tr>
428     <tr>
429     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
430     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
431     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
432     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
433     </tr>
434     <tr>
435     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit)</ti>
436 zhen 1.54 <ti>Generally, unless you are running a server, swapspace can be pretty flexible. Please consult the
437     below table for some loose guidelines on swap space.</ti>
438 zhen 1.16 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
439     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
440     </tr>
441     <tr>
442     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
443     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
444     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
445     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
446     </tr>
447     </table>
448 zhen 1.54
449     <table>
450     <tr>
451     <th>Physical RAM</th>
452     <th>Swapspace Size</th>
453     </tr>
454     <tr>
455     <ti>0-48MB RAM</ti>
456     <ti>048-064MB RAM</ti>
457     <ti>064MB-128MB RAM</ti>
458     <ti>128-256MB RAM</ti>
459     <ti>256-512MB RAM</ti>
460     </tr>
461     <tr>
462     <ti>720MB</ti>
463     <ti>702MB</ti>
464     <ti>640MB</ti>
465     <ti>256MB</ti>
466     </tr>
467     </table>
469 drobbins 1.21 <p>Before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
470     beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
471     will not be mis-indentified by Linux's mounting code.
472     This can be done as follows:
473 zhen 1.6 </p>
474 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
475 zhen 1.34 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdxy bs=1K count=1</c>
476 zhen 1.26 <comment>Replace /dev/hdxy with the device you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;</comment>
477 zhen 1.6 </pre>
478 zhware 1.43 <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hdxy</path>.
479     Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
480     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
481     </warn>
482 drobbins 1.21 <p>At this point, create your partitions using <c>fdisk</c>. Note that your partitions
483     should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS, ext2/3 or other). </p>
484     <note><c>cfdisk</c> is included on the install CD, and it is <i>considerably</i> easier to use than
485     <c>fdisk</c>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it; by default, cfdisk will work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not the hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note>
486 zhen 1.26 <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to allow your system to detect the
487 drobbins 1.21 new partition configuration.</note>
488 zhen 1.26 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
489 drobbins 1.21 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X is
490     the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
491     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
492 zhen 1.26 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
493 zhen 1.6 the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p>
494 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
495 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
496 zhen 1.6 </pre>
497 zhen 1.16 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
498     <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
499 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
500 zhen 1.6 </pre>
501 zhen 1.16 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
502     <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
503 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
504 zhen 1.6 </pre>
505 zhen 1.16 <note>
506 zhen 1.6 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
507     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
508     the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
509     so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5.
510     The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
511     </note>
512 zhen 1.16 <warn>
513 zhen 1.6 If you are installing an XFS partition over a previous ReiserFS partition,
514     later attempts to mount may fail without an explicit <c>mount -t xfs</c>.
515     The solution is to zero out the partition before creating the XFS filesystem:
516     <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hd<comment>x</comment> bs=1k</c>.
517     </warn>
518 zhen 1.16 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
519     <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
520 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
521 zhen 1.6 </pre>
522 seo 1.32 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
523     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
524     </note>
525 zhen 1.16 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
526     <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
527 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
528 zhen 1.6 </pre>
529 zhen 1.50
530     <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> comamnd.</p>
531     <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
532     # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
533     </pre>
535 zhen 1.16 </body>
536     </section>
537     </chapter>
538     <chapter>
539     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
540     <section>
541     <body>
542     <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that
543 zhen 1.6 provides later:
544     </p>
545 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
546 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
547 zhen 1.6 </pre>
548 zhen 1.16 <p>Next, we'll create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mountpoints,
549 zhen 1.6 and we'll mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
550 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
551 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
552     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
553     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
554     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
555 zhen 1.6 </pre>
556 zhen 1.26 <p>
557 zhen 1.6 If you are setting up Gentoo
558     Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
559     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
560     </p>
561 zhen 1.27 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
562 zhen 1.6 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
563     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
564     We'll get to that in a bit.
565     </impo>
566 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
567 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
568 zhen 1.16 </body>
569     </section>
570     </chapter>
571     <chapter>
572     <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
573     <section>
574     <body>
575     <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set
576 drobbins 1.21 to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path>.
