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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 jhhudso 1.74 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc3 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10 jhhudso 1.76 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 zhen 1.16 </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32     </author>
33 jhhudso 1.75 <author title="Editor">
34     <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35     </author>
36     <author title="Editor">
37     <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38     </author>
39 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
40 jhhudso 1.74 Linux 1.4_rc3. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
41 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
42     scratch.
43     </abstract>
44 zhen 1.93 <version>2.6</version>
45 zhen 1.92 <date>20 March 2003</date>
46 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
47     <title>About the Install</title>
48     <section>
49     <body>
50 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
51 jhhudso 1.71 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
52 drobbins 1.21 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
53     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
54     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
55     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
56 jhhudso 1.75 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
57 drobbins 1.21 files. </p>
58 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
59 drobbins 1.69 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
60 drobbins 1.21 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
61     slow under those conditions.)</p>
62 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
63 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
64 jhhudso 1.75 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
65 drobbins 1.21 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
66 jhhudso 1.75 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
67 drobbins 1.70 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
68     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
69     and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
70 jhhudso 1.75 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
71     allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
72 drobbins 1.70 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
73     go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
74 jhhudso 1.75 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
75     releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
76     this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
77 drobbins 1.70 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
78    
79    
80 jhhudso 1.75 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
81 jhhudso 1.74 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</uri> .
82 drobbins 1.22 </p>
83 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
84 jhhudso 1.75 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
85     carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
86 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
87     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
88     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
89 seemant 1.78 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
90 jhhudso 1.75 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
91 jhhudso 1.77 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
92 jhhudso 1.75 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
93 jhhudso 1.77 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
94 seemant 1.78 Gentoo 1.4_rc3 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_rc4 will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
95 jhhudso 1.77 </p>
96 drobbins 1.70 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
97 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
98 jhhudso 1.75 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
99 drobbins 1.70 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
100     </impo>
101 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
102     and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
103 drobbins 1.21 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
104     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
105 jhhudso 1.75 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
106 seemant 1.78 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
107 drobbins 1.21 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
108 jhhudso 1.75 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
109 zhen 1.26 <table>
110 zhen 1.16 <tr>
111     <th>stage tarball</th>
112     <th>requirements for installation</th>
113     </tr>
114     <tr>
115     <ti>1</ti>
116 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
117 zhen 1.16 </tr>
118     <tr>
119     <ti>2</ti>
120 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
121 zhen 1.16 </tr>
122     <tr>
123     <ti>3</ti>
124     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
125     </tr>
126     </table>
127     </body>
128     </section>
129     </chapter>
130     <chapter>
131     <title>Booting</title>
132     <section>
133     <body>
134 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
135 drobbins 1.21 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
136 drobbins 1.70 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c> and then hitting Enter. To see
137     a detailed description of available boot options, press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
138    
139 jhhudso 1.75 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
140     booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
141     Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
142     &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
143     for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
144 seemant 1.78 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
145 jhhudso 1.75 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
146     Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type passwd and
147     follow the prompts.
148 zhen 1.6 </p>
149 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
150 drobbins 1.70 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
151 drobbins 1.21 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
152 zhen 1.6 </p>
153 zhen 1.16 </body>
154     </section>
155     </chapter>
156     <chapter>
157     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
158     <section>
159     <body>
160     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
161 jhhudso 1.75 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
162 zhen 1.6 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
163     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
164     type:
165     </p>
166 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
167 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
168 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
169 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
170 drobbins 1.70 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
171 jhhudso 1.75 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
172 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
173     </p>
174 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
175 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
176 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
177 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
178 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
179 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
180 zhen 1.6 <note>
181 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
182 zhen 1.52 </note>
183 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
184 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
185     </p>
186 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
187 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
188     # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
189 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
190 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
191 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
192     </pre>
193 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
194 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
195 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
196     <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
197 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
198 jhhudso 1.75 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
199     <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
200     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
201     <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
202     </pre>
203 zhen 1.16 </body>
204     </section>
205     </chapter>
206 drobbins 1.70 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
207 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
208     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
209     <section>
210     <body>
211 drobbins 1.70 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
212 zhen 1.6 </p>
213 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
214 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
215 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
216 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
217     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
218     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
219 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
220 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
221 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
222 jhhudso 1.75 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
223     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
224 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
225 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
226 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
227     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
228 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
229 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
230 zhen 1.16 </body>
231     </section>
232     </chapter>
233 drobbins 1.70 -->
234 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
235     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
236 drobbins 1.70 <section>
237     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
238     <body>
239 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
240 drobbins 1.70 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
241     network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
242     among others.</p>
243    
244     <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
245     list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
246     </p>
247 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
248 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
249     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
250     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
251     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
252     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
253     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
254     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
255     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
256     Interrupt:11
257 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
258 drobbins 1.70 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
259     and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
260     resolution is working correctly, etc.
