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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 jhhudso 1.74 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc3 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10 jhhudso 1.76 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 zhen 1.16 </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32     </author>
33 jhhudso 1.75 <author title="Editor">
34     <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35     </author>
36     <author title="Editor">
37     <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38     </author>
39 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
40 jhhudso 1.74 Linux 1.4_rc3. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
41 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
42     scratch.
43     </abstract>
44 drobbins 1.86 <version>2.4</version>
45     <date>19 March 2003</date>
46 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
47     <title>About the Install</title>
48     <section>
49     <body>
50 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
51 jhhudso 1.71 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
52 drobbins 1.21 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
53     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
54     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
55     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
56 jhhudso 1.75 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
57 drobbins 1.21 files. </p>
58 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
59 drobbins 1.69 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
60 drobbins 1.21 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
61     slow under those conditions.)</p>
62 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
63 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
64 jhhudso 1.75 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
65 drobbins 1.21 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
66 jhhudso 1.75 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
67 drobbins 1.70 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
68     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
69     and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
70 jhhudso 1.75 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
71     allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
72 drobbins 1.70 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
73     go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
74 jhhudso 1.75 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
75     releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
76     this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
77 drobbins 1.70 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
78    
79    
80 jhhudso 1.75 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
81 jhhudso 1.74 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</uri> .
82 drobbins 1.22 </p>
83 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
84 jhhudso 1.75 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
85     carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
86 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
87     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
88     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
89 seemant 1.78 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
90 jhhudso 1.75 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
91 jhhudso 1.77 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
92 jhhudso 1.75 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
93 jhhudso 1.77 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
94 seemant 1.78 Gentoo 1.4_rc3 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_rc4 will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
95 jhhudso 1.77 </p>
96 drobbins 1.70 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
97 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
98 jhhudso 1.75 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
99 drobbins 1.70 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
100     </impo>
101 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
102     and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
103 drobbins 1.21 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
104     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
105 jhhudso 1.75 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
106 seemant 1.78 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
107 drobbins 1.21 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
108 jhhudso 1.75 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
109 zhen 1.26 <table>
110 zhen 1.16 <tr>
111     <th>stage tarball</th>
112     <th>requirements for installation</th>
113     </tr>
114     <tr>
115     <ti>1</ti>
116 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
117 zhen 1.16 </tr>
118     <tr>
119     <ti>2</ti>
120 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
121 zhen 1.16 </tr>
122     <tr>
123     <ti>3</ti>
124     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
125     </tr>
126     </table>
127     </body>
128     </section>
129     </chapter>
130     <chapter>
131     <title>Booting</title>
132     <section>
133     <body>
134 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
135 drobbins 1.21 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
136 drobbins 1.70 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c> and then hitting Enter. To see
137     a detailed description of available boot options, press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
138    
139 jhhudso 1.75 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
140     booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
141     Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
142     &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
143     for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
144 seemant 1.78 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
145 jhhudso 1.75 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
146     Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type passwd and
147     follow the prompts.
148 zhen 1.6 </p>
149 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
150 drobbins 1.70 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
151 drobbins 1.21 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
152 zhen 1.6 </p>
153 zhen 1.16 </body>
154     </section>
155     </chapter>
156     <chapter>
157     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
158     <section>
159     <body>
160     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
161 jhhudso 1.75 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
162 zhen 1.6 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
163     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
164     type:
165     </p>
166 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
167 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
168 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
169 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
170 drobbins 1.70 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
171 jhhudso 1.75 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
172 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
173     </p>
174 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
175 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
176 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
177 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
178 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
179 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
180 zhen 1.6 <note>
181 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
182 zhen 1.52 </note>
183 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
184 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
185     </p>
186 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
187 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
188     # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
189 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
190 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
191 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
192     </pre>
193 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
194 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
195 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
196     <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
197 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
198 jhhudso 1.75 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
199     <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
200     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
201     <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
202     </pre>
203 zhen 1.16 </body>
204     </section>
205     </chapter>
206 drobbins 1.70 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
207 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
208     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
209     <section>
210     <body>
211 drobbins 1.70 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
212 zhen 1.6 </p>
213 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
214 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
215 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
216 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
217     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
218     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
219 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
220 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
221 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
222 jhhudso 1.75 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
223     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
224 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
225 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
226 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
227     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
228 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
229 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
230 zhen 1.16 </body>
231     </section>
232     </chapter>
233 drobbins 1.70 -->
234 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
235     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
236 drobbins 1.70 <section>
237     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
238     <body>
239 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
240 drobbins 1.70 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
241     network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
242     among others.</p>
243    
244     <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
245     list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
246     </p>
247 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
248 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
249     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
250     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
251     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
252     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
253     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
254     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
255     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
256     Interrupt:11
257 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
258 drobbins 1.70 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
259     and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
260     resolution is working correctly, etc.
