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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 jhhudso 1.74 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc3 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10 jhhudso 1.76 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 zhen 1.16 </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32     </author>
33 jhhudso 1.75 <author title="Editor">
34     <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35     </author>
36     <author title="Editor">
37     <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 drobbins 1.97 </author>
39 peesh 1.96 <author title="Editor">
40     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
41 jhhudso 1.75 </author>
42 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
43 jhhudso 1.74 Linux 1.4_rc3. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
44 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
45     scratch.
46     </abstract>
47 zhen 1.93 <version>2.6</version>
48 zhen 1.92 <date>20 March 2003</date>
49 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
50     <title>About the Install</title>
51     <section>
52     <body>
53 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
54 jhhudso 1.71 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
55 drobbins 1.21 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
56     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
57     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
58     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
59 jhhudso 1.75 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
60 drobbins 1.21 files. </p>
61 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
62 drobbins 1.69 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
63 drobbins 1.21 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
64     slow under those conditions.)</p>
65 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
66 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
67 jhhudso 1.75 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
68 drobbins 1.21 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
69 jhhudso 1.75 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
70 drobbins 1.70 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
71     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
72     and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
73 jhhudso 1.75 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
74     allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
75 drobbins 1.70 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
76     go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
77 jhhudso 1.75 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
78     releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
79     this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
80 drobbins 1.70 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
83 jhhudso 1.75 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
84 jhhudso 1.74 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</uri> .
85 drobbins 1.22 </p>
86 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
87 jhhudso 1.75 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
88     carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
89 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
90     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
91     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
92 seemant 1.78 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
93 jhhudso 1.75 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
94 jhhudso 1.77 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
95 jhhudso 1.75 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
96 jhhudso 1.77 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
97 seemant 1.78 Gentoo 1.4_rc3 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_rc4 will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
98 jhhudso 1.77 </p>
99 drobbins 1.70 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
100 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
101 jhhudso 1.75 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
102 drobbins 1.70 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
103     </impo>
104 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
105     and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
106 drobbins 1.21 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
107     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
108 jhhudso 1.75 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
109 seemant 1.78 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
110 drobbins 1.21 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
111 jhhudso 1.75 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
112 zhen 1.26 <table>
113 zhen 1.16 <tr>
114     <th>stage tarball</th>
115     <th>requirements for installation</th>
116     </tr>
117     <tr>
118     <ti>1</ti>
119 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
120 zhen 1.16 </tr>
121     <tr>
122     <ti>2</ti>
123 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
124 zhen 1.16 </tr>
125     <tr>
126     <ti>3</ti>
127     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
128     </tr>
129     </table>
130     </body>
131     </section>
132     </chapter>
133     <chapter>
134     <title>Booting</title>
135     <section>
136     <body>
137 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
138 drobbins 1.21 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
139 drobbins 1.70 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c> and then hitting Enter. To see
140     a detailed description of available boot options, press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
142 jhhudso 1.75 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
143     booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
144     Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
145     &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
146     for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
147 seemant 1.78 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
148 jhhudso 1.75 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
149     Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type passwd and
150     follow the prompts.
151 zhen 1.6 </p>
152 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
153 drobbins 1.70 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
154 drobbins 1.21 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
155 zhen 1.6 </p>
156 zhen 1.16 </body>
157     </section>
158     </chapter>
159     <chapter>
160     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
161     <section>
162     <body>
163     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
164 jhhudso 1.75 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
165 zhen 1.6 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
166     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
167     type:
168     </p>
169 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
170 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
171 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
172 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
173 drobbins 1.70 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
174 jhhudso 1.75 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
175 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
176     </p>
177 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
178 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
179 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
180 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
181 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
182 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
183 zhen 1.6 <note>
184 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
185 zhen 1.52 </note>
186 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
187 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
188     </p>
189 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
190 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
191     # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
192 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
193 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
194 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
195     </pre>
196 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
197 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
198 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
199     <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
200 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
201 jhhudso 1.75 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
202     <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
203     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
204     <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
205     </pre>
206 zhen 1.16 </body>
207     </section>
208     </chapter>
209 drobbins 1.70 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
210 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
211     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
212     <section>
213     <body>
214 drobbins 1.70 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
215 zhen 1.6 </p>
216 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
217 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
218 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
219 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
220     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
221     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
222 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
223 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
224 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
225 jhhudso 1.75 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
226     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
227 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
228 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
229 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
230     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
231 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
232 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
233 zhen 1.16 </body>
234     </section>
235     </chapter>
236 drobbins 1.70 -->
237 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
238     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
239 drobbins 1.70 <section>
240     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
241     <body>
242 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
243 drobbins 1.70 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
244     network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
245     among others.</p>
247     <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
248     list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
249     </p>
250 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
251 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
252     inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
253     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
255     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
256     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
257     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
258     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
259     Interrupt:11
260 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
261 drobbins 1.70 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
262     and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
263     resolution is working correctly, etc.