261     </p>
262 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
263 drobbins 1.91 # <c>ping www.yahoo.com </c>
264 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
265 drobbins 1.70 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
266     </body>
267     </section>
268 zhen 1.16 <section>
269     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
270     <body>
271 drobbins 1.70 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
272 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
273 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
274     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
275     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
276 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
277 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
278     # <c> adsl-start </c>
279 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
280 drobbins 1.70 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
281 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
282     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
283 zhen 1.16 </body>
284     </section>
285     <section>
286     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
287     <body>
288 drobbins 1.70 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
289 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
290 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
291 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
292 drobbins 1.70 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
293 zhen 1.16 </body>
294     </section>
295     <section>
296     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
297     <body>
298     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
299     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
300 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
301     # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
302     </pre>
303 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
304 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
305     </note>
306 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
307 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
308 zhen 1.16 </body>
309     </section>
310     <section>
311     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
312     <body>
313     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
314 zhen 1.6 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
315     Type in the following commands, replacing
316     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
317     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
318     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
319     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
320     </p>
321 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
322 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
323     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
324 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
325 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
326 zhen 1.6 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
327 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
328 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
329 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
330     nameserver 10.0.0.1
331     nameserver 10.0.0.2
332 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
333 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
334 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
335 zhen 1.16 </body>
336     </section>
337     <section>
338     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
339     <body>
340     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
341 zhen 1.6 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
342     </p>
343 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
344 zhen 1.16 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
345 seo 1.42 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
346     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
347 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
348 zhen 1.16 </body>
349     </section>
350 drobbins 1.70 <section>
351 zhen 1.16 <title>Networking is go!</title>
352     <body>
353 seemant 1.78 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
354 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
355 zhen 1.16 </body>
356     </section>
357     </chapter>
358     <chapter>
359 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
360     <section>
361     <body>
362     <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
363     You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
364     <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
365     # <c>date</c>
366     Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
367     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
368     # <c>date 022709042003</c>
369     <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
370     </pre>
371     </body>
372     </section>
373     </chapter>
374     <chapter>
375 drobbins 1.86 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
376 zhen 1.16 <section>
377 drobbins 1.86 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
378 zhen 1.16 <body>
379 drobbins 1.86 <p>
380     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
381     Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familar with the ins and outs of disks and
382     filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
383     install.