261     </p>
262 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
263     # <c>ping www.gentoo.com </c>
264     </pre>
265 drobbins 1.70 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
266     </body>
267     </section>
268 zhen 1.16 <section>
269     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
270     <body>
271 drobbins 1.70 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
272 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
273 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
274     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
275     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
276 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
277 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
278     # <c> adsl-start </c>
279 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
280 drobbins 1.70 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
281 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
282     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
283 zhen 1.16 </body>
284     </section>
285     <section>
286     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
287     <body>
288 drobbins 1.70 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
289 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
290 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
291 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
292 drobbins 1.70 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
293 zhen 1.16 </body>
294     </section>
295     <section>
296     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
297     <body>
298     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
299     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
300 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
301     # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
302     </pre>
303 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
304 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
305     </note>
306 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
307 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
308 zhen 1.16 </body>
309     </section>
310     <section>
311     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
312     <body>
313     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
314 zhen 1.6 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
315     Type in the following commands, replacing
316     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
317     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
318     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
319     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
320     </p>
321 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
322 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
323     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
324 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
325 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
326 zhen 1.6 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
327 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
328 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
329 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
330     nameserver 10.0.0.1
331     nameserver 10.0.0.2
332 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
333 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
334 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
335 zhen 1.16 </body>
336     </section>
337     <section>
338     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
339     <body>
340     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
341 zhen 1.6 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
342     </p>
343 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
344 zhen 1.16 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
345 seo 1.42 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
346     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
347 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
348 zhen 1.16 </body>
349     </section>
350 drobbins 1.70 <section>
351 zhen 1.16 <title>Networking is go!</title>
352     <body>
353 seemant 1.78 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
354 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
355 zhen 1.16 </body>
356     </section>
357     </chapter>
358     <chapter>
359 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
360     <section>
361     <body>
362     <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
363     You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
364     <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
365     # <c>date</c>
366     Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
367     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
368     # <c>date 022709042003</c>
369     <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
370     </pre>
371     </body>
372     </section>
373     </chapter>
374     <chapter>
375 drobbins 1.86 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
376 zhen 1.16 <section>
377 drobbins 1.86 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
378 zhen 1.16 <body>
379 drobbins 1.86 <p>
380     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
381     Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familar with the ins and outs of disks and
382     filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
383     install.
384     </p>
385     <p>
386     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
387     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
388     </p>
389     <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
390     /dev/hda
391     </pre>
392    
393     <p>
394     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
395     </p>
396    
397     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
398     /dev/sda
399     </pre>
400    
401     <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
402     User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
403     worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
404     program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
405     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
406     </body>
407     </section>
408     <section>
409     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
410     <body>
411     <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
412     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
413     block device as a command-line argument. </p>
414    
415     <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
416     device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
417     <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
418     practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
419     manageable block devices called "partititons". Partitions are created using a
420     tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
421     that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
422     up the full disk. </p>
423    
424     <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
425     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
426    
427     <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
428     <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c></note>
429    
430     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
431     # fdisk /dev/hda
432     </pre>
433     <p>
434     or
435     </p>
436     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
437     # fdisk /dev/sda
438     </pre>
439    
440     <impo>
441     <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
442     partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
443     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
444     lost.</b>
445     </impo>
446    
447     <p>
448     Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
449     </p>
450    
451     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
452     Command (m for help):
453     </pre>
454    
455    
456     <p>
457     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
458     </p>
459    
460     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
461     Command (m for help): p
462    
463     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
464     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
465    
466     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
467     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
468     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
469     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
470     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
471     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
472     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
473     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
474     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
475     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
476    
477     Command (m for help):
478     </pre>
479    
480     <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
481     with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
482     (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
483    
484     <p>
485     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
486     devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
487     <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
488     allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
489     too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
490     created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
491     counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
492     partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
493     them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
494     </p>
495    
496     <p>
497     All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
498     through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
499    
500     <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
501     <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
502     <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. So, in this example, you would never actually
503     <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