264     </p>
265 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
266 drobbins 1.94 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
267 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
268 drobbins 1.70 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
269     </body>
270     </section>
271 zhen 1.16 <section>
272     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
273     <body>
274 drobbins 1.70 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
275 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
276 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
277     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
278     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
279 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
280 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
281     # <c> adsl-start </c>
282 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
283 drobbins 1.70 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
284 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
285     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
286 zhen 1.16 </body>
287     </section>
288     <section>
289     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
290     <body>
291 drobbins 1.70 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
292 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
293 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
294 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
295 drobbins 1.70 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
296 zhen 1.16 </body>
297     </section>
298     <section>
299     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
300     <body>
301     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
302     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
303 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
304     # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
305     </pre>
306 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
307 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
308     </note>
309 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
310 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
311 zhen 1.16 </body>
312     </section>
313     <section>
314     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
315     <body>
316     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
317 zhen 1.6 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
318     Type in the following commands, replacing
319     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
320     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
321     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
322     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
323     </p>
324 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
325 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
326     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask metric 1</c>
327 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
328 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
329 zhen 1.6 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
330 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
331 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
332 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
333     nameserver
334     nameserver
335 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
336 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c></c> and <c></c> with the IP addresses of your
337 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
338 zhen 1.16 </body>
339     </section>
340     <section>
341     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
342     <body>
343     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
344 zhen 1.6 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
345     </p>
346 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
347 zhen 1.16 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
348 seo 1.42 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
349     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
350 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
351 zhen 1.16 </body>
352     </section>
353 drobbins 1.70 <section>
354 zhen 1.16 <title>Networking is go!</title>
355     <body>
356 seemant 1.78 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
357 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
358 zhen 1.16 </body>
359     </section>
360     </chapter>
361     <chapter>
362 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
363     <section>
364     <body>
365     <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
366     You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
367     <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
368     # <c>date</c>
369     Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
370     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
371     # <c>date 022709042003</c>
372     <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
373     </pre>
374     </body>
375     </section>
376     </chapter>
377     <chapter>
378 drobbins 1.86 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
379 zhen 1.16 <section>
380 drobbins 1.86 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
381 zhen 1.16 <body>
382 drobbins 1.86 <p>
383     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
384     Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familar with the ins and outs of disks and
385     filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
386     install.
