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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 drobbins 1.69 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc2 and 1.4_rc3 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10     <mail link="jerry@gentoo.org">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11     </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32     </author>
33 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
34 drobbins 1.69 Linux 1.4_rc2 and 1.4_rc3. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
35 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
36     scratch.
37     </abstract>
38 drobbins 1.70 <version>2.3.19</version>
39 drobbins 1.69 <date>26 Feb 2003</date>
40 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
41     <title>About the Install</title>
42     <section>
43     <body>
44 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
45 jhhudso 1.71 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
46 drobbins 1.21 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
47     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
48     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
49     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
50     establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and download
51     files. </p>
52 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
53 drobbins 1.69 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
54 drobbins 1.21 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
55     slow under those conditions.)</p>
56 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
57 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
58     The stage1 tarball is used when one wants to bootstrap and build the entire
59     system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
60     from scratch, except for the bootstrap part which is already performed for you.
61     And the stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
62     been optimized for your system.</p>
63 drobbins 1.70 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
64     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
65     and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
66     makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. stage2 installs
67     allow you to skip the "bootstrap" process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
68     the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
69     go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
70     your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Which may not
71     be a bad thing, as major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for
72     various popular processors. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
73     using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
76     <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you'll want to decide
77 drobbins 1.21 which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
78 drobbins 1.70 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</uri> or <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</uri> .
79 drobbins 1.22 In this directory, you'll see several subdirectories such as <c>athlon</c>
80 drobbins 1.24 for each of our various architecture-specific builds. Here's a low-down on
81     each arch directory and what it contains:</p>
82 zhen 1.26 <table>
83     <tr>
84     <th>Architecture</th>
85     <th>Description</th>
86     </tr>
87     <tr>
88     <ti>x86</ti>
89 drobbins 1.70 <ti>Stage 1 tarballs and &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; liveCD -- will work on anything. Some Gentoo Linux
90     "_rc" releases only have these types of stage tarballs.</ti>
91 zhen 1.26 </tr>
92     <tr>
93     <ti>i586</ti>
94     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i586+ CPUs</ti>
95     </tr>
96     <tr>
97     <ti>i686</ti>
98     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i686+ CPUs</ti>
99     </tr>
100     <tr>
101     <ti>athlon</ti>
102     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon CPUs</ti>
103     </tr>
104     <tr>
105     <ti>athlon-xp</ti>
106     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon XP CPUs</ti>
107     </tr>
108     <tr>
109     <ti>athlon-mp</ti>
110     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon MP CPUs</ti>
111     </tr>
112     <tr>
113     <ti>pentium3</ti>
114     <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for Intel Pentium III and Pentium 4 CPUs</ti>
115     </tr>
116     </table>
117     <p>Inside each of these directories,
118 drobbins 1.22 you'll find a <path>livecd/</path> directory that contains LiveCDs. While these LiveCDs
119     will boot on any architecture, the install-related tarballs are optimized for a particular
120 zhen 1.26 CPU type and will not work on all systems, except for the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; LiveCD in the <path>x86</path>
121 drobbins 1.24 directory which can be used to install on anything.
122 drobbins 1.22 </p>
123 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
124 drobbins 1.24 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
125 zhen 1.26 carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size and lives
126 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
127     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
128     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
129 zhen 1.26 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labelled &quot;livecd-grp.&quot;
130 drobbins 1.24 These CDs (found in their respective <path>arch/livecd</path> directories)
131     contain stage1, 2 and 3 tarballs, and also contain a set of GRP packages
132 zhen 1.50 optimized for a specific architecture. GRP is simply precompiled packages for
133     very large applications, such as XFree86. KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice, etc.
134     Using these LiveCDs, it will be possible
135 drobbins 1.24 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly. The
136     downside is that these ISO images are large -- around 600MB -- so they can take
137 drobbins 1.70 a while to download. <b>Note that some "_rc" releases of Gentoo Linux may not
138     include GRP package sets or LiveCDs.</b></p>
139     <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
140 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
141 drobbins 1.70 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (ie the KDE team) the
142     <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
143     </impo>
144 zhen 1.26 <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. First, we'll download, burn
145 drobbins 1.21 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we'll create partitions, create
146     our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
147     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
148     our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure them
149     (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and have a
150     fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
151     process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation: </p>
152 zhen 1.26 <table>
153 zhen 1.16 <tr>
154     <th>stage tarball</th>
155     <th>requirements for installation</th>
156     </tr>
157     <tr>
158     <ti>1</ti>
159     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
160     </tr>
161     <tr>
162     <ti>2</ti>
163     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
164     </tr>
165     <tr>
166     <ti>3</ti>
167     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
168     </tr>
169     </table>
170     </body>
171     </section>
172     </chapter>
173     <chapter>
174     <title>Booting</title>
175     <section>
176     <body>
177 drobbins 1.21 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. If detected properly, you should see a fancy boot screen
178     with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
179 drobbins 1.70 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c> and then hitting Enter. To see
180     a detailed description of available boot options, press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
182     <p>
183 drobbins 1.21 Once you hit Enter, you'll be
184 drobbins 1.70 greeted with a lot of text output (kernel and initrd messages)
185 zhen 1.6 followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
186 drobbins 1.21 You will be automatically logged in as &quot;root&quot; and the root password will be
187 jhhudso 1.72 set to a random string for security purposes. You should change your LiveCD's root password
188     if you think you're going to login again on another virtual console.