504     acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
505    
506     <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
507     type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
508     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
509     partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, and '82' is the correct
510     partition type for Linux swap partitions. You set the partition type using the
511     <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
512     setting to auto-detect fileystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
513     </p>
514     </body>
515     </section>
516     <section>
517     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
518     <body>
519    
520     <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disks and partitioning is
521     done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
522     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
523     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
524     look like this: </p>
525    
526     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
527     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
528     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
529     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
530    
531     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
532     /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
533     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
534     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
535    
536     Command (m for help):
537     </pre>
538    
539     <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
540     The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
541     partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
542     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
543     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
544     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
545     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
546     for safety. Again, the boot partition is <c>/dev/hda1</c>. If you are setting
547     up a SCSI system, your boot partition will likely end up being
548     <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
549    
550     <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
551     kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
552     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
553     Again, if you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
554     being <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
555    
556     <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
557     of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
558     store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
559     this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
560    
561    
562     <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
563     suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
564     Linux:</p>
565    
566     <table>
567     <tr>
568     <th>Partition</th>
569     <th>Size</th>
570     <th>Type</th>
571     <th>example device</th>
572     </tr>
573     <tr>
574     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
575     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
576     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
577     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
578     </tr>
579     <tr>
580     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
581     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
582     in your system.</ti>
583     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
584     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
585     </tr>
586     <tr>
587     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
588     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
589     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
590     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
591     </tr>
592     </table>
593    
594     <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
595     enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda1</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda1</c>,
596     depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
597     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
598     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
599     existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
600    
601     <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
602     to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
603     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
604     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
605     from the wrong drive.</impo>
606    
607     <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
608     and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
609     to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
610    
611     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
612     Command (m for help): d
613     Partition number (1-4): 1
614     </pre>
615 zhen 1.54
616 drobbins 1.86 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
617     you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
618     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
619     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
620     deleted.</p>
621     <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
622     find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
623     <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
624 jhhudso 1.75 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
625 drobbins 1.70 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
626     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
627 drobbins 1.86 -->
628     <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
629     system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
630     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
631     with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
632    
633     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
634     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
635     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
636     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
637    
638     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
639    
640     Command (m for help):
641     </pre>
642    
643     <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
644     boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
645     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
646     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
647     enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+100M</c> to create a
648     partition 100MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
649    
650     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
651     Command (m for help): n
652     Command action
653     e extended
654     p primary partition (1-4)
655     p
656     Partition number (1-4): 1
657     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
658     Using default value 1
659     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +100M
660     </pre>
661    
662     <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
663    
664     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
665     Command (m for help): p
666    
667     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
668     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
669     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
670    
671     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
672     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
673     </pre>
674    
675     <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
676     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
677     type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
678     When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
679     type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
680     <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
681     type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
682     a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
683    
684     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
685     Command (m for help): p
686    
687     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
688     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
689     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
690    
691     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
692     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
693     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
694     </pre>
695    
696     <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
697     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
698     partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the second primary partition,
699     <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
700     When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
701     up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
702     typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
703     this:</p>
704    
705     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
706     Command (m for help): p
707    
708     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
709     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
710     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
711    
712     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
713     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
714     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
715     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
716     </pre>
717    
718     <p>
719     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
720     our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
721     <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
722     type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
723     column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
724     enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
725     install.