384     </p>
385     <p>
386     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
387     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
388     </p>
389     <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
390     /dev/hda
391     </pre>
392    
393     <p>
394     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
395     </p>
396    
397     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
398     /dev/sda
399     </pre>
400    
401     <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
402     User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
403     worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
404     program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
405     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
406     </body>
407     </section>
408     <section>
409     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
410     <body>
411     <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
412     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
413     block device as a command-line argument. </p>
414    
415     <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
416     device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
417     <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
418     practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
419     manageable block devices called "partititons". Partitions are created using a
420     tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
421     that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
422     up the full disk. </p>
423    
424     <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
425     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
426    
427     <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
428     <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c></note>
429    
430     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
431     # fdisk /dev/hda
432     </pre>
433     <p>
434     or
435     </p>
436     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
437     # fdisk /dev/sda
438     </pre>
439    
440     <impo>
441     <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
442     partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
443     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
444     lost.</b>
445     </impo>
446    
447     <p>
448     Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
449     </p>
450    
451     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
452     Command (m for help):
453     </pre>
454    
455    
456     <p>
457     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
458     </p>
459    
460     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
461     Command (m for help): p
462    
463     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
464     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
465    
466     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
467     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
468     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
469     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
470     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
471     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
472     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
473     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
474     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
475     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
476    
477     Command (m for help):
478     </pre>
479    
480     <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
481     with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
482     (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
483    
484     <p>
485     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
486     devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
487     <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
488     allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
489     too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
490     created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
491     counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
492     partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
493     them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
494     </p>
495    
496     <p>
497     All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
498     through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
499    
500     <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
501     <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
502 drobbins 1.87 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
503 drobbins 1.86 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
504     acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
505    
506     <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
507     type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
508     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
509     partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, and '82' is the correct
510     partition type for Linux swap partitions. You set the partition type using the
511     <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
512     setting to auto-detect fileystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
513     </p>
514     </body>
515     </section>
516     <section>
517     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
518     <body>
519    
520 drobbins 1.87 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
521 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
522     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
523     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
524     look like this: </p>
525    
526     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
527     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
528     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
529     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
530    
531     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
532     /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
533     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
534     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
535    
536     Command (m for help):
537     </pre>
538    
539     <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
540     The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
541     partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
542     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
543     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
544     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
545     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
546 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
547     likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
548 drobbins 1.86
549     <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
550     kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
551     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
552 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
553     being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
554 drobbins 1.86
555     <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
556     of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
557     store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
558     this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
559    
560    
561     <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
562     suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
563     Linux:</p>
564    
565     <table>
566     <tr>
567     <th>Partition</th>
568     <th>Size</th>
569     <th>Type</th>
570     <th>example device</th>
571     </tr>
572     <tr>
573     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
574     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
575     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
576     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
577     </tr>
578     <tr>
579     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
580     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
581     in your system.</ti>
582     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
583     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
584     </tr>
585     <tr>
586     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
587     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
588     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
589     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
590     </tr>
591     </table>
592    
593     <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
594     enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda1</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda1</c>,
595     depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
596     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
597     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
598     existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
599    
600     <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
601     to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
602     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
603     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
604     from the wrong drive.</impo>
605    
606     <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
607     and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
608     to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
609    
610     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
611     Command (m for help): d
612     Partition number (1-4): 1
613     </pre>
614 zhen 1.54
615 drobbins 1.86 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
616     you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
617     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
618     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
619     deleted.</p>
620     <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
621     find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
622     <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
623 jhhudso 1.75 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
624 drobbins 1.70 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
625     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
626 drobbins 1.86 -->
627     <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
628     system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
629     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
630     with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
631    
632     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
633     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
634     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
635     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
636    
637     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
638    
639     Command (m for help):
640     </pre>
641    
642     <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
643     boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
644     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
645     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
646     enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+100M</c> to create a
647     partition 100MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
648    
649     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
650     Command (m for help): n
651     Command action
652     e extended
653     p primary partition (1-4)
654     p
655     Partition number (1-4): 1
656     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
657     Using default value 1
658     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +100M
659     </pre>
660    
661     <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
662    
663     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
664     Command (m for help): p
665    
666     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
667     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
668     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
669    
670     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
671     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
672     </pre>
673    
674     <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
675     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
676     type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
677     When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
678     type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
679     <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
680     type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
681     a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
682    
683     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
684     Command (m for help): p
685    
686     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
687     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
688     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
689    
690     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
691     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
692     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
693     </pre>
694    
695     <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
696     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
697 zhen 1.93 partition. Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
698 drobbins 1.86 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
699     When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
700     up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
701     typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
702     this:</p>
703    
704     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
705     Command (m for help): p
706    
707     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
708     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
709     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
710    
711     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
712     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
713     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
714     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
715     </pre>
716    
717     <p>
718     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
719     our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
720     <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
721     type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
722     column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
723     enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
724     install.
