/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.6 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Fri Nov 22 02:04:09 2002 UTC (15 years, 6 months ago) by zhen
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.5: +1127 -978 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
formatting nightmares

1 zhen 1.4 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
6 zhen 1.6 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
7     <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author"><mail link="jerry@gentoo.org">Jerry Alexandratos</mail></author>
10     <author title="Ghost"><mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail></author>
11     <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
12     <author title="Editor"><mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail></author>
13     <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
14     <author title="Editor"><mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail></author>
15    
16     <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
17     Linux 1.4_rc1. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
18     approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
19     scratch.
20     </abstract>
21    
22     <version>2.1</version>
23     <date>20 November 2002</date>
24    
25     <chapter>
26     <title>About the Install</title>
27     <section>
28     <body>
29    
30     <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
31     as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
32     Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE)
33     (built-in to the kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as
34     modules). In addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network
35     card that Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your
36     network and establish outbound <c>ssh</c> connections and download files.
37     </p>
38    
39     <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
40     ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully
41     built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
42     slow under those conditions.) To begin the install process, first grab the
43     livecd ISO images from
44     <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc1/</uri>. The three stages make our life
45     easy with Gentoo. The stage1 is for building the entire system from scratch. Stage2 is for building
46     some of the system from scratch, and stage3 saves a lot of time because it is already
47     optimized for you specific system. At the moment only the stage1 tarball is
48     stored on the livecd, but you will be able to download a stage2 or
49     stage3 tarball optimized for your system after booting the livecd.
50     </p>
51    
52     <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. We'll create partitions,
53     create our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball.
54     If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps
55     to get our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure
56     them (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and
57     have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
58     process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation:
59     </p>
60    
61     <table>
62     <tr><th>stage tarball</th><th>requirements for installation</th></tr>
63     <tr><ti>1</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti></tr>
64     <tr><ti>2</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti></tr>
65     <tr><ti>3</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti></tr>
66     </table>
67    
68     </body>
69     </section>
70     </chapter>
71    
72     <chapter>
73     <title>Booting</title>
74     <section>
75     <body>
76    
77     <p>Start by booting the livecd. You'll be
78     greeted with a lot of text output
79     followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
80     Login as "root" (just hit &lt;enter&gt; for the password),
81     and then use the <c>passwd</c> command to change the root
82     password. (This root password is only for this installation session.
83     The reason for changing the password is that you will have to connect
84     to the net to complete the installation. Connecting to the internet with
85     the default root password is a <i>really</i> bad idea!)
86     You should have a root ("<c>#</c>") prompt on the current
87     console, and can also open new consoles by typing alt-f2, alt-f3, etc and then
88     hitting enter.
89     </p>
90    
91     <p>Next, you will be greeted with instructions for setting up your network,
92     and optional PCI autodetection. The PCI autodetection process will automatically
93     load the appropriate kernel modules for many popular PCI SCSI and ethernet
94     devices. After this, you should have a root ("<c>#</c>") prompt on the current
95     console, and can also open new consoles by typing Alt-F2, Alt-F3, etc and then
96     hitting enter.
97     </p>
98    
99     </body>
100     </section>
101     </chapter>
102    
103     <chapter>
104     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
105     <section>
106     <body>
107    
108    
109     <p>Hopefully you need only type <c>pci-setup</c> at the root prompt to
110     autodetect the hardware on your system and to load the appropriate
111     kernel modules.
112     </p>
113    
114     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
115     will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
116     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
117     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
118     type:
119     </p>
120 drobbins 1.1
121 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "PCI Modules Configuration">
122 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
123 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
124     </pre>
125 drobbins 1.1
126 zhen 1.6 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
127     during the PCI autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
128     modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
129     </p>
130 drobbins 1.1
131 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Loading SCSI Modules">
132 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
133     # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
134 zhen 1.6 </pre>
135 drobbins 1.1
136 zhen 1.6 <p><c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks.
137     <note>
138     Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs in build-in in the kernel.