726     </p>
727    
728     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
729     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
730     </body>
731     </section>
732     <section>
733     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
734     <body>
735     <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
736     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
737     We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
738     </p>
739    
740     <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
741     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
742     we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
743    
744     <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
745     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
746     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
747     <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
748     and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
749     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
750     filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
751    
752     <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
753     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
754     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
755     filesystem. While it isn't a performance leader, it offers generally decent
756     performance under most conditions and for filesystems of a typical size. Because
757     it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal design, it
758     doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for very large
759     filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large files or large quantities of
760     files in a single directory. When used within its design parameters, ext3 is
761     an excellent filesystem.</p>
762    
763     <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
764     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
765     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
766     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
767     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
768     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
769     use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
770     thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
771     non-boot partitions.</p>
772    
773     <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
774     Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
775     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
776     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
777     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
778     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
779     when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
780     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
781    
782     <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
783     become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
784     comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
785     point.</p>
786    
787     <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
788     you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
789     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
790     refined and recommended for general use.</p>
791    
792     <!-- Corner case, confusing
793 drobbins 1.70 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
794 jhhudso 1.81 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
795 drobbins 1.70 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
796     a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
797 seemant 1.78 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
798 drobbins 1.21 This can be done as follows:
799 zhen 1.6 </p>
800 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
801     # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
802     <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
803     </pre>
804     <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
805 zhware 1.43 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
806     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
807     </warn>
808 drobbins 1.86 -->
809    
810     <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
811     all our partitions for use:</p>
812    
813     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
814     # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
815     # mkswap /dev/hda2
816     # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
817     </pre>
818    
819     <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a robust journaling
820     filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2
821     </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious here. And for our main root filesystem on
822     <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS, since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent
823     performance. Now, go ahead and initialize your partitions. Here are the various commands
824     available to create various filesystem types:</p>
825    
826     <p>To initialize the swap partition:</p>
827 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
828 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
829 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
830 drobbins 1.86 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
831 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
832 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
833 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
834 drobbins 1.86 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
835     <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
836     <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
837     # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
838     </pre>
839     <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
840     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
841     <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
842     <p>Use <c>mkreiserfs</c> to create a ReiserFS filesystem</p>
843     <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
844     # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
845     </pre>
846 zhen 1.16 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
847 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
848 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
849 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
850     <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
851     <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
852     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
853     XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
854     partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
855     a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
856     journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
857 drobbins 1.86
858 seemant 1.78 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command.</p>
859 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
860 zhen 1.50 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
861 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
862 zhen 1.16 </body>
863     </section>
864     </chapter>
865     <chapter>
866     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
867     <section>
868     <body>
869 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
870 zhen 1.6 provides later:
871     </p>
872 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
873 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
874 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
875 drobbins 1.86
876 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
877 drobbins 1.86 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. One our boot and root filesystems are
878     mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
879     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
880     Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
881     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
882     </p>
883    
884     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
885     with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
886     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
887     We will get to that in a bit.
888     </impo>
889    
890 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
891 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
892     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
893     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
894     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
895 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
896 drobbins 1.86
897     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
898 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
899 zhen 1.16 </body>
900     </section>
901     </chapter>
902     <chapter>
903 drobbins 1.86 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
904 zhen 1.16 <section>
905 drobbins 1.86 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
906 zhen 1.16 <body>
907 zhen 1.55
908 drobbins 1.86 <p>
909     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
910     basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
911    
912     <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
913     method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc3.tar.bz2</path> image.