387     </p>
388     <p>
389     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
390     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
391     </p>
392     <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
393     /dev/hda
394     </pre>
396     <p>
397     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
398     </p>
400     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
401     /dev/sda
402     </pre>
404     <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
405     User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
406     worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
407     program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
408     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
409     </body>
410     </section>
411     <section>
412     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
413     <body>
414     <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
415     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
416     block device as a command-line argument. </p>
418     <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
419     device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
420     <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
421     practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
422     manageable block devices called "partititons". Partitions are created using a
423     tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
424     that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
425     up the full disk. </p>
427     <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
428     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
430     <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
431     <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c></note>
433     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
434     # fdisk /dev/hda
435     </pre>
436     <p>
437     or
438     </p>
439     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
440     # fdisk /dev/sda
441     </pre>
443     <impo>
444     <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
445     partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
446     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
447     lost.</b>
448     </impo>
450     <p>
451     Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
452     </p>
454     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
455     Command (m for help):
456     </pre>
459     <p>
460     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
461     </p>
463     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
464     Command (m for help): p
466     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
467     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
469     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
470     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
471     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
472     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
473     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
474     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
475     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
476     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
477     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
478     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
480     Command (m for help):
481     </pre>
483     <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
484     with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
485     (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
487     <p>
488     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
489     devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
490     <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
491     allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
492     too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
493     created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
494     counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
495     partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
496     them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
497     </p>
499     <p>
500     All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
501     through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
503     <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
504     <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
505 drobbins 1.87 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
506 drobbins 1.86 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
507     acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
509     <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
510     type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
511     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
512     partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, and '82' is the correct
513     partition type for Linux swap partitions. You set the partition type using the
514     <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
515     setting to auto-detect fileystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
516     </p>
517     </body>
518     </section>
519     <section>
520     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
521     <body>
523 drobbins 1.87 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
524 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
525     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
526     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
527     look like this: </p>
529     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
530     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
531     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
532     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
534     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
535     /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
536     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
537     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
539     Command (m for help):
540     </pre>
542     <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
543     The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
544     partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
545     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
546     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
547     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
548     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
549 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
550     likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
551 drobbins 1.86
552     <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
553     kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
554     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
555 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
556     being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
557 drobbins 1.86
558     <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
559     of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
560     store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
561     this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
564     <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
565     suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
566     Linux:</p>
568     <table>
569     <tr>
570     <th>Partition</th>
571     <th>Size</th>
572     <th>Type</th>
573     <th>example device</th>
574     </tr>
575     <tr>
576     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
577     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
578     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
579     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
580     </tr>
581     <tr>
582     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
583     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
584     in your system.</ti>
585     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
586     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
587     </tr>
588     <tr>
589     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
590     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
591     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
592     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
593     </tr>
594     </table>
596     <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
597 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
598 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
599     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
600     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
601     existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
603     <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
604     to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
605     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
606     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
607     from the wrong drive.</impo>
609     <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
610     and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
611     to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
613     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
614     Command (m for help): d
615     Partition number (1-4): 1
616     </pre>
617 zhen 1.54
618 drobbins 1.86 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
619     you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
620     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
621     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
622     deleted.</p>
623     <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
624     find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
625     <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
626 jhhudso 1.75 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
627 drobbins 1.70 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
628     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
629 drobbins 1.86 -->
630     <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
631     system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
632     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
633     with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
635     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
636     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
637     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
638     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
640     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
642     Command (m for help):
643     </pre>
645     <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
646     boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
647     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
648     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
649     enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+100M</c> to create a
650     partition 100MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
652     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
653     Command (m for help): n
654     Command action
655     e extended
656     p primary partition (1-4)
657     p
658     Partition number (1-4): 1
659     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
660     Using default value 1
661     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +100M
662     </pre>
664     <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
666     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
667     Command (m for help): p
669     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
670     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
671     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
673     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
674     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
675     </pre>
677     <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
678     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
679     type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
680     When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
681     type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
682     <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
683     type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
684     a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
686     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
687     Command (m for help): p
689     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
690     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
691     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
693     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
694     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
695     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
696     </pre>
698     <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
699     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
700 zhen 1.93 partition. Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
701 drobbins 1.86 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
702     When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
703     up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
704     typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
705     this:</p>
707     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
708     Command (m for help): p
710     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
711     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
712     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
714     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
715     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
716     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
717     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
718     </pre>
720     <p>
721     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
722     our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
723     <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
724     type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
725     column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
726     enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
727     install.