577 zhen 1.6 On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3
578     tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it
579     (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest)
580 zhen 1.14 from one of the Gentoo mirror sites. </p>
581 zhen 1.55
582 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
583 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
584 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
585 drobbins 1.21 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</c>
586 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
587     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
588     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
589     Save the file and quit the browser
591     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
592     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
593 zhen 1.6 </pre>
594 zhen 1.16 </body>
595     </section>
596     </chapter>
597     <chapter>
598     <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
599     <section>
600     <body>
601     <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
602 zhen 1.26 Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
603 drobbins 1.21 Gentoo Linux system.
604 zhen 1.6 </p>
605 zhen 1.16 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
606 drobbins 1.21 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
607 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install method,
608 zhen 1.6 you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
609     If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
610     These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
611 zhen 1.12 compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.)
612 zhen 1.6 </p>
613 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
614 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
615 drobbins 1.21 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
616 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
617 zhen 1.44
618     <!--# <c>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</c>
619 drobbins 1.35 <comment>The /dev bind-mount is required for perl to build properly for some people.</comment>
620 zhen 1.44 -->
621 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
622 zhen 1.6 </pre>
623 zhen 1.30 <p>If you are going to use GRP, now would be a good time to execute the following commands:
624     </p>
626     <pre caption="Getting ready for GRP">
627     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/GRP</c>
628     # <c>mount -o bind /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/packages /mnt/gentoo/GRP</c>
629     </pre>
631 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Entering the chroot Environment">
632 drobbins 1.1 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
633     # <c>env-update</c>
634     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
635     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
636 zhen 1.49 <comment>The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries. </comment>
637 zhen 1.6 </pre>
638 zhen 1.16 <p>After you execute these commands, you'll be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment.
639 zhen 1.6 </p>
640 zhen 1.16 </body>
641     </section>
642     </chapter>
643     <chapter>
644     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using Rsync</title>
645     <section>
646     <body>
647     <p>Now, you'll need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
648 zhen 1.6 you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
649 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Updating Using Rsync">
650 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
651     </pre>
652 zhen 1.16 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
653 zhen 1.6 it's about 90Mb in size without tarballs.
654     </p>
655 zhen 1.16 </body>
656     </section>
657     </chapter>
658     <chapter>
659     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
660     <section>
661     <body>
662     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, people using stage1 to
663 zhen 1.6 install will need to bootstrap their Gentoo Linux system as follows. First
664     edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
665     <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
666     like to be built into packages; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
667     or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
668     More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
669     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
670 zhen 1.38 A complete list of current USE flags can be found
671     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
672 zhen 1.6 </p>
673 zhen 1.16 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
674 zhen 1.6 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
675     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) Your best friend
676     is <path>man gcc</path> to figure out what additional <c>CFLAGS</c> and
677     <code>CXXFLAGS</code> are available. Search for 'Optimization'.
678     </p>
679 zhen 1.16 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
680 zhen 1.6 firewall.
681     </p>
682 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
683 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
684 zhen 1.6 </pre>
685 zhen 1.16 <note>
686 zhen 1.6 People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
687     the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
688     should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
689     be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
690     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
691     interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
692 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
693 zhen 1.6 in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
694     </note>
695 zhen 1.16 </body>
696     </section>
697     </chapter>
698     <chapter>
699 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
700 zhen 1.16 <section>
701     <body>
702 zhen 1.18 <p>The stage1 tarball is for ultimate tweakage. If you have picked this tarball,
703     you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized system. Have fun, because optimization
704     is what Gentoo Linux is all about!
705     </p>
706 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, it's time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
707 zhen 1.6 my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped
708 zhen 1.18 for compiling the rest of the system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
709 zhen 1.6 These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process.