725     </p>
726    
727     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
728     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
729     </body>
730     </section>
731     <section>
732     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
733     <body>
734     <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
735     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
736     We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
737     </p>
738    
739     <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
740     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
741     we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
742    
743     <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
744     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
745     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
746     <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
747     and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
748     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
749     filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
750    
751     <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
752     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
753     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
754 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
755     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
756     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
757     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
758     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
759     its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
760 drobbins 1.86
761     <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
762     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
763     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
764     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
765     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
766     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
767     use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
768     thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
769     non-boot partitions.</p>
770    
771     <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
772     Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
773     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
774     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
775     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
776     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
777     when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
778     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
779    
780     <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
781     become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
782     comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
783     point.</p>
784    
785     <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
786     you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
787     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
788     refined and recommended for general use.</p>
789    
790     <!-- Corner case, confusing
791 drobbins 1.70 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
792 jhhudso 1.81 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
793 drobbins 1.70 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
794     a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
795 seemant 1.78 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
796 drobbins 1.21 This can be done as follows:
797 zhen 1.6 </p>
798 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
799     # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
800     <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
801     </pre>
802     <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
803 zhware 1.43 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
804     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
805     </warn>
806 drobbins 1.86 -->
807    
808     <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
809     all our partitions for use:</p>
810    
811     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
812     # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
813     # mkswap /dev/hda2
814     # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
815     </pre>
816    
817     <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a robust journaling
818     filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2
819     </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious here. And for our main root filesystem on
820     <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS, since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent
821     performance. Now, go ahead and initialize your partitions. Here are the various commands
822     available to create various filesystem types:</p>
823    
824 drobbins 1.89 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
825 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
826 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
827 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
828 drobbins 1.89 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
829 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
830 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
831 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
832 drobbins 1.86 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
833 drobbins 1.89 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
834 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
835     # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
836     </pre>
837     <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
838     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
839 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
840 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
841     # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
842     </pre>
843 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
844 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
845 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
846 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
847     <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
848     <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
849     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
850     XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
851     partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
852     a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
853     journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
854 drobbins 1.86
855 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
856 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
857 zhen 1.50 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
858 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
859 zhen 1.16 </body>
860     </section>
861     </chapter>
862     <chapter>
863     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
864     <section>
865     <body>
866 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
867 zhen 1.6 provides later:
868     </p>
869 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
870 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
871 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
872 drobbins 1.86
873 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
874 zhen 1.93 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
875 drobbins 1.86 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
876     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
877     Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
878     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
879     </p>
880    
881     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
882     with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
883     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
884     We will get to that in a bit.
885     </impo>
886    
887 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
888 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
889     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
890     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
891     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
892 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
893 drobbins 1.86
894     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
895 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
896 zhen 1.16 </body>
897     </section>
898     </chapter>
899     <chapter>
900 drobbins 1.86 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
901 zhen 1.16 <section>
902 drobbins 1.86 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
903 zhen 1.16 <body>
904 zhen 1.55
905 drobbins 1.86 <p>
906     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
907     basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
908    
909     <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
910     method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc3.tar.bz2</path> image.
911     If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
912     have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
913     time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
914     optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
915     accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
916     to see what's available on your CD.</p>
917    
918     <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
919     <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
920     stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
921     tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
922     tarball" section.</p>
923    
924 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
925 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
926 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
927 zhen 1.80 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</c>
928 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
929     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
930     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
931     Save the file and quit the browser
932    
933     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
934     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
935 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
936 zhen 1.16 </body>
937     </section>
938     <section>
939 drobbins 1.86 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
940 zhen 1.16 <body>
941 drobbins 1.86
942     <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
943     <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
944     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
945     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
946     Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
947    
948     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
949     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
950    
951 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
952 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
953 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
954     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
955     instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
956 drobbins 1.90 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
957 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
958    
959     <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
960 drobbins 1.90 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
961 drobbins 1.86 </body>
962     </section>
963     <section>
964     <title>Entering the chroot</title>
965     <body>
966     <p>
967     Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
968     Gentoo Linux system.
969     </p>
970    
971     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
972 zhen 1.92 # <c>mount -t /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
973 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
974     # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
975     # <c>env-update</c>
976     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
977     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
978 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
979     </pre>
980 drobbins 1.86 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
981     We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
982     </p>
983 zhen 1.16 </body>
984     </section>
985     </chapter>
986     <chapter>
987 jhhudso 1.75 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
988 zhen 1.16 <section>
989     <body>
990 drobbins 1.86
991     <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
992     the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
993     The Portage tree
994     and contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
995 zhen 1.93 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
996 drobbins 1.86 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
997    
998 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
999 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1000 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1001 zhen 1.60
1002 zhen 1.16 </body>
1003     </section>
1004     </chapter>
1005     <chapter>
1006     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1007     <section>
1008     <body>
1009 drobbins 1.86
1010     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1011     customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1012     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1013     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1014     this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1015     functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1016     generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1017     fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1018     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1019     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1020     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1021    
1022     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1023     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1024     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1025     will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1026     is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1027     to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1028     so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1029     performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1030     file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1031 drobbins 1.70
1032 drobbins 1.86 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1033     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1034     a simple visual editor.