139     </note>
140     </p>
141    
142     <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you need to load the
143     ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
144     </p>
145 drobbins 1.1
146 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Loading RAID Modules">
147 drobbins 1.1 # <c>insmod ataraid</c>
148     # <c>insmod pdcraid</c>
149     <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
150     # <c>insmod hptraid</c>
151     <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
152 zhen 1.6 </pre>
153 drobbins 1.1
154 zhen 1.6 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
155     <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
156 drobbins 1.1
157 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Setting DMA">
158 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device. </comment>
159     # <c>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX </c>
160     <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
161     # <c>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX </c>
162     <comment>Enables Ultra-DMA </comment>
163 zhen 1.6 </pre>
164 drobbins 1.1
165 zhen 1.6 </body>
166     </section>
167     </chapter>
168 drobbins 1.1
169 zhen 1.6 <chapter>
170     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
171     <section>
172     <body>
173 drobbins 1.1
174 zhen 1.6 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to do some additional
175     trickery.
176     </p>
177 drobbins 1.1
178 zhen 1.6 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
179     portion of the install. </warn>
180 drobbins 1.1
181 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Loading PCMCIA Modules">
182 drobbins 1.1 # <i>insmod pcmcia_core</i>
183     # <i>insmod i82365</i>
184     # <i>insmod ds</i>
185     # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
186 zhen 1.6 </pre>
187 drobbins 1.1
188 zhen 1.6 <p>As cardmgr detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
189     few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
190     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading cardmgr too, if that's
191     preferable. (Technically, you need not run
192     <i>cardmgr</i> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
193     But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
194     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
195     drop by. <i>cardmgr</i> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
196     remove it). </p>
197    
198     </body>
199     </section>
200     </chapter>
201    
202     <chapter>
203     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
204     <section>
205     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
206     <body>
207    
208     <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has
209     made things easy for you by including <i>rp-pppoe</i>. Use the provided <i>adsl-setup </i>
210     script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
211     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
212     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
213    
214     <pre caption = "Configuring PPPoE">
215     # <c> adsl-setup </c>
216     # <c> adsl-start </c>
217     </pre>
218    
219     <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
220     your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
221     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
222    
223     </body>
224     </section>
225    
226     <section>
227     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
228     <body>
229    
230     <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use
231     <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
232     Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
233     Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
234     the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
235     The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
236     script. </p>
237 drobbins 1.1
238 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Net-Setup Script">
239 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
240 zhen 1.6 </pre>
241 drobbins 1.1
242 zhen 1.6 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. </p>
243 drobbins 1.1
244 zhen 1.6 </body>
245     </section>
246 drobbins 1.1
247 zhen 1.6 <section>
248     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
249     <body>
250 drobbins 1.1
251 zhen 1.6 <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
252     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
253 drobbins 1.1
254 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
255 drobbins 1.1 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
256 zhen 1.6 </pre>
257 drobbins 1.1
258 zhen 1.6 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
259     add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
260     </note>
261    
262     <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
263     are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
264    
265     </body>
266     </section>
267    
268     <section>
269     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
270     <body>
271    
272     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
273     sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
274     Type in the following commands, replacing
275     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
276     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
277     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
278     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
279     </p>
280 drobbins 1.1
281 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Static IP Network Configuration">
282 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
283     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
284 zhen 1.6 </pre>
285 drobbins 1.1
286 zhen 1.6 <p>Now it's time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
287     file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
288 drobbins 1.1
289 zhen 1.6 <p>Here's a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
290 drobbins 1.1
291 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
292 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
293     nameserver 10.0.0.1
294     nameserver 10.0.0.2
295 zhen 1.6 </pre>
296    
297     <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
298     primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
299     </body>
300     </section>
301    
302     <section>
303     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
304     <body>
305     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
306     you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
307     </p>
308 drobbins 1.1
309 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Setting a Proxy">
310 drobbins 1.1 # <c>export http_proxy="machine.company.com:1234" </c>
311     # <c>export ftp_proxy="$http_proxy" </c>
312     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY="$http_proxy" </c>
313 zhen 1.6 </pre>
314 drobbins 1.1
315 zhen 1.6 </body>
316     </section>
317 drobbins 1.1
318 zhen 1.6 <section>
319     <title>Network Testing</title>
320     <body>
321     <p>Now that your network has been configured, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig -a</c> command should show
322     that your network card is working (look for <e>UP</e> and <e>RUNNING</e> in the output). </p>
323 drobbins 1.1
324 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
325 drobbins 1.1 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
326     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
327     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
328     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
329     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
330     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
331     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
332     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
333     Interrupt:11
334 zhen 1.6 </pre>
335 drobbins 1.1
336 zhen 1.6 <p>You may want to also try pinging Gentoo.org's websute, just to make sure that your packets are
337     reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working correctly, etc.