189 zhen 1.16 You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt on the current
190 drobbins 1.21 console, and can also open new root consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4.
191     Get back to the one you started on by pressing (you guessed it) Alt-F1.
192 drobbins 1.70
193 zhen 1.6 </p>
194 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
195 drobbins 1.70 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
196 drobbins 1.21 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
197 zhen 1.6 </p>
198 zhen 1.16 </body>
199     </section>
200     </chapter>
201     <chapter>
202     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
203     <section>
204     <body>
205     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
206 zhen 1.6 will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
207     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
208     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
209     type:
210     </p>
211 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
212 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
213 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
214     </pre>
215 drobbins 1.70 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
216 drobbins 1.21 during the initial boot autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
217 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
218     </p>
219 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
220 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
221 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
222 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
223 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
224 zhen 1.6 </pre>
225 zhen 1.52 <p><c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks. </p>
226 zhen 1.6 <note>
227 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
228 zhen 1.52 </note>
229 drobbins 1.21 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you'll need to load the
230 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
231     </p>
232 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
233 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
234     # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
235 drobbins 1.1 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
236 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
237 drobbins 1.1 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
238 zhen 1.6 </pre>
239 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
240 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
241 zhen 1.26 <pre caption="Setting DMA"><comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
242 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
243 zhware 1.48 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options</comment>
244 zhen 1.26 # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX <comment>Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up</comment></pre>
245 zhen 1.16 </body>
246     </section>
247     </chapter>
248 drobbins 1.70 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
249 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
250     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
251     <section>
252     <body>
253 drobbins 1.70 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
254 zhen 1.6 </p>
255 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
256 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
257 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
258 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
259     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
260     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
261 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
262 zhen 1.6 </pre>
263 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
264 zhen 1.6 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
265 drobbins 1.21 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that's
266 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
267 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
268 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
269     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
270 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
271 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
272 zhen 1.16 </body>
273     </section>
274     </chapter>
275 drobbins 1.70 -->
276 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
277     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
278 drobbins 1.70 <section>
279     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
280     <body>
281     <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it's possible that your networking has already been
282     configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
283     network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
284     among others.</p>
286     <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
287     list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
288     </p>
289     <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
290     eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
291     inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
292     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
294     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
295     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
296     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
297     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
298     Interrupt:11
299     </pre>
300     <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
301     and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
302     resolution is working correctly, etc.
303     </p>
304     <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
305     # <c>ping www.some_website.com </c>
306     </pre>
307     <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
308     </body>
309     </section>
310 zhen 1.16 <section>
311     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
312     <body>
313 drobbins 1.70 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
314 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
315 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
316     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
317     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
318 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
319 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
320     # <c> adsl-start </c>
321     </pre>
322 drobbins 1.70 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
323 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
324     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
325 zhen 1.16 </body>
326     </section>
327     <section>
328     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
329     <body>
330 drobbins 1.70 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
331 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
332 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
333 zhen 1.6 </pre>
334 drobbins 1.70 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
335 zhen 1.16 </body>
336     </section>
337     <section>
338     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
339     <body>
340     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
341     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
342     <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
343 drobbins 1.1 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
344 zhen 1.6 </pre>
345 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
346 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
347     </note>
348 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
349 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
350 zhen 1.16 </body>
351     </section>
352     <section>
353     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
354     <body>
355     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
356 zhen 1.6 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
357     Type in the following commands, replacing
358     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
359     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
360     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
361     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
362     </p>
363 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
364 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
365     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask metric 1</c>
366 zhen 1.6 </pre>
367 zhen 1.16 <p>Now it's time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
368 zhen 1.6 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
369 zhen 1.16 <p>Here's a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
370     <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
371 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
372     nameserver
373     nameserver
374 zhen 1.6 </pre>
375 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c></c> and <c></c> with the IP addresses of your
376 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
377 zhen 1.16 </body>
378     </section>
379     <section>
380     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
381     <body>
382     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
383 zhen 1.6 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
384     </p>
385 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
386     # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
387 seo 1.42 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
388     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
389 zhen 1.6 </pre>
390 zhen 1.16 </body>
391     </section>
392 drobbins 1.70 <section>
393 zhen 1.16 <title>Networking is go!</title>
394     <body>
395     <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
396 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
397 zhen 1.16 </body>
398     </section>
399     </chapter>
400     <chapter>
401     <title>Partition Configuration</title>
402     <section>
403     <body>
404     <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
405 zhen 1.6 to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
406     </p>
407 drobbins 1.70
408     <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
409 zhen 1.6 We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
410     partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
411     The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
412     your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
413     everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
414     your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. This prevents your kernel
415     from being made unavailable to GRUB (due to filesystem corruption) in the event
416     of a system crash, preventing the chicken-and-egg problem where GRUB can't read
417     your kernel (since your filesystem isn't consistent) but you can't bring your
418     filesystem back to a consistent state (since you can't boot!)