710     </p>
711 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
712 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
713     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
714 zhen 1.6 </pre>
715 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
716 zhen 1.6 </p>
717 zhen 1.16 <note>
718 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
719     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
720     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
721     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
722     </note>
723 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
724     # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
725 zhen 1.6 </pre>
726 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
727 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
728     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
729 zhen 1.27 Have a nice nap. Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
730 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
731 zhen 1.6 </p>
732 zhen 1.16 </body>
733     </section>
734     </chapter>
735     <chapter>
736 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage2</title>
737 zhen 1.16 <section>
738     <body>
739 zhen 1.18 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
740     to do is install the rest of the system.
741 zhen 1.6 </p>
742 zhen 1.16 <note>
743 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
744     </note>
745 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
746 drobbins 1.25 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;-*&quot;</c>
747 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
748     <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
749     # <c>emerge system</c>
750 zhen 1.6 </pre>
751 drobbins 1.25 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;-*&quot;</c> line ensures that any new scripts
752 zhen 1.6 installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
753     <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
754     management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
755 zhen 1.16 <p>It's going to take a while
756 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
757     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
758 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
759 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
760     </p>
761     <p>When this process completes, your system will be the equivalent of a stage3 system. You have
762     a couple of choices on how to continue
763     at this point. You can move onto the stage3 instructions and complete those. Doing that will
764     get your system right up to date with what is in the current Portage tree. This is not necessary,
765     but it is highly recommended. If you do not choose to get up to date with the stage3 instructions,
766     you can move onto the GRP install section. If you do not wish to use GRP, you can move
767     onto <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml#doc_chp16">Chapter 16: Final Steps</uri>.
768 zhen 1.18 </p>
769     </body>
770     </section>
771     </chapter>
772     <chapter>
773     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
774     <section>
775     <body>
776     <p>The stage3 tarball is already configured for your system. There is not much to do for this stage,
777     but it is a very good idea to update your system to the newest available packages. </p>
778 zhen 1.57
779     <p>Since many packages will be downloaded for the update world, you may want to emerge <i>mirrorselect</i>.
780     <i>Mirrorselect</i> is a nice ncurses GUI app that will assist you in picking a Gentoo distfiles mirror. </p>
782     <pre caption="Emerging mirrorselect">
783     # <c>emerge mirrorselect</c>
784     </pre>
786 zhen 1.18 <note>If you have not already edited <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to fit your specifications,
787     now would be a good time to do so. </note>
788     <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
789     # <c>emerge sync</c>
790     # <c>emerge -up world</c>
791     <comment>lists [<i>packages</i>] to be installed</comment>
792     # <c>emerge -u world</c>
793     </pre>
794 zhen 1.37 <p>Once you complete this step, you have some options on how to continue. If you are going to be using GRP,
795     please move onto the GRP section. If you are not going to use GRP, you may continue onto
796     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml#doc_chp16">Chapter 16: Final Steps</uri>.
797 zhen 1.27 </p>
798 zhen 1.18 </body>
799     </section>
800     </chapter>
801     <chapter>
802 zhen 1.26 <title>Using GRP</title>
803     <section>
804     <body>
805 zhen 1.28 <p>You can take advantage of pre-built GRP package sets to avoid compiling certain popular and large packages. Currently, we provide full builds of everything you need for <c>openoffice-bin</c>,
806 zhen 1.27 <c>GNOME</c>, <c>KDE</c> and <c>xfree</c>.
807     </p>
808 seo 1.41 <p>First, you will need to <c>cd</c> to the location of the packages directory. We have already
809     mounted the directory at <path>/GRP</path>. In that directory you
810 zhen 1.27 will find the <c>grp-install.sh</c> script, an <i>All</i> directory that contains all of the binary
811     packages, and a list of available GRP packages. To install any/all of these
812     package sets you should do the following: </p>
813 zhen 1.26 <pre caption="Using GRP">
814 seo 1.41 # <c>cd /GRP</c>
815 zhen 1.27 # <c>sh grp-install.sh &lt;list of package lists&gt;</c>
816     <comment>where &lt;list of package lists&gt; may be any of the *-list.txt files found in the same directory.</comment>
817 drobbins 1.21 </pre>
818 zhen 1.27 <p><c>grp-install.sh</c> can be run multiple times without replacing existing installations. You can
819     do a <c>sh grp-install.sh</c> for a basic usage description if you are still a bit foggy.