728     </p>
730     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
731     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
732     </body>
733     </section>
734     <section>
735     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
736     <body>
737     <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
738     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
739     We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
740     </p>
742     <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
743     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
744     we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
746     <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
747     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
748     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
749     <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
750     and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
751     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
752     filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
754     <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
755     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
756     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
757 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
758     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
759     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
760     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
761     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
762     its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
763 drobbins 1.86
764     <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
765     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
766     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
767     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
768     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
769     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
770     use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
771     thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
772     non-boot partitions.</p>
774     <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
775     Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
776     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
777     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
778     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
779     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
780     when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
781     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
783     <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
784     become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
785     comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
786     point.</p>
788     <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
789     you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
790     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
791     refined and recommended for general use.</p>
793     <!-- Corner case, confusing
794 drobbins 1.70 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
795 jhhudso 1.81 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
796 drobbins 1.70 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
797     a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
798 seemant 1.78 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
799 drobbins 1.21 This can be done as follows:
800 zhen 1.6 </p>
801 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
802     # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
803     <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
804     </pre>
805     <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
806 zhware 1.43 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
807     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
808     </warn>
809 drobbins 1.86 -->
811     <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
812     all our partitions for use:</p>
814     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
815     # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
816     # mkswap /dev/hda2
817     # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
818     </pre>
820     <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a robust journaling
821     filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2
822     </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious here. And for our main root filesystem on
823     <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS, since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent
824     performance. Now, go ahead and initialize your partitions. Here are the various commands
825     available to create various filesystem types:</p>
827 drobbins 1.89 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
828 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
829 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
830 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
831 drobbins 1.89 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
832 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
833 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
834 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
835 drobbins 1.86 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
836 drobbins 1.89 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
837 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
838     # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
839     </pre>
840     <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
841     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
842 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
843 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
844     # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
845     </pre>
846 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
847 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
848 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
849 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
850     <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
851     <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
852     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
853     XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
854     partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
855     a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
856     journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
857 drobbins 1.86
858 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
859 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
860 zhen 1.50 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
861 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
862 zhen 1.16 </body>
863     </section>
864     </chapter>
865     <chapter>
866     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
867     <section>
868     <body>
869 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
870 zhen 1.6 provides later:
871     </p>
872 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
873 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
874 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
875 drobbins 1.86
876 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
877 zhen 1.93 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
878 drobbins 1.86 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
879     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
880     Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
881     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
882     </p>
884     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
885     with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
886     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
887     We will get to that in a bit.
888     </impo>
890 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
891 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
892     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
893     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
894     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
895 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
896 drobbins 1.86
897     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
898 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
899 zhen 1.16 </body>
900     </section>
901     </chapter>
902     <chapter>
903 drobbins 1.86 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
904 zhen 1.16 <section>
905 drobbins 1.86 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
906 zhen 1.16 <body>
907 zhen 1.55
908 drobbins 1.86 <p>
909     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
910     basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
912     <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
913     method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc3.tar.bz2</path> image.
914     If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
915     have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
916     time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
917     optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
918     accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
919     to see what's available on your CD.</p>
921     <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
922     <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
923     stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
924     tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
925     tarball" section.</p>
927 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
928 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
929 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
930 zhen 1.80 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</c>
931 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
932     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
933     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
934     Save the file and quit the browser
936     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
937     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
938 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
939 zhen 1.16 </body>
940     </section>
941     <section>
942 drobbins 1.86 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
943 zhen 1.16 <body>
944 drobbins 1.86
945     <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
946     <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
947     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
948     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
949     Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
951     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
952     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
954 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
955 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
956 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
957     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
958     instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
959 drobbins 1.90 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
960 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
962     <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
963 drobbins 1.90 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
964 drobbins 1.86 </body>
965     </section>
966     <section>
967     <title>Entering the chroot</title>
968     <body>
969     <p>
970     Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
971     Gentoo Linux system.
972     </p>
974     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
975 drobbins 1.94 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
976 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
977     # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
978     # <c>env-update</c>
979     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
980     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
981 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
982     </pre>
983 drobbins 1.86 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
984     We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
985     </p>
986 zhen 1.16 </body>
987     </section>
988     </chapter>
989     <chapter>
990 jhhudso 1.75 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
991 zhen 1.16 <section>
992     <body>
993 drobbins 1.86
994     <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
995     the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
996     The Portage tree
997 drobbins 1.94 contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
998 zhen 1.93 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
999 drobbins 1.86 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1001 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1002 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1003 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1004 zhen 1.60
1005 zhen 1.16 </body>
1006     </section>
1007     </chapter>
1008     <chapter>
1009     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1010     <section>
1011     <body>
1012 drobbins 1.86
1013     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1014     customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1015     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1016     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1017     this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1018     functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1019     generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1020     fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1021     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1022     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1023     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1025     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1026     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1027     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1028     will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1029     is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1030     to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1031     so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1032     performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1033     file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1034 drobbins 1.70
1035 drobbins 1.86 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1036     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1037     a simple visual editor.