419     </p>
420 zhen 1.50 <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have five filesystem options:
421     XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling), jfs, and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
422 zhen 1.6 filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
423     ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
424     providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
425     that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
426     ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
427     10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
428     As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
429     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
430 drobbins 1.21 is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but
431     is generally not recommended due to its tendency to lose recently-modified
432     data if your system locks up or unexpectedly reboots (due to a power failure, for instance.)
433 zhen 1.50 Finially, jfs is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. Since it is obscure, we cannot comment either positvely nor negatively on its stability.</p>
434 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
435 zhen 1.6 for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
436     high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
437 drobbins 1.21 mature and refined.
438 zhen 1.6 Here are our basic recommended filesystem
439     sizes and types:
440     </p>
441 zhen 1.16 <table>
442     <tr>
443     <th>Partition</th>
444     <th>Size</th>
445     <th>Type</th>
446     <th>example device</th>
447     </tr>
448     <tr>
449     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
450     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
451     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
452     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
453     </tr>
454     <tr>
455 drobbins 1.70 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
456     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that's between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
457     in your system.</ti>
458 zhen 1.16 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
459     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
460     </tr>
461     <tr>
462     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
463     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
464     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
465     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
466     </tr>
467     </table>
468 zhen 1.54
469 drobbins 1.70
470     <p>At this point, create your partitions using <c>fdisk</c>. Note that your partitions
471     should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS, ext2/3 or other). </p>
472     <note><c>cfdisk</c> is included on the install CD, and it is <i>considerably</i> easier to use than
473     <c>fdisk</c>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it; by default, cfdisk will work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not the hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note>
474     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to allow your system to detect the
475     new partition configuration.</note>
476     <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
477     will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X is
478     the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
479     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
480     <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
481     the filesystems that will be used to house our data.</p>
483     <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
484     beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
485     This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
486     a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
487     will not be mis-indentified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
488 drobbins 1.21 This can be done as follows:
489 zhen 1.6 </p>
490 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
491 zhen 1.34 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdxy bs=1K count=1</c>
492 zhen 1.26 <comment>Replace /dev/hdxy with the device you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;</comment>
493 zhen 1.6 </pre>
494 zhware 1.43 <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hdxy</path>.
495     Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
496     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
497     </warn>
498 drobbins 1.70 <p>Now, initialize your swap partition as follows:</p>
499     <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
500 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
501 zhen 1.6 </pre>
502 zhen 1.16 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
503     <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
504 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
505 zhen 1.6 </pre>
506 zhen 1.16 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
507     <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
508 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
509 zhen 1.6 </pre>
510 zhen 1.16 <note>
511 zhen 1.6 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
512     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
513     the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
514     so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5.
515     The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
516     </note>
517 zhen 1.16 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
518     <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
519 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
520 zhen 1.6 </pre>
521 seo 1.32 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
522     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
523     </note>
524 zhen 1.16 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
525     <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
526 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
527 zhen 1.6 </pre>
528 zhen 1.50
529     <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> comamnd.</p>
530     <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
531     # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
532     </pre>
534 zhen 1.16 </body>
535     </section>
536     </chapter>
537     <chapter>
538     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
539     <section>
540     <body>
541 drobbins 1.70 <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
542 zhen 1.6 provides later:
543     </p>
544 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
545 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
546 zhen 1.6 </pre>
547 zhen 1.16 <p>Next, we'll create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mountpoints,
548 zhen 1.6 and we'll mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
549 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
550 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
551     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
552     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
553     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
554 zhen 1.6 </pre>
555 zhen 1.26 <p>
556 zhen 1.6 If you are setting up Gentoo
557     Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
558     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
559     </p>
560 zhen 1.27 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
561 zhen 1.6 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
562     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
563     We'll get to that in a bit.
564     </impo>
565 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
566 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
567 zhen 1.16 </body>
568     </section>
569     </chapter>
570     <chapter>
571     <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
572     <section>
573     <body>
574 zhen 1.59 <p>If you are using a GRP CD to install, you already have all of the stage
575     tarballs available on the CD.