820     </p>
821 zhen 1.26 </body>
822     </section>
823     </chapter>
824 drobbins 1.21 <chapter>
825 zhen 1.18 <title>Final Steps: Timezone</title>
826     <section>
827     <body>
828     <p>At this point, you should have system that's ready for final configuration.
829     We'll start the configuration process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building
830     the kernel we ensure that users get reasonable <c>uname -a</c> output.
831     </p>
832     <p>Look for your timezone (or GMT if you using Greenwich Mean Time) in
833     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:
834     </p>
835     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for timezome">
836     # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
837     </pre>
838     <p>You might also want to check <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to make sure your timezone settings
839     are correct.
840 zhen 1.6 </p>
841 zhen 1.16 </body>
842     </section>
843     </chapter>
844     <chapter>
845     <title>Final steps: kernel and system logger</title>
846     <section>
847     <body>
848     <note>
849 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
850     </note>
851 zhen 1.16 <p>You now need to merge Linux source ebuilds. Here are the ones we currently
852 zhen 1.6 offer:
853     </p>
854 zhen 1.16 <table>
855     <tr>
856     <th>ebuild</th>
857     <th>description</th>
858     </tr>
859     <tr>
860     <ti>
861     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
862     </ti>
863 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
864 zhen 1.16 </tr>
865     <tr>
866     <ti>
867     <path>xfs-sources</path>
868     </ti>
869 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
870 zhen 1.16 </tr>
871     <tr>
872     <ti>
873     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
874     </ti>
875     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
876     </tr>
877     <tr>
878     <ti>
879     <path>usermode-sources</path>
880     </ti>
881     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
882     </tr>
883     <tr>
884     <ti>
885     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
886     </ti>
887     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti>
888     </tr>
889     </table>
890 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
891     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
892     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
893 zhen 1.6 </warn>
894 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
895 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
896 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
897 zhen 1.6 </pre>
898 zhen 1.16 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel.
899 zhen 1.6 </p>
900 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
901     which is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
902     If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
903     to the correct one before proceeding.
904     </p>
905 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
906 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
907 zhen 1.46 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
908 zhen 1.49 <comment>Again, this updates your paths. If you get an error saying gcc is not found,
909     this is what you may have to do. </comment>
910 drobbins 1.1 # <c>make menuconfig</c>
911     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
912     # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
913     <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
914     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
915 zhen 1.6 </pre>
916 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
917 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
918 zhen 1.16 compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>&quot;Code maturity
919     level options --&gt; Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;</i>
920 zhen 1.6 option to see several of these selections.
921 zhen 1.50 Under the &quot;File systems&quot; section, be sure to enable the <i>&quot;/dev&quot; file system support</i> (note that
922 zhen 1.16 you <e>don't</e> need to enable the &quot;/dev/pts file system support&quot; option). You'll also
923     need to enable the <i>&quot;Virtual Memory Filesystem&quot;</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
924     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
925     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot;
926 zhen 1.6 option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
927     enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
928 zhen 1.16 want to enable the &quot;USE DMA by default&quot; option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
929     very poorly. Of course, remember to enable &quot;IDE disk&quot; support as well -- otherwise your
930 zhen 1.6 kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
931     </warn>
932 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
933 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
934     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
935     support for IDE RAID
936     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
937     </p>
938 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
939 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
940 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
941     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
942     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
943 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
944     </p>
945 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
946     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
947     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
948     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
949     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
950     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
951     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
952 zhen 1.6 </p>
953 zhen 1.16 <note>
954 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
955     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
956 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
957 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
958     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
959     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
960 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
961     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
962 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
963     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
964     line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
965     for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
966     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
967     </note>
968 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
969 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
970     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
971     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
972     newer alternatives.