338     </p>
339    
340     <pre caption = "Further Network Testing">
341     # <c>ping www.gentoo.org </c>
342     </pre>
343    
344     </body>
345     </section>
346    
347     <section>
348     <title>Networking is go!</title>
349     <body>
350     <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
351     <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
352     </body>
353     </section>
354 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
355    
356 zhen 1.6 <chapter>
357     <title>Partition Configuration</title>
358     <section>
359     <body>
360    
361     <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
362     to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
363     </p>
364    
365     <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
366     We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
367     partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
368     The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
369     your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
370     everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
371     your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. This prevents your kernel
372     from being made unavailable to GRUB (due to filesystem corruption) in the event
373     of a system crash, preventing the chicken-and-egg problem where GRUB can't read
374     your kernel (since your filesystem isn't consistent) but you can't bring your
375     filesystem back to a consistent state (since you can't boot!)
376     </p>
377    
378     <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have four filesystem options:
379     XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling) and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
380     filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
381     ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
382     providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
383     that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
384     ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
385     10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
386     As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
387     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
388     is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but be warned that it
389     is highly unstable at this time.
390     </p>
391    
392     <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
393     for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
394     high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
395     mature and refined. Please be careful with XFS; this filesystem has a tendency to fry lots of data
396     if the system crashes or you lose power. Originally, it seemed like a promising filesystem but it
397     now appears that this tendency to lose data is a major achilles' heel.
398     Here are our basic recommended filesystem
399     sizes and types:
400     </p>
401    
402     <table>
403     <tr>
404     <th>Partition</th>
405     <th>Size</th>
406     <th>Type</th>
407     <th>example device</th>
408     </tr>
409     <tr>
410     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
411     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
412     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
413     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
414     </tr>
415     <tr>
416     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit)</ti>
417     <ti>&gt;=2*Amount of RAM in this system is recommended but no longer (as of kernel 2.4.10) required</ti>
418     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
419     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
420     </tr>
421     <tr>
422     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
423     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
424     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
425     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
426     </tr>
427     </table>
428    
429     <p>Before creating your partitions, it is a <e>very</e> good idea to initialize the
430     beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that you have no issues with
431     mounting previously <i>fat32</i> partitions, like <path>/boot</path>
432     for example. To do this you would do:
433     </p>
434 drobbins 1.1
435 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
436 drobbins 1.1 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdaBOOT bs=1024 count=1024 </c>
437     <comment>BOOT is the partition that holds your <path>/boot</path>.</comment>
438 zhen 1.6 </pre>
439 drobbins 1.1
440 zhen 1.6 <p>At this point, create your partitions using fdisk. Note that your partitions
441     should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS <e>or</e> ext2/3). </p>
442 drobbins 1.1
443 zhen 1.6 <note><i>cfdisk</i> is included on the install CD, and it is *considerably* easier to use than
444     <i>fdisk</i>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it. </note>
445 drobbins 1.1
446 zhen 1.6 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little
447     different.
448     You will have the partitions like this:
449     <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path>
450     X is the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1
451     array, then it will
452     be disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path>
453     </note>
454 drobbins 1.1
455    
456 zhen 1.6 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
457     the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p>
458 drobbins 1.1
459 zhen 1.6 <pre caption= "Initializing Swap">
460 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
461 zhen 1.6 </pre>
462 drobbins 1.1
463 zhen 1.6 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
464 drobbins 1.1
465 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
466 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
467 zhen 1.6 </pre>
468 drobbins 1.1
469 zhen 1.6 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
470 drobbins 1.1
471 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating a XFS Filesystem">
472 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
473 zhen 1.6 </pre>
474    
475     <note>
476     You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
477     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
478     the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
479     so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5.
480     The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
481     </note>
482    
483     <warn>
484     If you are installing an XFS partition over a previous ReiserFS partition,
485     later attempts to mount may fail without an explicit <c>mount -t xfs</c>.
486     The solution is to zero out the partition before creating the XFS filesystem:
487     <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hd<comment>x</comment> bs=1k</c>.