576     If this is the case, copy the tarball of your choice to <mnt>/mnt/gentoo</mnt>
577     </p>
578 zhen 1.55
579 zhen 1.59 <p>Alternatively, if you do not have a GRP CD, the stage1 tarball is still available on
580     the CD in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>. You will have to download the other stages though,
581     and the best place to download those to is <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
582     </p>
584 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
585 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
586 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
587 drobbins 1.21 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</c>
588 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
589     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
590     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
591     Save the file and quit the browser
593     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
594     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
595 zhen 1.6 </pre>
596 zhen 1.16 </body>
597     </section>
598     </chapter>
599     <chapter>
600     <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
601     <section>
602     <body>
603     <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
604 zhen 1.26 Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
605 drobbins 1.21 Gentoo Linux system.
606 zhen 1.6 </p>
607 zhen 1.16 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
608 drobbins 1.21 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
609 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install method,
610 zhen 1.6 you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
611     If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
612     These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
613 zhen 1.12 compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.)
614 zhen 1.6 </p>
615 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
616 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
617 drobbins 1.21 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
618 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
619 zhen 1.44
620     <!--# <c>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</c>
621 drobbins 1.35 <comment>The /dev bind-mount is required for perl to build properly for some people.</comment>
622 zhen 1.44 -->
623 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
624 zhen 1.6 </pre>
625 zhen 1.30 <p>If you are going to use GRP, now would be a good time to execute the following commands:
626     </p>
628     <pre caption="Getting ready for GRP">
629     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/GRP</c>
630     # <c>mount -o bind /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/packages /mnt/gentoo/GRP</c>
631     </pre>
633 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Entering the chroot Environment">
634 drobbins 1.1 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
635     # <c>env-update</c>
636     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
637     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
638 zhen 1.49 <comment>The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries. </comment>
639 zhen 1.6 </pre>
640 zhen 1.16 <p>After you execute these commands, you'll be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment.
641 zhen 1.6 </p>
642 zhen 1.16 </body>
643     </section>
644     </chapter>
645     <chapter>
646     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using Rsync</title>
647     <section>
648     <body>
649     <p>Now, you'll need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
650 zhen 1.6 you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
651 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Updating Using Rsync">
652 zhen 1.60
653 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
654 carpaski 1.64 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"</c>
655     # <c>export USE="-* bootstrap build"</c>
656     # <c>emerge portage</c>
657     # <c>unset USE</c>
658 zhen 1.60 </pre>
659 zhen 1.16 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
660 zhen 1.6 it's about 90Mb in size without tarballs.
661     </p>
662 zhen 1.60 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;-*&quot;</c> line ensures that any new scripts
663     installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
664     <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
665     management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
667 zhen 1.16 </body>
668     </section>
669     </chapter>
670     <chapter>
671     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
672     <section>
673     <body>
674 drobbins 1.70 <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree,
675     it's time to customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use
676     on your Gentoo Linux system. First
677 zhen 1.6 edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
678     <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
679 drobbins 1.70 like to be built into packages if available; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
680 zhen 1.6 or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
681     More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
682     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
683 zhen 1.38 A complete list of current USE flags can be found
684     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
685 zhen 1.6 </p>
686 zhen 1.16 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
687 zhen 1.6 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
688 drobbins 1.70 (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
689     will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
690     is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
691     to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
692     so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
693     performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
694     file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
696 zhen 1.16 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
697 zhen 1.6 firewall.
698     </p>
699 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
700 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
701 zhen 1.6 </pre>
702 zhen 1.16 <note>
703 zhen 1.6 People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
704     the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
705 drobbins 1.70 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
706 zhen 1.6 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
707     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
708     interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
709 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
710 zhen 1.6 in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
711     </note>
712 zhen 1.16 </body>
713     </section>
714     </chapter>
715     <chapter>
716 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
717 zhen 1.16 <section>
718     <body>
719 zhen 1.18 <p>The stage1 tarball is for ultimate tweakage. If you have picked this tarball,
720     you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized system. Have fun, because optimization
721 drobbins 1.70 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
722     is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
723 zhen 1.18 </p>
724 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, it's time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
725 zhen 1.6 my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped
726 zhen 1.18 for compiling the rest of the system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
727 zhen 1.6 These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process.