973     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
974     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
975     </p>
976 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
977 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
978     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
979     <comment>or</comment>
980     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
981     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
982     <comment>or</comment>
983     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
984     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
985     <comment>or</comment>
986     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
987     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
988 zhen 1.6 </pre>
989 zhen 1.16 <warn>
990 zhen 1.6 In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
991     <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
992     See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
993     for a sample configuration file.
994     </warn>
995 zhen 1.16 <impo>
996 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
997     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
998     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
999     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1000     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1001     in real time, as expected),
1002     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1003 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1004     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1005 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1006 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you'd like to use.
1007 zhen 1.6 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you don't know which one to choose,
1008     you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1009     </p>
1010 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1011 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1012     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1013     <comment>or</comment>
1014     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1015     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1016     <comment>or</comment>
1017     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1018 zhen 1.2 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
1019 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
1020     # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
1021 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1022 zhen 1.26 <!--<p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux,
1023 drobbins 1.21 see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>-->
1024 zhen 1.16 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1025 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1026 zhen 1.6 </p>
1027 zhen 1.16 </body>
1028     </section>
1029     </chapter>
1030     <chapter>
1031     <title>Final steps: Install Additional Packages</title>
1032     <section>
1033     <body>
1034     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1035 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1036 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1037 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1038 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1039 zhen 1.40
1040     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1041     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1042     X support later.
1043     </note>
1044 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1045 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1046     for the first time.
1047     </note>
1048 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1049 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1050 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1051 zhen 1.6 </p>
1052 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1053 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1054     <comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1055 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1056     <comment>If you'd like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1057     # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1058 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1059 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1060 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1061 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1062 zhen 1.6 real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1063     </p>
1064 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1065 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1066 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1067 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1068 zhen 1.10 to work.
1069     </warn>
1070 zhen 1.16 </body>
1071     </section>
1072     </chapter>
1073     <chapter>
1074     <title>Final steps: /etc/fstab</title>
1075     <section>
1076     <body>
1077     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1078 zhen 1.6 a few important system files and install the GRUB boot loader.
1079     The first file we need to
1080     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1081     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1082     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1083     </p>
1084 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1085     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1086     <pre caption="Editing fstab"><comment>
1087 drobbins 1.1 # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1088     #
1089 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1090 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1091     # efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1092     # switch between notail and tail freely.
1094     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1096     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1097     </comment>
1098     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1099     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1100     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1101     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1102     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1103 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1104 zhen 1.16 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boottime.
1105 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1106     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1107     </warn>
1108 zhen 1.16 </body>
1109     </section>
1110     </chapter>
1111     <chapter>
1112     <title>Final steps: Root Password</title>
1113     <section>
1114     <body>
1115     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1116     <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1117     # <c>passwd</c>
1118 zhen 1.56 </pre>
1120     <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1121     the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1122     </p>
1123 zhen 1.16 </body>
1124     </section>
1125     </chapter>
1126     <chapter>
1127     <title>Final steps: /etc/hostname</title>
1128     <section>
1129     <body>
1130     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1131 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1132     </p>
1133 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1134     # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1135 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1136 zhen 1.16 </body>
1137     </section>
1138     </chapter>
1139     <chapter>
1140     <title>Final steps: /etc/hosts</title>
1141     <section>
1142     <body>
1143     <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1144 zhen 1.6 It's used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1145     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here's a template for this file:
1146     </p>
1147 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1148 drobbins 1.1 localhost
1149     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1150 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1151 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1152 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1153 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1154     </note>
1155 zhen 1.16 </body>
1156     </section>
1157     </chapter>
1158     <chapter>
1159     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1160     <section>
1161     <body>
1162     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1163 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1164     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1165     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1166     it as a module:
1167     </p>
1168 stocke2 1.29 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1169     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1170 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1171 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1172 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1173 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1174 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Boottime Network Configuration">
1175 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1176     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1177 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1178 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1179 zhen 1.6 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1180 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1181 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1182     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1183     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1184 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1185 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1186 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1187 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1188 zhen 1.6 </p>
1189 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1190 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1191     need pcmcia
1192     }
1193 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1194 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1195 zhen 1.10 </p>
1196 zhen 1.16 </body>
1197     </section>
1198     </chapter>
1199     <chapter>
1200     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1201     <section>
1202     <body>
1203     <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1204 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1205 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1206 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1207 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1208     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1209     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1210     possibilities).