1035     </p>
1036 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1037     # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1038 drobbins 1.86 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1039 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1040 zhen 1.16 <note>
1041 jhhudso 1.75 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1042 zhen 1.6 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1043 drobbins 1.70 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1044 zhen 1.6 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1045     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1046 jhhudso 1.75 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1047 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1048 drobbins 1.86 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1049     in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1050 zhen 1.6 </note>
1051 zhen 1.16 </body>
1052     </section>
1053     </chapter>
1054     <chapter>
1055 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1056 zhen 1.16 <section>
1057     <body>
1058 drobbins 1.86 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1059 jhhudso 1.75 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1060 drobbins 1.86 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1061 drobbins 1.70 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1062     is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1063 zhen 1.18 </p>
1064 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1065     my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system.
1066 drobbins 1.86 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1067     as follows:</p>
1068 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1069 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1070     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1071 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1072 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
1073 zhen 1.6 </p>
1074 zhen 1.16 <note>
1075 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1076     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1077     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1078     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1079     </note>
1080 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1081 zhen 1.16 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1082 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1083 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1084 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
1085     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1086 jhhudso 1.75 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1087 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1088 zhen 1.6 </p>
1089 zhen 1.16 </body>
1090     </section>
1091     </chapter>
1092     <chapter>
1093 drobbins 1.86 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1094 zhen 1.16 <section>
1095     <body>
1096 drobbins 1.86
1097     <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1098     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1099     </note>
1100    
1101     <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1102 zhen 1.18 to do is install the rest of the system.
1103 zhen 1.6 </p>
1104 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1105 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1106 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1107 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge system</c>
1108 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1109 jhhudso 1.75 <p>It is going to take a while
1110 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1111     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1112 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1113 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1114     </p>
1115     <p>When this process completes, your system will be the equivalent of a stage3 system. You have
1116     a couple of choices on how to continue
1117     at this point. You can move onto the stage3 instructions and complete those. Doing that will
1118     get your system right up to date with what is in the current Portage tree. This is not necessary,
1119 jhhudso 1.75 but it is highly recommended.
1120 zhen 1.18 </p>
1121     </body>
1122     </section>
1123     </chapter>
1124     <chapter>
1125     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1126     <section>
1127     <body>
1128 drobbins 1.86 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1129     with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1130     <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1131     However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1132     for you, you can update your stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1133     by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1134     otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1135     Gentoo updates and fixes.
1136     In any case, feel free to skip these
1137     steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1138     </p>
1139 zhen 1.57
1140 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1141 drobbins 1.86 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"</c>
1142     # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1143     <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1144     # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1145     <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1146     # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1147 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1148 seemant 1.79 </body>
1149     </section>
1150     </chapter>
1151     <chapter>
1152 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1153 seemant 1.79 <section>
1154     <body>
1155 jhhudso 1.81 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1156     <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1157     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1158     /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1159     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1160 seemant 1.79 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1161 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1162 zhen 1.16 </body>
1163     </section>
1164     </chapter>
1165     <chapter>
1166 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1167 zhen 1.16 <section>
1168     <body>
1169     <note>
1170 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1171     </note>
1172 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You now need to merge Linux kernel sources. Here are the ones we currently
1173 zhen 1.6 offer:
1174     </p>
1175 zhen 1.16 <table>
1176     <tr>
1177     <th>ebuild</th>
1178     <th>description</th>
1179     </tr>
1180     <tr>
1181     <ti>
1182     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
1183     </ti>
1184 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
1185 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1186     <tr>
1187     <ti>
1188     <path>xfs-sources</path>
1189     </ti>
1190 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
1191 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1192     <tr>
1193     <ti>
1194     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
1195     </ti>
1196     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
1197     </tr>
1198     <tr>
1199     <ti>
1200     <path>usermode-sources</path>
1201     </ti>
1202     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
1203     </tr>
1204     <tr>
1205     <ti>
1206     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
1207     </ti>
1208 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you would get from kernel.org</ti>
1209 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1210     </table>
1211 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
1212     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1213     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1214 zhen 1.6 </warn>
1215 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1216 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1217 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1218 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1219 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1220 zhen 1.6 </p>
1221 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1222 jhhudso 1.75 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1223 zhen 1.38 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1224     to the correct one before proceeding.