1038     </p>
1039 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1040     # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1041 drobbins 1.86 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1042 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1043 zhen 1.16 <note>
1044 jhhudso 1.75 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1045 zhen 1.6 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1046 drobbins 1.70 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1047 zhen 1.6 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1048     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1049 jhhudso 1.75 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1050 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1051 drobbins 1.86 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1052     in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1053 zhen 1.6 </note>
1054 zhen 1.16 </body>
1055     </section>
1056     </chapter>
1057     <chapter>
1058 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1059 zhen 1.16 <section>
1060     <body>
1061 drobbins 1.86 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1062 jhhudso 1.75 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1063 drobbins 1.86 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1064 drobbins 1.70 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1065     is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1066 zhen 1.18 </p>
1067 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1068     my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system.
1069 drobbins 1.86 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1070     as follows:</p>
1071 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1072 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1073     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1074 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1075 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
1076 zhen 1.6 </p>
1077 zhen 1.16 <note>
1078 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1079     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1080     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1081     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1082     </note>
1083 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1084 zhen 1.16 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1085 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1086 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1087 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
1088     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1089 jhhudso 1.75 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1090 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1091 zhen 1.6 </p>
1092 zhen 1.16 </body>
1093     </section>
1094     </chapter>
1095     <chapter>
1096 drobbins 1.86 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1097 zhen 1.16 <section>
1098     <body>
1099 drobbins 1.86
1100     <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1101     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1102     </note>
1104     <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1105 zhen 1.18 to do is install the rest of the system.
1106 zhen 1.6 </p>
1107 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1108 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1109 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1110 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge system</c>
1111 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1112 jhhudso 1.75 <p>It is going to take a while
1113 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1114     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1115 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1116 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1117     </p>
1118     <p>When this process completes, your system will be the equivalent of a stage3 system. You have
1119     a couple of choices on how to continue
1120     at this point. You can move onto the stage3 instructions and complete those. Doing that will
1121     get your system right up to date with what is in the current Portage tree. This is not necessary,
1122 jhhudso 1.75 but it is highly recommended.
1123 zhen 1.18 </p>
1124     </body>
1125     </section>
1126     </chapter>
1127     <chapter>
1128     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1129     <section>
1130     <body>
1131 drobbins 1.86 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1132     with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1133     <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1134     However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1135     for you, you can update your stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1136     by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1137     otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1138     Gentoo updates and fixes.
1139     In any case, feel free to skip these
1140     steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1141     </p>
1142 zhen 1.57
1143 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1144 drobbins 1.86 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"</c>
1145     # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1146     <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1147     # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1148     <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1149     # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1150 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1151 seemant 1.79 </body>
1152     </section>
1153     </chapter>
1154     <chapter>
1155 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1156 seemant 1.79 <section>
1157     <body>
1158 jhhudso 1.81 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1159     <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1160     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1161     /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1162     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1163 seemant 1.79 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1164 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1165 zhen 1.16 </body>
1166     </section>
1167     </chapter>
1168     <chapter>
1169 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1170 zhen 1.16 <section>
1171     <body>
1172     <note>
1173 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1174     </note>
1175 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You now need to merge Linux kernel sources. Here are the ones we currently
1176 zhen 1.6 offer:
1177     </p>
1178 zhen 1.16 <table>
1179     <tr>
1180     <th>ebuild</th>
1181     <th>description</th>
1182     </tr>
1183     <tr>
1184     <ti>
1185     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
1186     </ti>
1187 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
1188 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1189     <tr>
1190     <ti>
1191     <path>xfs-sources</path>
1192     </ti>
1193 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
1194 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1195     <tr>
1196     <ti>
1197     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
1198     </ti>
1199     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
1200     </tr>
1201     <tr>
1202     <ti>
1203     <path>usermode-sources</path>
1204     </ti>
1205     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
1206     </tr>
1207     <tr>
1208     <ti>
1209     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
1210     </ti>
1211 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you would get from kernel.org</ti>
1212 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1213     </table>
1214 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
1215     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1216     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1217 zhen 1.6 </warn>
1218 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1219 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1220 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1221 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1222 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1223 zhen 1.6 </p>
1224 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1225 jhhudso 1.75 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1226 zhen 1.38 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1227     to the correct one before proceeding.