488     </warn>
489 drobbins 1.1
490 zhen 1.6 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
491 drobbins 1.1
492 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
493 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
494 zhen 1.6 </pre>
495 drobbins 1.1
496 zhen 1.6 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
497    
498     <pre caption = "Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
499 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
500 zhen 1.6 </pre>
501 drobbins 1.1
502 zhen 1.6 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
503     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
504     </note>
505    
506     </body>
507     </section>
508     </chapter>
509    
510     <chapter>
511     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
512     <section>
513     <body>
514    
515     <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that
516     provides later:
517     </p>
518 drobbins 1.1
519 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Activating Swap">
520 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
521 zhen 1.6 </pre>
522 drobbins 1.1
523 zhen 1.6 <p>Next, we'll create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mountpoints,
524     and we'll mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
525 drobbins 1.1
526 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating Mount Points">
527 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
528     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
529     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
530     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
531 zhen 1.6 </pre>
532 drobbins 1.1
533 zhen 1.6 <p>
534     If you are setting up Gentoo
535     Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
536     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
537     </p>
538 drobbins 1.1
539 zhen 1.6 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
540     with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
541     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
542     We'll get to that in a bit.
543     </impo>
544    
545     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
546     <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
547     </body>
548     </section>
549     </chapter>
550    
551     <chapter>
552     <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
553    
554     <section>
555     <body>
556    
557     <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set
558     to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/cdroot/nocompress</path>.
559     On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3
560     tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it
561     (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest)
562     from one of the Gentoo mirror sites: </p>
563 drobbins 1.1
564 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Downloading Required Stages">
565 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
566     # <c>env TMPDIR="/mnt/gentoo" lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc1/x86/</c>
567 zhen 1.6 </pre>
568 drobbins 1.1
569 zhen 1.6 </body>
570     </section>
571     </chapter>
572    
573     <chapter>
574     <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
575     <section>
576    
577     <body>
578    
579     <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
580     Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation.
581     </p>
582    
583     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
584     cause certain files to contain incorrect permissions.</impo>
585    
586     <p>If you are using the "from scratch, build everything" install method,
587     you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
588     If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
589     These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
590     compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stage3 image now also includes
591     complete linux sources and a Portage tree snapshot, eliminating the
592     need to do an <c>emerge sync</c> later, but it is highly recommended to do so anyway.
593     </p>
594 drobbins 1.1
595 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Unpacking the Stages">
596 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
597     # <c>tar -xvjpf /path/to/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
598     # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
599     # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
600 zhen 1.6 </pre>
601 drobbins 1.1
602 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Entering the chroot Environment">
603 drobbins 1.1 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
604     # <c>env-update</c>
605     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
606     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
607 zhen 1.6 </pre>
608 drobbins 1.1
609 zhen 1.6 <p>After you execute these commands, you'll be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux environment.
610     </p>
611 drobbins 1.1
612 zhen 1.6 </body>
613     </section>
614     </chapter>
615 drobbins 1.1
616 zhen 1.6 <chapter>
617     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using Rsync</title>
618 drobbins 1.1
619 zhen 1.6 <section>
620     <body>
621 drobbins 1.1
622 zhen 1.6 <p>Now, you'll need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
623     you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
624 drobbins 1.1
625 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Updating Using Rsync">
626     # <c>emerge sync</c>
627     </pre>
628 drobbins 1.1
629 zhen 1.6 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
630     it's about 90Mb in size without tarballs.
631     </p>
632    
633     </body>
634     </section>
635     </chapter>
636    
637     <chapter>
638     <title>Progressing from stage1 to stage2</title>
639     <section>
640    
641     <body>
642    
643     <p>If you are a stage2 or stage3 tarball, then we've already bootstrapped
644     for you. There is no reason for you to bootstrap again, unless you decided to
645     do an <c>emerge sync</c> and want to ensure that you have an up-to-the-minute
646     current Gentoo Linux system. Most people using stage2 or stage3 tarballs will
647     <i>not</i> want to bootstrap again, since it can take over two hours even on
648     very fast machines.
649     </p>
650    
651     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, people using stage1 to
652     install will need to bootstrap their Gentoo Linux system as follows. First
653     edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
654     <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
655     like to be built into packages; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
656     or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
657     More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
658     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
659     </p>
660    
661    
662     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
663     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
664     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) Your best friend
665     is <path>man gcc</path> to figure out what additional <c>CFLAGS</c> and
666     <code>CXXFLAGS</code> are available. Search for 'Optimization'.
667     </p>
668    
669     <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
670     firewall.