914     If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
915     have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
916     time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
917     optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
918     accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
919     to see what's available on your CD.</p>
920    
921     <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
922     <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
923     stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
924     tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
925     tarball" section.</p>
926    
927 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
928 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
929 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
930 zhen 1.80 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</c>
931 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
932     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
933     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
934     Save the file and quit the browser
935    
936     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
937     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
938 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
939 zhen 1.16 </body>
940     </section>
941     <section>
942 drobbins 1.86 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
943 zhen 1.16 <body>
944 drobbins 1.86
945     <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
946     <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
947     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
948     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
949     Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
950    
951     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
952     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
953    
954 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
955 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
956 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
957     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
958     instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
959     # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tbz2</c>
960     </pre>
961    
962     <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
963     <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tbz2</c>.</p>
964     </body>
965     </section>
966     <section>
967     <title>Entering the chroot</title>
968     <body>
969     <p>
970     Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
971     Gentoo Linux system.
972     </p>
973    
974     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
975     # <c>mount /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
976 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
977     # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
978     # <c>env-update</c>
979     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
980     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
981 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
982     </pre>
983 drobbins 1.86 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
984     We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
985     </p>
986 zhen 1.16 </body>
987     </section>
988     </chapter>
989     <chapter>
990 jhhudso 1.75 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
991 zhen 1.16 <section>
992     <body>
993 drobbins 1.86
994     <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
995     the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
996     The Portage tree
997     and contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
998     under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. nce <c>emerge sync</c>
999     completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1000    
1001 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1002 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1003 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1004 zhen 1.60
1005 zhen 1.16 </body>
1006     </section>
1007     </chapter>
1008     <chapter>
1009     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1010     <section>
1011     <body>
1012 drobbins 1.86
1013     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1014     customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1015     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1016     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1017     this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1018     functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1019     generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1020     fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1021     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1022     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1023     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1024    
1025     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1026     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1027     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1028     will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1029     is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1030     to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1031     so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1032     performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1033     file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1034 drobbins 1.70
1035 drobbins 1.86 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1036     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1037     a simple visual editor.
1038     </p>
1039 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1040     # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1041 drobbins 1.86 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1042 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1043 zhen 1.16 <note>
1044 jhhudso 1.75 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1045 zhen 1.6 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1046 drobbins 1.70 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1047 zhen 1.6 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1048     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1049 jhhudso 1.75 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1050 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1051 drobbins 1.86 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1052     in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1053 zhen 1.6 </note>
1054 zhen 1.16 </body>
1055     </section>
1056     </chapter>
1057     <chapter>
1058 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1059 zhen 1.16 <section>
1060     <body>
1061 drobbins 1.86 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1062 jhhudso 1.75 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1063 drobbins 1.86 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1064 drobbins 1.70 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1065     is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1066 zhen 1.18 </p>
1067 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1068     my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system.
1069 drobbins 1.86 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1070     as follows:</p>
1071 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1072 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1073     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1074 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1075 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
1076 zhen 1.6 </p>
1077 zhen 1.16 <note>
1078 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1079     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1080     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1081     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1082     </note>
1083 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1084 zhen 1.16 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1085 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1086 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1087 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
1088     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1089 jhhudso 1.75 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1090 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1091 zhen 1.6 </p>
1092 zhen 1.16 </body>
1093     </section>
1094     </chapter>
1095     <chapter>
1096 drobbins 1.86 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1097 zhen 1.16 <section>
1098     <body>
1099 drobbins 1.86
1100     <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1101     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1102     </note>
1103    
1104     <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1105 zhen 1.18 to do is install the rest of the system.
1106 zhen 1.6 </p>
1107 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1108 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1109 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1110 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge system</c>
1111 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1112 jhhudso 1.75 <p>It is going to take a while
1113 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1114     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1115 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1116 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1117     </p>
1118     <p>When this process completes, your system will be the equivalent of a stage3 system. You have
1119     a couple of choices on how to continue
1120     at this point. You can move onto the stage3 instructions and complete those. Doing that will
1121     get your system right up to date with what is in the current Portage tree. This is not necessary,
1122 jhhudso 1.75 but it is highly recommended.
1123 zhen 1.18 </p>
1124     </body>
1125     </section>
1126     </chapter>
1127     <chapter>
1128     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1129     <section>
1130     <body>
1131 drobbins 1.86 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1132     with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1133     <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1134     However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1135     for you, you can update your stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1136     by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1137     otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1138     Gentoo updates and fixes.
1139     In any case, feel free to skip these
1140     steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1141     </p>
1142 zhen 1.57
1143 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1144 drobbins 1.86 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"</c>
1145     # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1146     <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1147     # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1148     <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1149     # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1150 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1151 seemant 1.79 </body>
1152     </section>
1153     </chapter>
1154     <chapter>
1155 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1156 seemant 1.79 <section>
1157     <body>
1158 jhhudso 1.81 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1159     <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1160     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1161     /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1162     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1163 seemant 1.79 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1164 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1165 zhen 1.16 </body>
1166     </section>
1167     </chapter>
1168     <chapter>
1169 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1170 zhen 1.16 <section>
1171     <body>
1172     <note>
1173 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1174     </note>
1175 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You now need to merge Linux kernel sources. Here are the ones we currently
1176 zhen 1.6 offer:
1177     </p>
1178 zhen 1.16 <table>
1179     <tr>
1180     <th>ebuild</th>
1181     <th>description</th>
1182     </tr>
1183     <tr>
1184     <ti>
1185     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
1186     </ti>
1187 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
1188 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1189     <tr>
1190     <ti>
1191     <path>xfs-sources</path>
1192     </ti>
1193 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
1194 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1195     <tr>
1196     <ti>
1197     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
1198     </ti>
1199     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
1200     </tr>
1201     <tr>
1202     <ti>
1203     <path>usermode-sources</path>
1204     </ti>
1205     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
1206     </tr>
1207     <tr>
1208     <ti>
1209     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
1210     </ti>
1211 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you would get from kernel.org</ti>
1212 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1213     </table>
1214 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
1215     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1216     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1217 zhen 1.6 </warn>
1218 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1219 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1220 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1221 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1222 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1223 zhen 1.6 </p>
1224 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1225 jhhudso 1.75 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1226 zhen 1.38 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1227     to the correct one before proceeding.
