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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc3 Installation Instructions</title>
5 <author title="Chief Architect">
6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Ghost">
13 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Editor">
16 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Editor">
19 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20 </author>
21 <author title="Editor">
22 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Editor">
25 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26 </author>
27 <author title="Editor">
28 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29 </author>
30 <author title="Editor">
31 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32 </author>
33 <author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35 </author>
36 <author title="Editor">
37 <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 </author>
39 <author title="Editor">
40 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
41 </author>
42 <author title="Editor">
43 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
44 </author>
45 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
46 Linux 1.4_rc3. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
47 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
48 scratch.
49 </abstract>
50 <version>2.6</version>
51 <date>28 March 2003</date>
52 <chapter>
53 <title>About the Install</title>
54 <section>
55 <body>
56 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
57 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
58 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
59 kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
60 addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
61 Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
62 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
63 files. </p>
64 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
65 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
66 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
67 slow under those conditions.)</p>
68 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
69 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
70 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
71 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
72 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
73 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
74 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
75 and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
76 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
77 allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
78 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
79 go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
80 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
81 releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
82 this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
83 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
84
85
86 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
87 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</uri> . Please consider using one of our mirrors to alleviate the heavy load from
88 the main server. A list of servers can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</uri>.
89 </p>
90 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
91 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
92 carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
93 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
94 allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
95 found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
96 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
97 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
98 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
99 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
100 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
101 Gentoo 1.4_rc3 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_rc4 will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
102 </p>
103 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
104 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
105 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
106 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
107 </impo>
108 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
109 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
110 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
111 are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
112 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
113 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
114 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
115 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
116 <table>
117 <tr>
118 <th>stage tarball</th>
119 <th>requirements for installation</th>
120 </tr>
121 <tr>
122 <ti>1</ti>
123 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
124 </tr>
125 <tr>
126 <ti>2</ti>
127 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
128 </tr>
129 <tr>
130 <ti>3</ti>
131 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
132 </tr>
133 </table>
134 </body>
135 </section>
136 </chapter>
137 <chapter>
138 <title>Booting</title>
139 <section>
140 <body>
141 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
142 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
143 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c> and then hitting Enter. To see
144 a detailed description of available boot options, press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
145
146 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
147 booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
148 Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
149 &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
150 for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
151 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
152 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
153 Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type passwd and
154 follow the prompts.
155 </p>
156 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
157 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
158 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
159 </p>
160 </body>
161 </section>
162 </chapter>
163 <chapter>
164 <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
165 <section>
166 <body>
167 <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
168 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
169 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
170 /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
171 type:
172 </p>
173 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
174 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
175 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
176 </pre>
177 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
178 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
179 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
180 </p>
181 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
182 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
183 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
184 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
185 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
186 </pre>
187 <note>
188 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
189 </note>
190 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
191 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
192 </p>
193 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
194 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
195 # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
196 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
197 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
198 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
199 </pre>
200 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
201 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
202 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
203 <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
204 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
205 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
206 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
207 # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
208 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
209 </pre>
210 </body>
211 </section>
212 </chapter>
213 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
214 <chapter>
215 <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
216 <section>
217 <body>
218 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
219 </p>
220 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
221 portion of the install. </warn>
222 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
223 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
224 # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
225 # <i>modprobe ds</i>
226 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
227 </pre>
228 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
229 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
230 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
231 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
232 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
233 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
234 as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
235 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
236 remove it). </p>
237 </body>
238 </section>
239 </chapter>
240 -->
241 <chapter>
242 <title>Configuring Networking</title>
243 <section>
244 <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
245 <body>
246 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
247 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
248 network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
249 among others.</p>
250
251 <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
252 list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
253 </p>
254 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
255 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
256 inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
257 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
258 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
259 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
260 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
261 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
262 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
263 Interrupt:11
264 </pre>
265 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
266 and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
267 resolution is working correctly, etc.
268 </p>
269 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
270 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
271 </pre>
272 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
273 </body>
274 </section>
275 <section>
276 <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
277 <body>
278 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
279 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
280 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
281 device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
282 the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
283 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
284 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
285 # <c> adsl-start </c>
286 </pre>
287 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
288 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
289 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
290 </body>
291 </section>
292 <section>
293 <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
294 <body>
295 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
296 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
297 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
298 </pre>
299 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
300 </body>
301 </section>
302 <section>
303 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
304 <body>
305 <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
306 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
307 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
308 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
309 </pre>
310 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
311 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
312 </note>
313 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
314 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
315 </body>
316 </section>
317 <section>
318 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
319 <body>
320 <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
321 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
322 Type in the following commands, replacing
323 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
324 with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
325 with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
326 $GTWAY with your default gateway.