1228     </p>
1229 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
1230 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1231     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1232     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1233     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1234 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1235 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1236 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1237 jhhudso 1.81 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1238     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1239     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1240     enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1241     <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1242     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1243     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1244     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1245     ...
1247     File systems ---&gt;
1248     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1249     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1250     ...
1251     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1252     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1253     ...
1254     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1255     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1256     ...
1257     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1258     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1259     ...
1260     [*] /proc file system support
1261     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1262     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1263     [*] Automatically mount at boot
1264     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1265     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1266     <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1267     ...
1268     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1269     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1270     ...
1271     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1272     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1273     </pre>
1274 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1275 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1276     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1277     support for IDE RAID
1278     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1279     </p>
1280 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1281 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1282 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1283     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1284     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1285 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1286     </p>
1287 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1288     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1289     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1290     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1291     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1292     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1293     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1294 zhen 1.6 </p>
1295 zhen 1.16 <note>
1296 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
1297     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1298 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
1299 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1300     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1301     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1302 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1303     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1304 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1305     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1306 peesh 1.85 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1307     that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1308 zhen 1.6 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1309     </note>
1310 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1311 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1312     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1313     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1314     newer alternatives.
1315     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1316     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1317     </p>
1318 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1319 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1320     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1321     <comment>or</comment>
1322     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1323     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1324     <comment>or</comment>
1325     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1326     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1327     <comment>or</comment>
1328     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1329     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1330 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1331 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1332 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1333     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1334     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1335     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1336     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1337     in real time, as expected),
1338     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1339 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1340     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1341 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1342 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1343     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1344 zhen 1.6 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1345     </p>
1346 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1347 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1348 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1349 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1350     <comment>or</comment>
1351     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1352 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1353 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1354     <comment>or</comment>
1355     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1356 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1357     <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1358     </pre>
1359     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1360 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1361 zhen 1.6 </p>
1362 zhen 1.16 </body>
1363     </section>
1364     </chapter>
1365     <chapter>
1366 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing miscellany necessary packages</title>
1367 zhen 1.16 <section>
1368     <body>
1369     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1370 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1371 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1372 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1373 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1374 zhen 1.40
1375     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1376     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1377     X support later.
1378     </note>
1379 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1380 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1381     for the first time.
1382     </note>
1383 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1384 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1385 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1386 zhen 1.6 </p>
1387 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1388 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1389 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1390 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1391 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1392 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1393 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1394 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1395 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1396 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1397 jhhudso 1.75 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1398 zhen 1.6 </p>
1399 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1400 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1401 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1402 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1403 zhen 1.10 to work.