728     </p>
729 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
730 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
731     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
732 zhen 1.6 </pre>
733 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
734 zhen 1.6 </p>
735 zhen 1.16 <note>
736 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
737     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
738     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
739     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
740     </note>
741 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
742     # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
743 zhen 1.6 </pre>
744 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
745 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
746     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
747 zhen 1.27 Have a nice nap. Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
748 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
749 zhen 1.6 </p>
750 zhen 1.16 </body>
751     </section>
752     </chapter>
753     <chapter>
754 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage2</title>
755 zhen 1.16 <section>
756     <body>
757 zhen 1.18 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
758     to do is install the rest of the system.
759 zhen 1.6 </p>
760 zhen 1.16 <note>
761 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
762     </note>
763 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
764 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
765     <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
766     # <c>emerge system</c>
767 zhen 1.6 </pre>
768 zhen 1.60 <p>It's going to take a while
769 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
770     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
771 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
772 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
773     </p>
774     <p>When this process completes, your system will be the equivalent of a stage3 system. You have
775     a couple of choices on how to continue
776     at this point. You can move onto the stage3 instructions and complete those. Doing that will
777     get your system right up to date with what is in the current Portage tree. This is not necessary,
778     but it is highly recommended. If you do not choose to get up to date with the stage3 instructions,
779     you can move onto the GRP install section. If you do not wish to use GRP, you can move
780     onto <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml#doc_chp16">Chapter 16: Final Steps</uri>.
781 zhen 1.18 </p>
782     </body>
783     </section>
784     </chapter>
785     <chapter>
786     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
787     <section>
788     <body>
789     <p>The stage3 tarball is already configured for your system. There is not much to do for this stage,
790     but it is a very good idea to update your system to the newest available packages. </p>
791 zhen 1.57
792 zhen 1.18 <note>If you have not already edited <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to fit your specifications,
793     now would be a good time to do so. </note>
794     <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
795     # <c>emerge sync</c>
796     # <c>emerge -up world</c>
797     <comment>lists [<i>packages</i>] to be installed</comment>
798     # <c>emerge -u world</c>
799     </pre>
800 zhen 1.37 <p>Once you complete this step, you have some options on how to continue. If you are going to be using GRP,
801     please move onto the GRP section. If you are not going to use GRP, you may continue onto
802     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml#doc_chp16">Chapter 16: Final Steps</uri>.
803 zhen 1.27 </p>
804 zhen 1.18 </body>
805     </section>
806     </chapter>
807     <chapter>
808 zhen 1.26 <title>Using GRP</title>
809     <section>
810     <body>
811 zhen 1.28 <p>You can take advantage of pre-built GRP package sets to avoid compiling certain popular and large packages. Currently, we provide full builds of everything you need for <c>openoffice-bin</c>,
812 zhen 1.27 <c>GNOME</c>, <c>KDE</c> and <c>xfree</c>.
813     </p>
814 seo 1.41 <p>First, you will need to <c>cd</c> to the location of the packages directory. We have already
815     mounted the directory at <path>/GRP</path>. In that directory you
816 zhen 1.27 will find the <c>grp-install.sh</c> script, an <i>All</i> directory that contains all of the binary
817     packages, and a list of available GRP packages. To install any/all of these
818     package sets you should do the following: </p>
819 zhen 1.26 <pre caption="Using GRP">
820 seo 1.41 # <c>cd /GRP</c>
821 zhen 1.27 # <c>sh grp-install.sh &lt;list of package lists&gt;</c>
822     <comment>where &lt;list of package lists&gt; may be any of the *-list.txt files found in the same directory.</comment>
823 drobbins 1.21 </pre>
824 zhen 1.27 <p><c>grp-install.sh</c> can be run multiple times without replacing existing installations. You can
825     do a <c>sh grp-install.sh</c> for a basic usage description if you are still a bit foggy.
826     </p>
827 zhen 1.26 </body>
828     </section>
829     </chapter>
830 drobbins 1.21 <chapter>
831 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Timezone</title>
832 zhen 1.18 <section>
833     <body>
834     <p>At this point, you should have system that's ready for final configuration.
835     We'll start the configuration process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building
836     the kernel we ensure that users get reasonable <c>uname -a</c> output.
837     </p>
838     <p>Look for your timezone (or GMT if you using Greenwich Mean Time) in
839     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:
840     </p>
841     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for timezome">
842     # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
843     </pre>
844     <p>You might also want to check <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to make sure your timezone settings
845     are correct.