1225     </p>
1226 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
1227 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1228 zhen 1.46 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1229 zhen 1.49 <comment>Again, this updates your paths. If you get an error saying gcc is not found,
1230     this is what you may have to do. </comment>
1231 drobbins 1.1 # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1232     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1233     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1234 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1235 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1236 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1237 jhhudso 1.81 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1238     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1239     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1240     enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1241     <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1242     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1243     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1244     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1245     ...
1246    
1247     File systems ---&gt;
1248     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1249     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1250     ...
1251     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1252     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1253     ...
1254     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1255     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1256     ...
1257     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1258     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1259     ...
1260     [*] /proc file system support
1261     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1262     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1263     [*] Automatically mount at boot
1264     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1265     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1266     <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1267     ...
1268     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1269     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1270     ...
1271     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1272     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1273     </pre>
1274 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1275 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1276     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1277     support for IDE RAID
1278     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1279     </p>
1280 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1281 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1282 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1283     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1284     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1285 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1286     </p>
1287 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1288     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1289     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1290     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1291     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1292     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1293     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1294 zhen 1.6 </p>
1295 zhen 1.16 <note>
1296 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
1297     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1298 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
1299 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1300     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1301     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1302 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1303     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1304 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1305     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1306 peesh 1.85 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1307     that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1308 zhen 1.6 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1309     </note>
1310 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1311 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1312     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1313     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1314     newer alternatives.
1315     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1316     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1317     </p>
1318 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1319 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1320     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1321     <comment>or</comment>
1322     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1323     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1324     <comment>or</comment>
1325     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1326     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1327     <comment>or</comment>
1328     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1329     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1330 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1331 zhen 1.16 <warn>
1332 zhen 1.6 In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
1333     <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
1334     See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
1335     for a sample configuration file.
1336     </warn>
1337 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1338 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1339     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1340     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1341     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1342     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1343     in real time, as expected),
1344     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1345 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1346     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1347 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1348 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1349     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1350 zhen 1.6 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1351     </p>
1352 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1353 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1354 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1355 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1356     <comment>or</comment>
1357     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1358 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1359 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1360     <comment>or</comment>
1361     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1362 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1363     <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1364     </pre>
1365     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1366 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1367 zhen 1.6 </p>
1368 zhen 1.16 </body>
1369     </section>
1370     </chapter>
1371     <chapter>
1372 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing miscellany necessary packages</title>
1373 zhen 1.16 <section>
1374     <body>
1375     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1376 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1377 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1378 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1379 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1380 zhen 1.40
1381     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1382     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1383     X support later.
1384     </note>
1385 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1386 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1387     for the first time.
1388     </note>
1389 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1390 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1391 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1392 zhen 1.6 </p>
1393 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1394 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1395 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1396 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1397 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1398 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1399 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1400 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1401 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1402 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1403 jhhudso 1.75 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1404 zhen 1.6 </p>
1405 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1406 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1407 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1408 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1409 zhen 1.10 to work.