1228     </p>
1229 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
1230 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1231 zhen 1.46 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1232 zhen 1.49 <comment>Again, this updates your paths. If you get an error saying gcc is not found,
1233     this is what you may have to do. </comment>
1234 drobbins 1.1 # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1235     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1236     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1237 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1238 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1239 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1240 jhhudso 1.81 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1241     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1242     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1243     enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1244     <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1245     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1246     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1247     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1248     ...
1249    
1250     File systems ---&gt;
1251     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1252     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1253     ...
1254     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1255     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1256     ...
1257     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1258     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1259     ...
1260     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1261     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1262     ...
1263     [*] /proc file system support
1264     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1265     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1266     [*] Automatically mount at boot
1267     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1268     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1269     <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1270     ...
1271     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1272     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1273     ...
1274     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1275     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1276     </pre>
1277 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1278 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1279     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1280     support for IDE RAID
1281     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1282     </p>
1283 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1284 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1285 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1286     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1287     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1288 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1289     </p>
1290 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1291     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1292     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1293     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1294     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1295     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1296     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1297 zhen 1.6 </p>
1298 zhen 1.16 <note>
1299 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
1300     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1301 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
1302 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1303     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1304     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1305 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1306     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1307 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1308     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1309 peesh 1.85 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1310     that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1311 zhen 1.6 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1312     </note>
1313 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1314 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1315     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1316     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1317     newer alternatives.
1318     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1319     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1320     </p>
1321 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1322 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1323     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1324     <comment>or</comment>
1325     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1326     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1327     <comment>or</comment>
1328     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1329     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1330     <comment>or</comment>
1331     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1332     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1333 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1334 zhen 1.16 <warn>
1335 zhen 1.6 In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
1336     <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
1337     See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
1338     for a sample configuration file.
1339     </warn>
1340 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1341 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1342     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1343     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1344     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1345     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1346     in real time, as expected),
1347     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1348 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1349     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1350 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1351 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1352     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1353 zhen 1.6 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1354     </p>
1355 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1356 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1357 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1358 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1359     <comment>or</comment>
1360     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1361 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1362 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1363     <comment>or</comment>
1364     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1365 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1366     <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1367     </pre>
1368     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1369 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1370 zhen 1.6 </p>
1371 zhen 1.16 </body>
1372     </section>
1373     </chapter>
1374     <chapter>
1375 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing miscellany necessary packages</title>
1376 zhen 1.16 <section>
1377     <body>
1378     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1379 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1380 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1381 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1382 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1383 zhen 1.40
1384     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1385     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1386     X support later.
1387     </note>
1388 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1389 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1390     for the first time.
1391     </note>
1392 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1393 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1394 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1395 zhen 1.6 </p>
1396 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1397 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1398 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1399 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1400 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1401 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1402 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1403 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1404 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1405 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1406 jhhudso 1.75 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1407 zhen 1.6 </p>
1408 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1409 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1410 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1411 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1412 zhen 1.10 to work.