846 zhen 1.6 </p>
847 zhen 1.16 </body>
848     </section>
849     </chapter>
850     <chapter>
851 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
852 zhen 1.16 <section>
853     <body>
854     <note>
855 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
856     </note>
857 zhen 1.16 <p>You now need to merge Linux source ebuilds. Here are the ones we currently
858 zhen 1.6 offer:
859     </p>
860 zhen 1.16 <table>
861     <tr>
862     <th>ebuild</th>
863     <th>description</th>
864     </tr>
865     <tr>
866     <ti>
867     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
868     </ti>
869 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
870 zhen 1.16 </tr>
871     <tr>
872     <ti>
873     <path>xfs-sources</path>
874     </ti>
875 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
876 zhen 1.16 </tr>
877     <tr>
878     <ti>
879     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
880     </ti>
881     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
882     </tr>
883     <tr>
884     <ti>
885     <path>usermode-sources</path>
886     </ti>
887     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
888     </tr>
889     <tr>
890     <ti>
891     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
892     </ti>
893     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti>
894     </tr>
895     </table>
896 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
897     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
898     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
899 zhen 1.6 </warn>
900 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
901 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
902 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
903 zhen 1.6 </pre>
904 zhen 1.16 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel.
905 zhen 1.6 </p>
906 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
907     which is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
908     If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
909     to the correct one before proceeding.
910     </p>
911 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
912 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
913 zhen 1.46 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
914 zhen 1.49 <comment>Again, this updates your paths. If you get an error saying gcc is not found,
915     this is what you may have to do. </comment>
916 drobbins 1.1 # <c>make menuconfig</c>
917     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
918     # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
919     <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
920     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
921 zhen 1.6 </pre>
922 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
923 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
924 zhen 1.16 compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>&quot;Code maturity
925     level options --&gt; Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;</i>
926 zhen 1.6 option to see several of these selections.
927 zhen 1.50 Under the &quot;File systems&quot; section, be sure to enable the <i>&quot;/dev&quot; file system support</i> (note that
928 zhen 1.16 you <e>don't</e> need to enable the &quot;/dev/pts file system support&quot; option). You'll also
929     need to enable the <i>&quot;Virtual Memory Filesystem&quot;</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
930     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
931     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot;
932 zhen 1.6 option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
933     enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
934 zhen 1.16 want to enable the &quot;USE DMA by default&quot; option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
935     very poorly. Of course, remember to enable &quot;IDE disk&quot; support as well -- otherwise your
936 zhen 1.6 kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
937     </warn>
938 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
939 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
940     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
941     support for IDE RAID
942     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
943     </p>
944 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
945 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
946 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
947     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
948     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
949 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
950     </p>
951 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
952     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
953     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
954     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
955     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
956     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
957     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
958 zhen 1.6 </p>
959 zhen 1.16 <note>
960 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
961     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
962 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
963 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
964     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
965     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
966 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
967     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
968 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
969     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
970     line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
971     for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
972     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
973     </note>
974 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
975 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
976     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
977     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
978     newer alternatives.
979     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
980     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
981     </p>
982 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
983 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
984     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
985     <comment>or</comment>
986     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
987     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
988     <comment>or</comment>
989     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
990     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
991     <comment>or</comment>
992     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
993     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
994 zhen 1.6 </pre>
995 zhen 1.16 <warn>
996 zhen 1.6 In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
997     <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
998     See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
999     for a sample configuration file.
1000     </warn>
1001 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1002 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1003     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1004     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1005     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1006     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1007     in real time, as expected),
1008     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1009 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1010     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1011 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1012 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you'd like to use.
1013 zhen 1.6 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you don't know which one to choose,
1014     you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1015     </p>
1016 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1017 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1018     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1019     <comment>or</comment>
1020     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1021     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1022     <comment>or</comment>
1023     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1024 zhen 1.2 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
1025 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
1026     # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
1027 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1028 zhen 1.26 <!--<p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux,
1029 drobbins 1.21 see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>-->
1030 zhen 1.16 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1031 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1032 zhen 1.6 </p>
1033 zhen 1.16 </body>
1034     </section>
1035     </chapter>
1036     <chapter>
1037 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing miscellany necessary packages</title>
1038 zhen 1.16 <section>
1039     <body>
1040     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1041 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1042 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1043 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1044 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1045 zhen 1.40
1046     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1047     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1048     X support later.
1049     </note>
1050 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1051 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1052     for the first time.
1053     </note>
1054 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1055 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1056 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1057 zhen 1.6 </p>
1058 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1059 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1060     <comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1061 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1062     <comment>If you'd like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1063     # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1064 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1065 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1066 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1067 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1068 zhen 1.6 real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1069     </p>
1070 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1071 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1072 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1073 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1074 zhen 1.10 to work.
1075     </warn>
1076 zhen 1.16 </body>
1077     </section>
1078     </chapter>
1079     <chapter>
1080 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1081 zhen 1.16 <section>
1082     <body>
1083     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1084 zhen 1.6 a few important system files and install the GRUB boot loader.