1404     </warn>
1405 zhen 1.16 </body>
1406     </section>
1407     </chapter>
1408     <chapter>
1409 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1410 zhen 1.16 <section>
1411     <body>
1412     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1413 jhhudso 1.75 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1414 zhen 1.6 The first file we need to
1415     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1416     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1417     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1418     </p>
1419 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1420     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1421 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1422     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1423 drobbins 1.1 #
1424 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1425 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1426 jhhudso 1.75 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1427 drobbins 1.1 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1429 seemant 1.78 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1430 drobbins 1.1
1431     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1432     </comment>
1433     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1434     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1435     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1436     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1437     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1438 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1439 jhhudso 1.75 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1440 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1441     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1442     </warn>
1443 zhen 1.16 </body>
1444     </section>
1445     </chapter>
1446     <chapter>
1447 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1448 zhen 1.16 <section>
1449     <body>
1450     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1451 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1452 zhen 1.16 # <c>passwd</c>
1453 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1454 zhen 1.56
1455     <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1456     the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1457     </p>
1458 zhen 1.16 </body>
1459     </section>
1460     </chapter>
1461     <chapter>
1462 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1463 zhen 1.16 <section>
1464     <body>
1465     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1466 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1467     </p>
1468 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1469 zhen 1.16 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1470 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1471 zhen 1.16 </body>
1472     </section>
1473     </chapter>
1474     <chapter>
1475 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1476 zhen 1.16 <section>
1477     <body>
1478     <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1479 jhhudso 1.75 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1480     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1481 zhen 1.6 </p>
1482 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1483 drobbins 1.1 localhost
1484     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1485 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1486 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1487 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1488 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1489     </note>
1490 zhen 1.16 </body>
1491     </section>
1492     </chapter>
1493     <chapter>
1494     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1495     <section>
1496     <body>
1497     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1498 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1499     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1500     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1501     it as a module:
1502     </p>
1503 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1504     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1505 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1506 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1507 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1508 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1509 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1510 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1511     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1512 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1513 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1514 zhen 1.6 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1515 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1516 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1517     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1518     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1519 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1520 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1521 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1522 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1523 zhen 1.6 </p>
1524 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1525 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1526     need pcmcia
1527     }
1528 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1529 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1530 zhen 1.10 </p>
1531 zhen 1.16 </body>
1532     </section>
1533     </chapter>
1534     <chapter>
1535     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1536     <section>
1537     <body>
1538 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1539 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1540 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1541 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1542 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1543     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1544     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1545     possibilities).
1546     </p>
1547 zhen 1.16 </body>
1548     </section>
1549     </chapter>
1550     <chapter>
1551 zhen 1.61 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1552 zhen 1.49 <section>
1553     <title>Notes</title>
1554     <body>
1555     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1556     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1557     LILO as their bootloaders.
1558     </p>
1559     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1560 jhhudso 1.75 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1561 zhen 1.49 </p>
1562 drobbins 1.69 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1563     with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1564 drobbins 1.70 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1565     memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1566 drobbins 1.69 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1567 jhhudso 1.75 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1568 drobbins 1.69 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1570 zhen 1.49 </body>
1571     </section>
1572 zhen 1.16 <section>
1573 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1574 zhen 1.16 <body>
1575     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1576 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1577     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1578 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1579 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1580     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1581     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1582     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1583     a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1584     <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1586     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1587     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1588     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1589     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1590 jhhudso 1.75 it is time to install GRUB.
1591 zhen 1.6 </p>
1592 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1593 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1594 zhen 1.51 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1595 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1596 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1597 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1598 zhen 1.6 this time.
1599     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1600     grub setup for RAID controllers
1601     </impo>
1602 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1603 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1604     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1605     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1606     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1607     I want to type are:
1608     </p>
1609 zhen 1.68
1610 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1611 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1612     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1613 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1614 zhen 1.68
1615 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1616 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1617 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1618     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1619 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1620 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1621 zhen 1.68
1622 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1623 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1624     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1625     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1626     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1627     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1628     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1629     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1630     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1631 jhhudso 1.75 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1632 zhen 1.6 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1633 zhen 1.52 </p>
1634 zhen 1.6
1635     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1636     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1637     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1638     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1639     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1640     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1642     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1643     to make the right choice.
1644     </note>
1646 zhen 1.52 <p>
1647 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
1648     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1649 jhhudso 1.75 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1650 zhen 1.6 </p>
1651 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1652 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1653     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1654 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1655 zhen 1.6 </p>
1656 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1657 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1658     timeout 30
1659     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1661     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1662     root (hd0,0)
1663 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1664 drobbins 1.1
1665 jhhudso 1.81 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1666 drobbins 1.1 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1667     root (hd0,0)
1668 zhen 1.63 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1669 drobbins 1.1
1670     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1671 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
1672 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
1673 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1674 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1675 zhen 1.16 <note>
1676 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1677     </note>
1678 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1679 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1680 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1681     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1682 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1683 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1684 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1685     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1686     </p>
1687 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1688 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1689     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1690     loader.