1211     </p>
1212 zhen 1.16 </body>
1213     </section>
1214     </chapter>
1215     <chapter>
1216 zhen 1.49 <title>Final steps: Configure a Bootloader</title>
1217     <section>
1218     <title>Notes</title>
1219     <body>
1220     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1221     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1222     LILO as their bootloaders.
1223     </p>
1224     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1225     In fact, it can be a hinderance, so please only choose one.
1226     </p>
1227     </body>
1228     </section>
1229 zhen 1.16 <section>
1230 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1231 zhen 1.16 <body>
1232     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1233 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1234     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1235 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1236 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1237     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1238     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1239     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1240     a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1241     <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1243     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1244     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1245     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1246     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1247     it's time to install GRUB.
1248     </p>
1249 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1250     <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1251 zhen 1.51 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1252 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1253 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1254 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1255 zhen 1.6 this time.
1256     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1257     grub setup for RAID controllers
1258     </impo>
1259 zhen 1.16 <p>You'll be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1260 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1261     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1262     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1263     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1264     I want to type are:
1265     </p>
1266 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="GRUB Commands">
1267 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c>
1268     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c>
1269 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1270     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0) (hd0,4) </c>
1271     <codenote>The second parameter above identifies the boot partition</codenote>
1272 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1273 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1274 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1275 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1276     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1277     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1278     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1279     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1280     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1281     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1282     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1283     I'd specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1284     boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1285 zhen 1.52 </p>
1286 zhen 1.6
1287     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1288     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1289     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1290     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1291     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1292     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1294     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1295     to make the right choice.
1296     </note>
1298 zhen 1.52 <p>
1299 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
1300     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1301     we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here's how to do it.
1302     </p>
1303 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1304 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1305     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1306 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1307 zhen 1.6 </p>
1308 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1309 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1310     timeout 30
1311     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1313     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1314     root (hd0,0)
1315 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1316 drobbins 1.1
1317     <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1318     title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1319     root (hd0,0)
1320 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/discX/partY
1321 drobbins 1.1
1322     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1323     title=Windows NT Workstation
1324     root (hd0,5)
1325     chainloader +1
1326 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1327 zhen 1.16 <note>
1328 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1329     </note>
1330 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1331 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1332 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1333     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1334 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1335 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1336 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1337     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1338     </p>
1339 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1340 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1341     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1342     loader.
1343 zhware 1.9 </note>
1344 zhen 1.16 <note>
1345 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1346 zhen 1.6 </note>
1347 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1348 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1349     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1350     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1351     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1352     </p>
1353 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1354 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1355     devfs is enabled by default.
1356     </note>
1357 zhen 1.16 </body>
1358     </section>
1359 zhen 1.49 <section>
1360     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1361 zhen 1.16 <body>
1362 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1363     LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here's how to install
1364     LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1365 zhen 1.16 </p>
1366     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1367     </p>
1368     <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1369     # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1370     </pre>
1371     <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. I will give you a small <i>lilo.conf</i> to use, and I will explain
1372     the different parts of the file.