671     </p>
672 drobbins 1.1
673 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Setting make.conf Options">
674 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
675 zhen 1.6 </pre>
676 drobbins 1.1
677 zhen 1.6 <note>
678     People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
679     the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
680     should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
681     be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
682     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
683     interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
684     If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE="-foo"</c>
685     in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
686     </note>
687    
688     <p>Now, it's time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes about two hours on
689     my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped
690     for compiling the rest ofthe system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
691     These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process.
692     </p>
693 drobbins 1.1
694 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping">
695 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
696     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
697 zhen 1.6 </pre>
698 drobbins 1.1
699 zhen 1.6 <p>The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
700     </p>
701    
702     <note>
703     Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
704     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
705     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
706     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
707     </note>
708 drobbins 1.1
709 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Changing Portage's Storage Path">
710 drobbins 1.1 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</c>
711 zhen 1.6 </pre>
712 drobbins 1.1
713 zhen 1.6 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
714     and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
715     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
716     Have a nice nap. Once this process completes, your system will be in a "stage2" state.
717     </p>
718    
719     </body>
720     </section>
721     </chapter>
722    
723     <chapter>
724     <title>Timezone</title>
725     <section>
726    
727     <body>
728    
729     <impo>It is extremely important that this step is completed, no matter which stage
730     tarball you use. Major clock drift will be experienced if you do not set localtime correctly,
731     let alone subtle issues when emerging packages later.
732     </impo>
733    
734     <p>At this point, you should have a stage2 system that's ready for final configuration.
735     We'll start this process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building
736     the kernel we ensure that users get reasonable <c>uname -a</c> output.
737     </p>
738    
739     <p>Look for your timezone (or GMT if you using Greenwich Mean Time) in
740     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:
741     </p>
742 drobbins 1.1
743 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating a symbolic link for timezome">
744 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
745 zhen 1.6 </pre>
746 drobbins 1.1
747 zhen 1.6 <p>You might also want to check <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to make sure your timezone settings
748     are correct.
749     </p>
750    
751     </body>
752     </section>
753     </chapter>
754    
755     <chapter>
756     <title>Progressing from stage2 to stage3</title>
757     <section>
758    
759     <body>
760     <p>Once your build image has been bootstrapped and you're at stage2
761     (again, if you are using a stage3 tarball than these steps are not required)
762     it's time to build or install the rest of the base
763     system.
764     </p>
765    
766     <note>
767     If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
768     </note>
769 drobbins 1.1
770 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Installing the Rest of the System">
771 drobbins 1.1 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=""</c>
772     # <c>emerge -p system</c>
773     <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
774     # <c>emerge system</c>
775 zhen 1.6 </pre>
776 drobbins 1.1
777 zhen 1.6 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=""</c> line ensures that any new scripts
778     installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
779     <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
780     management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
781    
782     <p>It's going to take a while
783     to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
784     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
785     way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests "Star
786     Wars - Super Bombad Racing" for the PS2. When <c>emerge system</c> completes,
787     you'll have a stage3 Gentoo Linux system.
788     </p>
789    
790     </body>
791     </section>
792     </chapter>
793    
794     <chapter>
795     <title>Final steps: kernel and system logger</title>
796     <section>
797     <body>
798    
799     <note>
800     If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
801     </note>
802    
803     <p>You now need to merge Linux source ebuilds. Here are the ones we currently
804     offer:
805     </p>
806 drobbins 1.1
807     <table>
808     <tr><th>ebuild</th><th>description</th></tr>
809     <tr><ti><path>gentoo-sources</path></ti><ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel based on -ac.</ti></tr>
810     <tr><ti><path>xfs-sources</path></ti><ti>A snapshot of the SGI XFS CVS Linux source tree; this is the kernel to run if you want bleeding edge(cvs) xfs support.</ti></tr>
811     <tr><ti><path>openmosix-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti></tr>
812     <tr><ti><path>usermode-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. ("Linux inside Linux" technology)</ti></tr>
813     <tr><ti><path>vanilla-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti></tr>
814     </table>
815    
816 zhen 1.6 <warn>Please note that <i>gentoo-sources</i> is heavily patched and may not be stable.
817     Using <i>vanilla-sources</i> might be a better idea if you encounter numerous problems. If you are using
818     <i>gentoo-sources</i> beware of <i>grsecurity</i>, especially with <i>X</i>.
819     It is best to disable <i>grsecurity</i>unless you are absolutely sure that you need it.
820     </warn>
821 drobbins 1.1
822 zhen 1.6 <p>Choose one and then merge as follows:</p>
823 drobbins 1.1
824 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Emerging Kernel Sources">
825 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
826 zhen 1.6 </pre>
827 drobbins 1.1
828 zhen 1.6 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel.