1085     The first file we need to
1086     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1087     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1088     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1089     </p>
1090 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1091     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1092     <pre caption="Editing fstab"><comment>
1093 drobbins 1.1 # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1094     #
1095 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1096 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1097     # efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1098     # switch between notail and tail freely.
1100     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1102     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1103     </comment>
1104     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1105     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1106     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1107     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1108     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1109 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1110 zhen 1.16 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boottime.
1111 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1112     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1113     </warn>
1114 zhen 1.16 </body>
1115     </section>
1116     </chapter>
1117     <chapter>
1118 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1119 zhen 1.16 <section>
1120     <body>
1121     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1122     <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1123     # <c>passwd</c>
1124 zhen 1.56 </pre>
1126     <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1127     the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1128     </p>
1129 zhen 1.16 </body>
1130     </section>
1131     </chapter>
1132     <chapter>
1133 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1134 zhen 1.16 <section>
1135     <body>
1136     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1137 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1138     </p>
1139 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1140     # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1141 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1142 zhen 1.16 </body>
1143     </section>
1144     </chapter>
1145     <chapter>
1146 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1147 zhen 1.16 <section>
1148     <body>
1149     <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1150 zhen 1.6 It's used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1151     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here's a template for this file:
1152     </p>
1153 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1154 drobbins 1.1 localhost
1155     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1156 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1157 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1158 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1159 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1160     </note>
1161 zhen 1.16 </body>
1162     </section>
1163     </chapter>
1164     <chapter>
1165     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1166     <section>
1167     <body>
1168     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1169 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1170     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1171     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1172     it as a module:
1173     </p>
1174 stocke2 1.29 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1175     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1176 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1177 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1178 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1179 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1180 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Boottime Network Configuration">
1181 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1182     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1183 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1184 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1185 zhen 1.6 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1186 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1187 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1188     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1189     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1190 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1191 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1192 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1193 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1194 zhen 1.6 </p>
1195 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1196 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1197     need pcmcia
1198     }
1199 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1200 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1201 zhen 1.10 </p>
1202 zhen 1.16 </body>
1203     </section>
1204     </chapter>
1205     <chapter>
1206     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1207     <section>
1208     <body>
1209     <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1210 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1211 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1212 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1213 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1214     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1215     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1216     possibilities).
1217     </p>
1218 zhen 1.16 </body>
1219     </section>
1220     </chapter>
1221     <chapter>
1222 zhen 1.61 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1223 zhen 1.49 <section>
1224     <title>Notes</title>
1225     <body>
1226     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1227     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1228     LILO as their bootloaders.
1229     </p>
1230     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1231     In fact, it can be a hinderance, so please only choose one.
1232     </p>
1233 drobbins 1.69 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1234     with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1235 drobbins 1.70 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1236     memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1237 drobbins 1.69 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1238     right now, it'd be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1239     pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1241 zhen 1.49 </body>
1242     </section>
1243 zhen 1.16 <section>
1244 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1245 zhen 1.16 <body>
1246     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1247 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1248     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1249 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1250 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1251     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1252     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1253     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1254     a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1255     <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1257     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1258     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1259     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1260     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1261     it's time to install GRUB.
1262     </p>
1263 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1264     <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1265 zhen 1.51 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1266 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1267 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1268 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1269 zhen 1.6 this time.
1270     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1271     grub setup for RAID controllers
1272     </impo>
1273 zhen 1.16 <p>You'll be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1274 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1275     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1276     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1277     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1278     I want to type are:
1279     </p>
1280 zhen 1.68
1281     <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1282     grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1283     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1284     </pre>
1286     <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1287 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1288 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1289     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1290 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1291 zhen 1.68 </pre>
1293     <p>Here's how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1294 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1295     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1296     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1297     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1298     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1299     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1300     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1301     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1302     I'd specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1303     boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1304 zhen 1.52 </p>
1305 zhen 1.6
1306     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1307     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1308     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1309     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1310     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1311     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1313     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1314     to make the right choice.
1315     </note>
1317 zhen 1.52 <p>
1318 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
1319     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1320     we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here's how to do it.
1321     </p>
1322 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1323 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1324     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1325 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1326 zhen 1.6 </p>
1327 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1328 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1329     timeout 30
1330     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1332     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1333     root (hd0,0)
1334 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1335 drobbins 1.1
1336     <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1337     title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1338     root (hd0,0)
1339 zhen 1.63 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1340 drobbins 1.1
1341     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1342     title=Windows NT Workstation
1343     root (hd0,5)
1344 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1345 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1346 zhen 1.16 <note>
1347 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1348     </note>
1349 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1350 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1351 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1352     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1353 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1354 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1355 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1356     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1357     </p>
1358 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1359 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1360     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1361     loader.