1373     </p>
1374     <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1375     boot=/dev/hda
1376     map=/boot/map
1377     install=/boot/boot.b
1378     prompt
1379     timeout=50
1380     message=/boot/message
1381     lba32
1382     default=linux
1384     image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1385     label=linux
1386     initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.20.img
1387     read-only
1388     root=/dev/hda5
1390     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1391     other=/dev/hda1
1392     label=dos
1394     </pre>
1395 zhen 1.52 <ul>
1396 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1397     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1398     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1399     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1400     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1401     <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to show you whatever is referenced in the message line.
1402     While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1403     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1404     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1405     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1406     <li><i>message=/boot/message</i> refers to the screen that LILO displays to let you select the
1407     operating system or kernel to boot. </li>
1408     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1409     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1410     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1411     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1412     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1413     <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1414     <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1415     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1416     <li><i>initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.20.img</i> refers to the initial ram disk image that is used at boot time
1417     to actually initialize and start the devices that makes booting the kernel possible. The initial
1418     ram disk is a collection of machine-specific drivers necessary to operate a SCSI card, hard drive, or any
1419     other device needed to load the kernel. You should never try to share initial ram disks between machines. </li>
1420     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1421     altered during the boot process. </li>
1422     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1423 zhen 1.52 </ul>
1424 zhen 1.16 <note>Thanks to <uri link="http://www.redhat.com">Redhat.com</uri> for this information.
1425     </note>
1426     <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1427     into the MBR:
1428     </p>
1429     <pre caption="Running LILO">
1430     # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1431     </pre>
1432     <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1433     </p>
1434     </body>
1435     </section>
1436     </chapter>
1437     <chapter>
1438     <title>Final steps: Bootdisks</title>
1439     <section>
1440     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1441     <body>
1442 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1443 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1444 drobbins 1.21 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1445     disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1446     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1447     make a GRUB
1448     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1449 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1450     bootdisk like this:
1451     </p>
1452 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1453 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1454     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1455     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1456     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1457     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1459     # <c>grub</c>
1461     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1462     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1463     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1464 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1465 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1466 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1467 zhen 1.16 </body>
1468     </section>
1469     <section>
1470     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1471     <body>
1472     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1473     </p>
1474 zhen 1.18 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1475     # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1476     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1477     </pre>
1478 zhen 1.16 </body>
1479     </section>
1480     </chapter>
1481     <chapter>
1482     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1483     <section>
1484     <body>
1485     <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to exit the chrooted shell,
1486 zhen 1.6 udpate necessary configuration files,
1487     safely unmount your partitions
1488     and reboot the system:
1489     </p>
1490 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1491 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1492     # <c>exit</c>
1493     <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1494     # <c>cd / </c>
1495     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1496     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1497 drobbins 1.36 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/dev</c>
1498 drobbins 1.1 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1499     # <c>reboot</c>
1500 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1501 zhen 1.16 <note>
1502 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1503     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1504     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1505     </note>
1506 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1507 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1508     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1509 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1510 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1511 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1512 zhen 1.16 (there's a &quot;click to subscribe&quot; link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1513 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1514     that will
1515     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1516     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1517     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1518 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1519 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1520 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1521 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1522     </p>
1523 zhen 1.16 </body>
1524     </section>
1525     </chapter>
1526     <chapter>
1527     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1528     <section>
1529     <body>
1530     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1531 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1532     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1533     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1534     </p>
1535 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1536 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1537     to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1538     other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1539     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1540 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1541 zhen 1.6 </p>
1542 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1543     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1544     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1545     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1546     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1547     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1548     </ul>
1549     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1550 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
1551     </p>
1552 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1553     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1554 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1555 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1556     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1557     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1558     </ul>
1559     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1560 zhen 1.6 </p>
1561 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1562 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1563     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1564 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1565 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1566 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1567     to see additional configuration options.
1568     </p>
1569 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1570 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1571     </p>
1572 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1573     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1574     </pre>
1575     <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1576 zhen 1.6 viewed with your favortive pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1577 zhen 1.16 </body>
1578     </section>
1579     </chapter>
1580 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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