1410     </warn>
1411 zhen 1.16 </body>
1412     </section>
1413     </chapter>
1414     <chapter>
1415 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1416 zhen 1.16 <section>
1417     <body>
1418     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1419 jhhudso 1.75 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1420 zhen 1.6 The first file we need to
1421     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1422     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1423     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1424     </p>
1425 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1426     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1427 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1428     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1429 drobbins 1.1 #
1430 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1431 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1432 jhhudso 1.75 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1433 drobbins 1.1 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1434    
1435 seemant 1.78 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1436 drobbins 1.1
1437     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1438     </comment>
1439     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1440     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1441     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1442     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1443     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1444 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1445 jhhudso 1.75 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1446 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1447     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1448     </warn>
1449 zhen 1.16 </body>
1450     </section>
1451     </chapter>
1452     <chapter>
1453 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1454 zhen 1.16 <section>
1455     <body>
1456     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1457 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1458 zhen 1.16 # <c>passwd</c>
1459 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1460 zhen 1.56
1461     <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1462     the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1463     </p>
1464 zhen 1.16 </body>
1465     </section>
1466     </chapter>
1467     <chapter>
1468 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1469 zhen 1.16 <section>
1470     <body>
1471     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1472 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1473     </p>
1474 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1475 zhen 1.16 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1476 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1477 zhen 1.16 </body>
1478     </section>
1479     </chapter>
1480     <chapter>
1481 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1482 zhen 1.16 <section>
1483     <body>
1484     <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1485 jhhudso 1.75 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1486     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1487 zhen 1.6 </p>
1488 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1489 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
1490     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1491     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1492 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1493 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1494 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1495     </note>
1496 zhen 1.16 </body>
1497     </section>
1498     </chapter>
1499     <chapter>
1500     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1501     <section>
1502     <body>
1503     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1504 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1505     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1506     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1507     it as a module:
1508     </p>
1509 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1510     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1511 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1512 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1513 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1514 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1515 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1516 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1517     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1518 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1519 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1520 zhen 1.6 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1521 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1522 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1523     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1524     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1525 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1526 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1527 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1528 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1529 zhen 1.6 </p>
1530 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1531 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1532     need pcmcia
1533     }
1534 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1535 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1536 zhen 1.10 </p>
1537 zhen 1.16 </body>
1538     </section>
1539     </chapter>
1540     <chapter>
1541     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1542     <section>
1543     <body>
1544 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1545 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1546 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1547 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1548 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1549     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1550     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1551     possibilities).
1552     </p>
1553 zhen 1.16 </body>
1554     </section>
1555     </chapter>
1556     <chapter>
1557 zhen 1.61 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1558 zhen 1.49 <section>
1559     <title>Notes</title>
1560     <body>
1561     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1562     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1563     LILO as their bootloaders.
1564     </p>
1565     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1566 jhhudso 1.75 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1567 zhen 1.49 </p>
1568 drobbins 1.69 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1569     with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1570 drobbins 1.70 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1571     memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1572 drobbins 1.69 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1573 jhhudso 1.75 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1574 drobbins 1.69 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1575    
1576 zhen 1.49 </body>
1577     </section>
1578 zhen 1.16 <section>
1579 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1580 zhen 1.16 <body>
1581     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1582 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1583     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1584 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1585 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1586     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1587     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1588     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1589     a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1590     <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1591    
1592     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1593     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1594     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1595     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1596 jhhudso 1.75 it is time to install GRUB.
1597 zhen 1.6 </p>
1598 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1599 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1600 zhen 1.51 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1601 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1602 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1603 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1604 zhen 1.6 this time.
1605     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1606     grub setup for RAID controllers
1607     </impo>
1608 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1609 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1610     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1611     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1612     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1613     I want to type are:
1614     </p>
1615 zhen 1.68
1616 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1617 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1618     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1619 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1620 zhen 1.68
1621 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1622 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1623 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1624     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1625 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1626 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1627 zhen 1.68
1628 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1629 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1630     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1631     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1632     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1633     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1634     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1635     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1636     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1637 jhhudso 1.75 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1638 zhen 1.6 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1639 zhen 1.52 </p>
1640 zhen 1.6
1641     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1642     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1643     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1644     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1645     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1646     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1647    
1648     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1649     to make the right choice.
1650     </note>
1651    
1652 zhen 1.52 <p>
1653 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
1654     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1655 jhhudso 1.75 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1656 zhen 1.6 </p>
1657 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1658 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1659     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1660 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1661 zhen 1.6 </p>
1662 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1663 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1664     timeout 30
1665     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1666    
1667     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1668     root (hd0,0)
1669 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1670 drobbins 1.1
1671 jhhudso 1.81 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1672 drobbins 1.1 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1673     root (hd0,0)
1674 zhen 1.63 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1675 drobbins 1.1
1676     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1677 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
1678 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
1679 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1680 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1681 zhen 1.16 <note>
1682 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1683     </note>
1684 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1685 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1686 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1687     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1688 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1689 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1690 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1691     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1692     </p>
1693 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1694 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1695     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1696     loader.