829     </p>
830 drobbins 1.1
831 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Compiling the Linux Kernel">
832 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
833     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
834     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
835     # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
836     <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
837     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
838 zhen 1.6 </pre>
839 drobbins 1.1
840 zhen 1.6 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
841     need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
842     compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>"Code maturity
843     level options --> Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers"</i>
844     option to see several of these selections.
845     Under the "File systems" section, be sure to enable the <i>"Device File System"</i> (note that
846     you <e>don't</e> need to enable the "/dev/pts file system support" option). You'll also
847     need to enable the <i>"Virtual Memory Filesystem"</i>. Be sure to enable "ReiserFS" if you have
848     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for "Ext3". If you're using XFS, enable the
849     "SGI XFS filesystem support"
850     option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
851     enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
852     want to enable the "USE DMA by default" option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
853     very poorly. Of course, remember to enable "IDE disk" support as well -- otherwise your
854     kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
855     </warn>
856    
857     <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
858     For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
859     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
860     support for IDE RAID
861     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
862     </p>
863    
864     <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
865     options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
866     "PPP (point-to-point protocol) support", "PPP support for async serial ports",
867     "PPP support for sync tty ports". The two compression options won't harm but
868     are not definitely needed, neither does the "PPP over Ethernet" option,
869     that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
870     </p>
871    
872     <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
873     kernel. Turn on "ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support" ---> "IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
874     devices" ---> "SCSI emulation support" (I usually make it a module), then
875     under "SCSI support" enable "SCSI support", "SCSI CD-ROM support" and
876     "SCSI generic support" (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
877     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e "ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod"
878     >> /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
879     </p>
880    
881     <note>
882     For those who prefer it,
883     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
884     Such stability will come at a price:
885     you will lose many of the nifty features that
886     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
887     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
888     patched with Reiserfs and devfs support.
889     Gentoo linux bootscripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
890     2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
891     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
892     line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
893     for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
894     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
895     </note>
896    
897     <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
898     logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
899     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
900     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
901     newer alternatives.
902     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
903     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
904     </p>
905 drobbins 1.1
906    
907 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Emerging System Logger of Choice">
908 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
909     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
910     <comment>or</comment>
911     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
912     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
913     <comment>or</comment>
914     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
915     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
916     <comment>or</comment>
917     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
918     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
919 zhen 1.6 </pre>
920 drobbins 1.1
921 zhen 1.6 <warn>
922     In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
923     <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
924     See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
925     for a sample configuration file.
926     </warn>
927    
928     <impo>
929     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
930     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
931     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
932     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
933     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
934     in real time, as expected),
935     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
936     again.
937     </impo>
938    
939     <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you'd like to use.
940     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you don't know which one to choose,
941     you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
942     </p>
943 drobbins 1.1
944 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Choosing a CRON Daemon">
945 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
946     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
947     <comment>or</comment>
948     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
949     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
950     <comment>or</comment>
951     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
952 zhen 1.2 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
953 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
954     # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
955 zhen 1.6 </pre>
956 drobbins 1.1
957 zhen 1.6 <p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux,
958     see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>
959     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
960     <uri link="/doc/rc-scripts.html">rc-script guide</uri>.
961     </p>
962    
963     </body>
964     </section>
965     </chapter>
966    
967     <chapter>
968     <title>Final steps: Install Additional Packages</title>
969     <section>
970     <body>
971 drobbins 1.1
972 zhen 1.6 <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
973     it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
974 drobbins 1.1
975 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Installing rp-pppoe">
976 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge rp-pppoe</c>
977 zhen 1.6 </pre>
978 drobbins 1.1
979 zhen 1.6 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
980     You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
981     for the first time.
982     </note>
983 drobbins 1.1
984    
985 zhen 1.6 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
986     if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
987     using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> ebuild:
988     </p>
989 drobbins 1.1
990 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Emerging Filesystem Tools">
991 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
992     <comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
993     # <c> emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
994     <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
995     # <c>emerge --usepkg sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
996 zhen 1.6 </pre>
997 drobbins 1.1
998    
999 zhen 1.6 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1000     real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1001     </p>
1002 drobbins 1.1
1003 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1004 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1005 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1006 drobbins 1.1
1007 zhen 1.6 </body>
1008     </section>
1009     </chapter>
1010    
1011     <chapter>
1012     <title>Final steps: /etc/fstab</title>
1013     <section>
1014    
1015     <body>
1016    
1017     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1018     a few important system files and install the GRUB boot loader.