1691 zhware 1.9 </note>
1692 zhen 1.16 <note>
1693 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1694 zhen 1.6 </note>
1695 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1696 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1697     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1698     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1699     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1700     </p>
1701 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1702 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1703     devfs is enabled by default.
1704     </note>
1705 zhen 1.16 </body>
1706     </section>
1707 zhen 1.49 <section>
1708     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1709 zhen 1.16 <body>
1710 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1711 jhhudso 1.75 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1712 drobbins 1.21 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1713 zhen 1.16 </p>
1714     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1715     </p>
1716 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1717 zhen 1.16 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1718 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1719 zhen 1.82 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1720 zhen 1.16 </p>
1721 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1722 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
1723     map=/boot/map
1724     install=/boot/boot.b
1725     prompt
1726     timeout=50
1727     lba32
1728     default=linux
1730     image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1731     label=linux
1732     read-only
1733 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
1734 zhen 1.16
1735     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1736     other=/dev/hda1
1737     label=dos
1738 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1739 zhen 1.52 <ul>
1740 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1741     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1742     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1743     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1744     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1745 zhen 1.83 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1746 zhen 1.16 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1747     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1748     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1749     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1750     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1751     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1752     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1753     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1754     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1755     <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1756     <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1757     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1758     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1759     altered during the boot process. </li>
1760     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1761 zhen 1.52 </ul>
1762 zhen 1.16 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1763     into the MBR:
1764     </p>
1765 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1766 zhen 1.16 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1767 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1768 zhen 1.16 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1769     </p>
1770     </body>
1771     </section>
1772     </chapter>
1773     <chapter>
1774 zhen 1.66 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1775 zhen 1.16 <section>
1776     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1777     <body>
1778 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1779 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1780 drobbins 1.21 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1781     disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1782     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1783     make a GRUB
1784     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1785 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1786 jhhudso 1.75 bootdisks like this:
1787 zhen 1.6 </p>
1788 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1789 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1790     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1791     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1792     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1793     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1794 zhen 1.66 # <c>umount /mnt/floppy</c>
1795 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1797     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1798     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1799     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1800 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1801 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1802 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1803 zhen 1.16 </body>
1804     </section>
1805     <section>
1806     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1807     <body>
1808     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1809     </p>
1810 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1811 zhen 1.18 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1812     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1813 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1814 zhen 1.16 </body>
1815     </section>
1816     </chapter>
1817     <chapter>
1818     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1819     <section>
1820     <body>
1821 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1823 zhen 1.6 safely unmount your partitions
1824     and reboot the system:
1825     </p>
1826 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1827 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1828     # <c>exit</c>
1829 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1830 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd / </c>
1831     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1832     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1833     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1834     # <c>reboot</c>
1835 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1836 zhen 1.16 <note>
1837 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1838     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1839     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1840     </note>
1841 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1842 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1843     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1844 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1845 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1846 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1847 seo 1.84 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
1848 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1849     that will
1850     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1851     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1852     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1853 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1854 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1855 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1856 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1857     </p>
1858 zhen 1.16 </body>
1859     </section>
1860     </chapter>
1861     <chapter>
1862     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1863     <section>
1864     <body>
1865     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1866 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1867     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1868     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1869     </p>
1870 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1871 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1872     to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1873     other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1874     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1875 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1876 zhen 1.6 </p>
1877 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1878     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1879     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1880     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1881     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1882     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1883     </ul>
1884     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1885 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
1886     </p>
1887 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1888     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1889 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1890 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1891     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1892     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1893     </ul>
1894     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1895 zhen 1.6 </p>
1896 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1897 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1898     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1899 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1900 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1901 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1902     to see additional configuration options.
1903     </p>
1904 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1905 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1906     </p>
1907 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1908     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1909     </pre>
1910 zhen 1.16 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1911 jhhudso 1.75 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1912 zhen 1.16 </body>
1913     </section>
1914     </chapter>
1915 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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