1362 zhware 1.9 </note>
1363 zhen 1.16 <note>
1364 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1365 zhen 1.6 </note>
1366 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1367 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1368     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1369     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1370     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1371     </p>
1372 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1373 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1374     devfs is enabled by default.
1375     </note>
1376 zhen 1.16 </body>
1377     </section>
1378 zhen 1.49 <section>
1379     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1380 zhen 1.16 <body>
1381 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1382     LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here's how to install
1383     LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1384 zhen 1.16 </p>
1385     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1386     </p>
1387     <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1388     # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1389     </pre>
1390     <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. I will give you a small <i>lilo.conf</i> to use, and I will explain
1391     the different parts of the file.
1392     </p>
1393     <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1394     boot=/dev/hda
1395     map=/boot/map
1396     install=/boot/boot.b
1397     prompt
1398     timeout=50
1399     message=/boot/message
1400     lba32
1401     default=linux
1403     image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1404     label=linux
1405     read-only
1406     root=/dev/hda5
1408     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1409     other=/dev/hda1
1410     label=dos
1412     </pre>
1413 zhen 1.52 <ul>
1414 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1415     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1416     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1417     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1418     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1419     <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to show you whatever is referenced in the message line.
1420     While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1421     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1422     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1423     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1424     <li><i>message=/boot/message</i> refers to the screen that LILO displays to let you select the
1425     operating system or kernel to boot. </li>
1426     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1427     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1428     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1429     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1430     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1431     <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1432     <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1433     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1434     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1435     altered during the boot process. </li>
1436     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1437 zhen 1.52 </ul>
1438 zhen 1.16 <note>Thanks to <uri link="http://www.redhat.com">Redhat.com</uri> for this information.
1439     </note>
1440     <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1441     into the MBR:
1442     </p>
1443     <pre caption="Running LILO">
1444     # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1445     </pre>
1446     <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1447     </p>
1448     </body>
1449     </section>
1450     </chapter>
1451     <chapter>
1452 zhen 1.66 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1453 zhen 1.16 <section>
1454     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1455     <body>
1456 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1457 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1458 drobbins 1.21 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1459     disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1460     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1461     make a GRUB
1462     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1463 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1464     bootdisk like this:
1465     </p>
1466 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1467 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1468     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1469     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1470     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1471     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1472 zhen 1.66 # <c>umount /mnt/floppy</c>
1473 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1475     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1476     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1477     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1478 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1479 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1480 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1481 zhen 1.16 </body>
1482     </section>
1483     <section>
1484     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1485     <body>
1486     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1487     </p>
1488 zhen 1.18 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1489     # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1490     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1491     </pre>
1492 zhen 1.16 </body>
1493     </section>
1494     </chapter>
1495     <chapter>
1496     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1497     <section>
1498     <body>
1499     <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to exit the chrooted shell,
1500 stocke2 1.65 update necessary configuration files,
1501 zhen 1.6 safely unmount your partitions
1502     and reboot the system:
1503     </p>
1504 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1505 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1506     # <c>exit</c>
1507     <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1508     # <c>cd / </c>
1509     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1510     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1511 drobbins 1.36 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/dev</c>
1512 drobbins 1.1 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1513     # <c>reboot</c>
1514 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1515 zhen 1.16 <note>
1516 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1517     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1518     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1519     </note>
1520 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1521 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1522     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1523 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1524 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1525 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1526 zhen 1.16 (there's a &quot;click to subscribe&quot; link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1527 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1528     that will
1529     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1530     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1531     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1532 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1533 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1534 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1535 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1536     </p>
1537 zhen 1.16 </body>
1538     </section>
1539     </chapter>
1540     <chapter>
1541     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1542     <section>
1543     <body>
1544     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1545 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1546     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1547     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1548     </p>
1549 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1550 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1551     to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1552     other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1553     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1554 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1555 zhen 1.6 </p>
1556 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1557     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1558     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1559     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1560     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1561     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1562     </ul>
1563     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1564 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
1565     </p>
1566 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1567     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1568 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1569 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1570     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1571     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1572     </ul>
1573     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1574 zhen 1.6 </p>
1575 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1576 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1577     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1578 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1579 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1580 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1581     to see additional configuration options.
1582     </p>
1583 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1584 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1585     </p>
1586 zhen 1.16 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1587     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1588     </pre>
1589     <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1590 zhen 1.6 viewed with your favortive pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1591 zhen 1.16 </body>
1592     </section>
1593     </chapter>
1594 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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