1413     </warn>
1414 zhen 1.16 </body>
1415     </section>
1416     </chapter>
1417     <chapter>
1418 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1419 zhen 1.16 <section>
1420     <body>
1421     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1422 jhhudso 1.75 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1423 zhen 1.6 The first file we need to
1424     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1425     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1426     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1427     </p>
1428 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1429     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1430 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1431     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1432 drobbins 1.1 #
1433 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1434 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1435 jhhudso 1.75 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1436 drobbins 1.1 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1437    
1438 seemant 1.78 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1439 drobbins 1.1
1440     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1441     </comment>
1442     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1443     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1444     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1445     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1446     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1447 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1448 jhhudso 1.75 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1449 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1450     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1451     </warn>
1452 zhen 1.16 </body>
1453     </section>
1454     </chapter>
1455     <chapter>
1456 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1457 zhen 1.16 <section>
1458     <body>
1459     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1460 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1461 zhen 1.16 # <c>passwd</c>
1462 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1463 zhen 1.56
1464     <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1465     the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1466     </p>
1467 zhen 1.16 </body>
1468     </section>
1469     </chapter>
1470     <chapter>
1471 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1472 zhen 1.16 <section>
1473     <body>
1474     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1475 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1476     </p>
1477 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1478 zhen 1.16 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1479 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1480 zhen 1.16 </body>
1481     </section>
1482     </chapter>
1483     <chapter>
1484 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1485 zhen 1.16 <section>
1486     <body>
1487     <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1488 jhhudso 1.75 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1489     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1490 zhen 1.6 </p>
1491 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1492 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
1493     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1494     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1495 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1496 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1497 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1498     </note>
1499 zhen 1.16 </body>
1500     </section>
1501     </chapter>
1502     <chapter>
1503     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1504     <section>
1505     <body>
1506     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1507 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1508     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1509     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1510     it as a module:
1511     </p>
1512 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1513     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1514 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1515 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1516 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1517 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1518 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1519 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1520     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1521 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1522 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1523 zhen 1.6 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1524 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1525 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1526     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1527     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1528 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1529 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1530 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1531 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1532 zhen 1.6 </p>
1533 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1534 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1535     need pcmcia
1536     }
1537 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1538 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1539 zhen 1.10 </p>
1540 zhen 1.16 </body>
1541     </section>
1542     </chapter>
1543     <chapter>
1544     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1545     <section>
1546     <body>
1547 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1548 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1549 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1550 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1551 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1552     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1553     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1554     possibilities).
1555     </p>
1556 zhen 1.16 </body>
1557     </section>
1558     </chapter>
1559     <chapter>
1560 zhen 1.61 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1561 zhen 1.49 <section>
1562     <title>Notes</title>
1563     <body>
1564     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1565     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1566     LILO as their bootloaders.
1567     </p>
1568     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1569 jhhudso 1.75 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1570 zhen 1.49 </p>
1571 drobbins 1.69 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1572     with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1573 drobbins 1.70 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1574     memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1575 drobbins 1.69 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1576 jhhudso 1.75 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1577 drobbins 1.69 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1578    
1579 zhen 1.49 </body>
1580     </section>
1581 zhen 1.16 <section>
1582 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1583 zhen 1.16 <body>
1584     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1585 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1586     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1587 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1588 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1589     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1590     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1591     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1592     a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1593     <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1594    
1595     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1596     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1597     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1598     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1599 jhhudso 1.75 it is time to install GRUB.
1600 zhen 1.6 </p>
1601 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1602 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1603 zhen 1.51 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1604 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1605 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1606 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1607 zhen 1.6 this time.
1608     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1609     grub setup for RAID controllers
1610     </impo>
1611 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1612 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1613     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1614     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1615     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1616     I want to type are:
1617     </p>
1618 zhen 1.68
1619 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1620 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1621     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1622 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1623 zhen 1.68
1624 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1625 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1626 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1627     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1628 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1629 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1630 zhen 1.68
1631 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1632 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1633     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1634     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1635     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1636     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1637     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1638     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1639     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1640 jhhudso 1.75 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1641 zhen 1.6 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1642 zhen 1.52 </p>
1643 zhen 1.6
1644     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1645     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1646     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1647     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1648     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1649     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1650    
1651     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1652     to make the right choice.
1653     </note>
1654    
1655 zhen 1.52 <p>
1656 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
1657     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1658 jhhudso 1.75 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1659 zhen 1.6 </p>
1660 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1661 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1662     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1663 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1664 zhen 1.6 </p>
1665 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1666 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1667     timeout 30
1668     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1669    
1670     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1671     root (hd0,0)
1672 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1673 drobbins 1.1
1674 jhhudso 1.81 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1675 drobbins 1.1 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1676     root (hd0,0)
1677 zhen 1.63 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1678 drobbins 1.1
1679     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1680 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
1681 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
1682 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1683 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1684 zhen 1.16 <note>
1685 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1686     </note>
1687 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1688 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1689 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1690     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1691 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1692 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1693 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1694     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1695     </p>
1696 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1697 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1698     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1699     loader.