1019     The first file we need to
1020     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1021     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1022     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1023     </p>
1024    
1025     <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace "BOOT",
1026     "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1027     <pre caption = "Editing fstab">
1028 drobbins 1.1 <comment>
1029     # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1030     #
1031     # noatime turns of atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1032     # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1033     # efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1034     # switch between notail and tail freely.
1035    
1036     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1037    
1038     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1039     </comment>
1040     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1041     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1042     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1043     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1044     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1045 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1046 drobbins 1.1
1047 zhen 1.6 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boottime.
1048     This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1049     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1050     </warn>
1051 drobbins 1.1
1052 zhen 1.6 </body>
1053     </section>
1054    
1055     <section>
1056     <title>Final steps: Root Password</title>
1057    
1058     <body>
1059    
1060     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1061    
1062     <pre caption = "Setting the root Password">
1063 drobbins 1.1 # <i>passwd</i>
1064 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1065    
1066     </body>
1067     </section>
1068 drobbins 1.1
1069 zhen 1.6 <section>
1070     <title>Final steps: /etc/hostname</title>
1071 drobbins 1.1
1072 zhen 1.6 <body>
1073     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1074     i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1075     </p>
1076 drobbins 1.1
1077 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Configuring Hostname">
1078 drobbins 1.1 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com > /etc/hostname</c>
1079 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1080 drobbins 1.1
1081 zhen 1.6 </body>
1082     </section>
1083 drobbins 1.1
1084 zhen 1.6 <section>
1085     <title>Final steps: /etc/hosts</title>
1086    
1087     <body>
1088     <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1089     It's used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1090     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here's a template for this file:
1091     </p>
1092 drobbins 1.1
1093 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Hosts Template">
1094 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
1095     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1096     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1097 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1098 drobbins 1.1
1099 zhen 1.6 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1100     actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1101     </note>
1102 drobbins 1.1
1103 zhen 1.6 </body>
1104     </section>
1105 drobbins 1.1
1106 zhen 1.6 <section>
1107     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1108    
1109     <body>
1110 drobbins 1.1
1111    
1112 zhen 1.6 <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1113     <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1114     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1115     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1116     it as a module:
1117     </p>
1118 drobbins 1.1
1119 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload">
1120 drobbins 1.1 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card. Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your
1121     card. </comment>
1122     3c59x
1123 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1124 drobbins 1.1
1125 zhen 1.6 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1126     first boot: </p>
1127 drobbins 1.1
1128 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Boottime Network Configuration">
1129 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1130     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1131 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1132 drobbins 1.1
1133    
1134 zhen 1.6 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1135     scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1136 drobbins 1.1
1137 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1138 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1139     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1140     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1141 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1142 drobbins 1.1
1143    
1144 zhen 1.6 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1145     <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1146     then add:
1147     </p>
1148 drobbins 1.1
1149 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "PCMCIA Options">
1150 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1151     need pcmcia
1152     }
1153 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1154 drobbins 1.1
1155 zhen 1.6 <p>to the top of your <path>/etc/init.d/net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> file.
1156     This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded. </p>
1157 drobbins 1.1
1158 zhen 1.6 </body>
1159     </section>
1160 drobbins 1.1
1161 zhen 1.6 <section>
1162     <title>Final steps: configure basic settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1163 drobbins 1.1
1164 zhen 1.6 <body>
1165    
1166     <pre caption="basic configuration">
1167 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1168 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1169 drobbins 1.1
1170 zhen 1.6 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1171     All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1172     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1173     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1174     possibilities).
1175     </p>
1176    
1177     </body>
1178     </section>
1179    
1180     <section>
1181     <title>Final steps: Configure GRUB</title>
1182    
1183     <body>
1184    
1185     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1186     refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1187     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1188     Hard drives count from zero rather than "a", and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1189     Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1190     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1191     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1192     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1193     a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1194     <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1195    
1196     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1197     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1198     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1199     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1200     it's time to install GRUB.
1201     </p>
1202 drobbins 1.1
1203 zhen 1.6 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1204 drobbins 1.1
1205 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Installing GRUB">
1206 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1207 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1208 drobbins 1.1
1209 zhen 1.6 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1210     this time.