1697 zhware 1.9 </note>
1698 zhen 1.16 <note>
1699 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1700 zhen 1.6 </note>
1701 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1702 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1703     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1704     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1705     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1706     </p>
1707 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1708 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1709     devfs is enabled by default.
1710     </note>
1711 zhen 1.16 </body>
1712     </section>
1713 zhen 1.49 <section>
1714     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1715 zhen 1.16 <body>
1716 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1717 jhhudso 1.75 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1718 drobbins 1.21 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1719 zhen 1.16 </p>
1720     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1721     </p>
1722 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1723 zhen 1.16 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1724 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1725 zhen 1.82 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1726 zhen 1.16 </p>
1727 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1728 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
1729     map=/boot/map
1730     install=/boot/boot.b
1731     prompt
1732     timeout=50
1733     lba32
1734     default=linux
1735    
1736     image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1737     label=linux
1738     read-only
1739 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
1740 zhen 1.16
1741     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1742     other=/dev/hda1
1743     label=dos
1744 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1745 zhen 1.52 <ul>
1746 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1747     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1748     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1749     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1750     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1751 zhen 1.83 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1752 zhen 1.16 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1753     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1754     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1755     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1756     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1757     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1758     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1759     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1760     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1761     <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1762     <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1763     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1764     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1765     altered during the boot process. </li>
1766     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1767 zhen 1.52 </ul>
1768 zhen 1.16 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1769     into the MBR:
1770     </p>
1771 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1772 zhen 1.16 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1773 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1774 zhen 1.16 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1775     </p>
1776     </body>
1777     </section>
1778     </chapter>
1779     <chapter>
1780 zhen 1.66 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1781 zhen 1.16 <section>
1782     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1783     <body>
1784 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1785 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1786 drobbins 1.21 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1787     disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1788     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1789     make a GRUB
1790     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1791 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1792 jhhudso 1.75 bootdisks like this:
1793 zhen 1.6 </p>
1794 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1795 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1796     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1797     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1798     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1799     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1800 zhen 1.66 # <c>umount /mnt/floppy</c>
1801 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1802    
1803     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1804     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1805     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1806 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1807 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1808 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1809 zhen 1.16 </body>
1810     </section>
1811     <section>
1812     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1813     <body>
1814     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1815     </p>
1816 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1817 zhen 1.18 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1818     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1819 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1820 zhen 1.16 </body>
1821     </section>
1822     </chapter>
1823     <chapter>
1824     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1825     <section>
1826     <body>
1827 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1828    
1829 zhen 1.6 safely unmount your partitions
1830     and reboot the system:
1831     </p>
1832 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1833 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1834     # <c>exit</c>
1835 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1836 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd / </c>
1837     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1838     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1839     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1840     # <c>reboot</c>
1841 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1842 zhen 1.16 <note>
1843 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1844     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1845     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1846     </note>
1847 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1848 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1849     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1850 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1851 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1852 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1853 seo 1.84 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
1854 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1855     that will
1856     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1857     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1858     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1859 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1860 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1861 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1862 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1863     </p>
1864 zhen 1.16 </body>
1865     </section>
1866     </chapter>
1867     <chapter>
1868     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1869     <section>
1870     <body>
1871     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1872 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1873     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1874     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1875     </p>
1876 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1877 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1878     to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1879     other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1880     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1881 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1882 zhen 1.6 </p>
1883 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1884     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1885     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1886     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1887     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1888     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1889     </ul>
1890     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1891 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
1892     </p>
1893 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1894     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1895 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1896 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1897     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1898     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1899     </ul>
1900     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1901 zhen 1.6 </p>
1902 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1903 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1904     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1905 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1906 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1907 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1908     to see additional configuration options.
1909     </p>
1910 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1911 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1912     </p>
1913 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1914     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1915     </pre>
1916 zhen 1.16 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1917 jhhudso 1.75 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1918 zhen 1.16 </body>
1919     </section>
1920     </chapter>
1921 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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