1700 zhware 1.9 </note>
1701 zhen 1.16 <note>
1702 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1703 zhen 1.6 </note>
1704 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1705 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1706     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1707     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1708     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1709     </p>
1710 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1711 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1712     devfs is enabled by default.
1713     </note>
1714 zhen 1.16 </body>
1715     </section>
1716 zhen 1.49 <section>
1717     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1718 zhen 1.16 <body>
1719 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1720 jhhudso 1.75 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1721 drobbins 1.21 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1722 zhen 1.16 </p>
1723     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1724     </p>
1725 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1726 zhen 1.16 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1727 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1728 zhen 1.82 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1729 zhen 1.16 </p>
1730 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1731 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
1732     map=/boot/map
1733     install=/boot/boot.b
1734     prompt
1735     timeout=50
1736     lba32
1737     default=linux
1738    
1739     image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1740     label=linux
1741     read-only
1742 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
1743 zhen 1.16
1744     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1745     other=/dev/hda1
1746     label=dos
1747 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1748 zhen 1.52 <ul>
1749 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1750     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1751     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1752     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1753     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1754 zhen 1.83 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1755 zhen 1.16 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1756     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1757     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1758     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1759     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1760     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1761     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1762     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1763     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1764     <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1765     <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1766     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1767     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1768     altered during the boot process. </li>
1769     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1770 zhen 1.52 </ul>
1771 zhen 1.16 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1772     into the MBR:
1773     </p>
1774 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1775 zhen 1.16 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1776 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1777 zhen 1.16 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1778     </p>
1779     </body>
1780     </section>
1781     </chapter>
1782     <chapter>
1783 zhen 1.66 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1784 zhen 1.16 <section>
1785     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1786     <body>
1787 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1788 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1789 drobbins 1.21 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1790     disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1791     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1792     make a GRUB
1793     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1794 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1795 jhhudso 1.75 bootdisks like this:
1796 zhen 1.6 </p>
1797 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1798 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1799     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1800     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1801     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1802     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1803 zhen 1.66 # <c>umount /mnt/floppy</c>
1804 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1805    
1806     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1807     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1808     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1809 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1810 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1811 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1812 zhen 1.16 </body>
1813     </section>
1814     <section>
1815     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1816     <body>
1817     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1818     </p>
1819 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1820 zhen 1.18 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1821     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1822 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1823 zhen 1.16 </body>
1824     </section>
1825     </chapter>
1826     <chapter>
1827     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1828     <section>
1829     <body>
1830 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1831    
1832 zhen 1.6 safely unmount your partitions
1833     and reboot the system:
1834     </p>
1835 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1836 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1837     # <c>exit</c>
1838 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1839 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd / </c>
1840     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1841     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1842     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1843     # <c>reboot</c>
1844 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1845 zhen 1.16 <note>
1846 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1847     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1848     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1849     </note>
1850 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1851 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1852     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1853 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1854 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1855 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1856 seo 1.84 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
1857 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1858     that will
1859     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1860     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1861     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1862 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1863 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1864 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1865 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1866     </p>
1867 zhen 1.16 </body>
1868     </section>
1869     </chapter>
1870     <chapter>
1871     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1872     <section>
1873     <body>
1874     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1875 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1876     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1877     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1878     </p>
1879 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1880 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1881     to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1882     other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1883     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1884 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1885 zhen 1.6 </p>
1886 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1887     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1888     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1889     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1890     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1891     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1892     </ul>
1893     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1894 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
1895     </p>
1896 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1897     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1898 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1899 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1900     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1901     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1902     </ul>
1903     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1904 zhen 1.6 </p>
1905 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1906 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1907     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1908 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1909 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1910 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1911     to see additional configuration options.
1912     </p>
1913 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1914 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1915     </p>
1916 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1917     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1918     </pre>
1919 zhen 1.16 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1920 jhhudso 1.75 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1921 zhen 1.16 </body>
1922     </section>
1923     </chapter>
1924 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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