1211     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1212     grub setup for RAID controllers
1213     </impo>
1214    
1215     <p>You'll be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1216     command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1217     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1218     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1219     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1220     I want to type are:
1221     </p>
1222 drobbins 1.1
1223 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "GRUB Commands">
1224 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c>
1225     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c>
1226     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1227 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1228 drobbins 1.1
1229 zhen 1.6 <p>Here's how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1230     the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1231     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1232     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1233     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1234     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1235     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1236     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1237     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1238     I'd specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1239     boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1240    
1241     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1242     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1243     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1244     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1245     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1246     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1247    
1248     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1249     to make the right choice.
1250     </note>
1251    
1252     Gentoo Linux is now
1253     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1254     we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here's how to do it.
1255     </p>
1256    
1257     <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1258     <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1259     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1260 drobbins 1.1
1261 zhen 1.6 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1262     </p>
1263 drobbins 1.1
1264 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Grub.conf for GRUB">
1265 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1266     timeout 30
1267     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1268    
1269     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1270     root (hd0,0)
1271     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1272    
1273     <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1274     title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1275     root (hd0,0)
1276     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/discX/partY
1277    
1278     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1279     title=Windows NT Workstation
1280     root (hd0,5)
1281     chainloader +1
1282 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1283 drobbins 1.1
1284 zhen 1.6 <note>
1285     (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1286     </note>
1287    
1288     <impo>
1289     If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1290     actually work you need to add an "hdx=ide-scsi" fragment to the kernel
1291     line in grub.conf (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd burner).
1292     </impo>
1293    
1294     <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1295     tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1296     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1297     </p>
1298    
1299     <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
1300     (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1301     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1302     loader.
1303     </note>
1304    
1305     <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1306     add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1307     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1308     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1309     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1310     </p>
1311    
1312     <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1313     <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1314     devfs is enabled by default.
1315     </note>
1316    
1317     <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you must make a GRUB boot
1318     disk. With hardware RAID
1319     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. So we
1320     will make a GRUB
1321     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time we will install GRUB
1322     to the MBR. Make your
1323     bootdisk like this:
1324     </p>
1325 drobbins 1.1
1326 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating a RAID Bootdisk">
1327 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1328     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1329     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1330     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1331     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1332    
1333     # <c>grub</c>
1334    
1335     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1336     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1337     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1338 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1339 drobbins 1.1
1340    
1341 zhen 1.6 </body>
1342     </section>
1343     </chapter>
1344    
1345     <chapter>
1346     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1347     <section>
1348    
1349     <body>
1350     <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to exit the chrooted shell,
1351     udpate necessary configuration files,
1352     safely unmount your partitions
1353     and reboot the system:
1354     </p>
1355 drobbins 1.1
1356 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Rebooting the System">
1357 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1358     # <c>exit</c>
1359     <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1360     # <c>cd / </c>
1361     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1362     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1363     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1364     # <c>reboot</c>
1365 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1366 drobbins 1.1
1367 zhen 1.6 <note>
1368     After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1369     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1370     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1371     </note>
1372    
1373     <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1374     use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1375     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1376     time. You are done, congratulations</impo>
1377    
1378     <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1379     consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1380     (there's a "click to subscribe" link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1381     We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1382     that will
1383     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1384     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1385     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1386     <uri link = "http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>.
1387     Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1388     </p>
1389    
1390     </body>
1391     </section>
1392     </chapter>
1393    
1394     <chapter>
1395     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1396     <section>
1397    
1398     <body>
1399    
1400     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1401     a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1402     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1403     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1404     </p>
1405    
1406     <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1407     This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1408     to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1409     other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1410     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1411     right now through our "gentoo-stats" program:
1412     </p>
1413     <ul>
1414     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1415     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx" or "3dnow")</li>
1416     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1417     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1418     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1419     </ul>
1420    
1421     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1422     (just as it is to the developers).
1423     </p>
1424    
1425     <ul>
1426     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1427     information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1428     <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1429     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1430     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID" pairs.</li>
1431     </ul>
1432 drobbins 1.1
1433 zhen 1.6 <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1434     </p>
1435 drobbins 1.1
1436 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1437 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1438     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1439 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1440 drobbins 1.1
1441 zhen 1.6 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1442     <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1443     to see additional configuration options.
1444     </p>
1445    
1446     <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1447     (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1448     </p>
1449 drobbins 1.1
1450 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1451     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update > /dev/null</c>
1452     </pre>
1453 drobbins 1.1
1454 zhen 1.6 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1455     viewed with your favortive pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1456 drobbins 1.1
1457    
1458 zhen 1.6 </body>
1459     </section>
1460 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1461    
1462    
1463    
1464    
1465     </guide>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20