327 </p>
328 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
329 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
330 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
331 </pre>
332 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
333 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
334 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
335 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
336 domain mydomain.com
337 nameserver 10.0.0.1
338 nameserver 10.0.0.2
339 </pre>
340 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
341 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
342 </body>
343 </section>
344 <section>
345 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
346 <body>
347 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
348 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
349 </p>
350 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
351 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
352 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
353 # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
354 </pre>
355 </body>
356 </section>
357 <section>
358 <title>Networking is go!</title>
359 <body>
360 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
361 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
362 </body>
363 </section>
364 </chapter>
365 <chapter>
366 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
367 <section>
368 <body>
369 <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
370 You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
371 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
372 # <c>date</c>
373 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
374 <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
375 # <c>date 022709042003</c>
376 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
377 </pre>
378 </body>
379 </section>
380 </chapter>
381 <chapter>
382 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
383 <section>
384 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
385 <body>
386 <p>
387 In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
388 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
389 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
390 install.
391 </p>
392 <p>
393 To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
394 probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
395 </p>
396 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
397 /dev/hda
398 </pre>
399
400 <p>
401 If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
402 </p>
403
404 <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
405 /dev/sda
406 </pre>
407
408 <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
409 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
410 worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
411 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
412 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
413 </body>
414 </section>
415 <section>
416 <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
417 <body>
418 <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
419 <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
420 block device as a command-line argument. </p>
421
422 <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
423 device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
424 <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
425 practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
426 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
427 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
428 that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
429 up the full disk. </p>
430
431 <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
432 specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
433
434 <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
435 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c></note>
436
437 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
438 # fdisk /dev/hda
439 </pre>
440 <p>
441 or
442 </p>
443 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
444 # fdisk /dev/sda
445 </pre>
446
447 <impo>
448 <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
449 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
450 contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
451 lost.</b>
452 </impo>
453
454 <p>
455 Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
456 </p>
457
458 <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
459 Command (m for help):
460 </pre>
461
462
463 <p>
464 Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
465 </p>
466
467 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
468 Command (m for help): p
469
470 Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
471 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
472
473 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
474 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
475 /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
476 /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
477 /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
478 /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
479 /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
480 /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
481 /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
482 /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
483
484 Command (m for help):
485 </pre>
486
487 <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
488 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
489 (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
490
491 <p>
492 Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
493 devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
494 <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
495 allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
496 too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
497 created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
498 counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
499 partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
500 them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
501 </p>
502
503 <p>
504 All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
505 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
506
507 <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
508 <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
509 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
510 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
511 acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
512
513 <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
514 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
515 partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
516 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, and '82' is the correct
517 partition type for Linux swap partitions. You set the partition type using the
518 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
519 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
520 </p>
521 </body>
522 </section>
523 <section>
524 <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
525 <body>
526
527 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
528 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
529 partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
530 process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
531 look like this: </p>
532
533 <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
534 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
535 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
536 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
537
538 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
539 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
540 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
541 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
542
543 Command (m for help):
544 </pre>
545
546 <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
547 The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
548 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
549 the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
550 will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
551 us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
552 day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
553 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
554 likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
555
556 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
557 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
558 required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
559 loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
560 cylinder 1024.
561 </p>
562
563 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
564 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
565 relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
566 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
567 being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
568
569 <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
570 of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
571 store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
572 this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
573
574
575 <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
576 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
577 Linux:</p>
578
579 <table>
580 <tr>
581 <th>Partition</th>
582 <th>Size</th>
583 <th>Type</th>
584 <th>example device</th>
585 </tr>
586 <tr>
587 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
588 <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
589 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
590 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
591 </tr>
592 <tr>
593 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
594 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
595 in your system.</ti>
596 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
597 <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
598 </tr>
599 <tr>
600 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
601 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
602 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
603 <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
604 </tr>
605 </table>
606
607 <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
608 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
609 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
610 current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
611 to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
612 existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
613
614 <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
615 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
616 is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
617 <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
618 from the wrong drive.</impo>
619
620 <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
621 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
622 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
623
624 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
625 Command (m for help): d
626 Partition number (1-4): 1
627 </pre>
628
629 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
630 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
631 saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
632 type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
633 deleted.</p>
634 <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
635 find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
636 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
637 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
638 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
639 disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
640 -->
641 <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
642 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
643 <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
644 with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
645
646 <pre caption="An empty partition table">
647 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
648 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
649 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
650
651 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
652
653 Command (m for help):
654 </pre>
655
656 <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
657 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
658 <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
659 create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
660 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+100M</c> to create a
661 partition 100MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
662
663 <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
664 Command (m for help): n
665 Command action
666 e extended
667 p primary partition (1-4)
668 p
669 Partition number (1-4): 1
670 First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
671 Using default value 1
672 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +100M
673 </pre>
674
675 <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
676
677 <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
678 Command (m for help): p
679
680 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
681 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
682 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
683
684 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
685 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
686 </pre>
687
688 <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
689 new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
690 type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
691 When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
692 type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
693 <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
694 type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
695 a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
696
697 <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
698 Command (m for help): p
699
700 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
701 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
702 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
703
704 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
705 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
706 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
707 </pre>
708
709 <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
710 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
711 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
712 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
713 When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
714 up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
715 typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
716 this:</p>
717
718 <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
719 Command (m for help): p
720
721 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
722 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
723 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
724
725 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
726 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
727 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
728 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
729 </pre>
730
731 <p>
732 Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
733 our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
734 <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
735 type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
736 column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
737 enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
738 install.
739 </p>
740
741 <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
742 allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
743 </body>
744 </section>
745 <section>
746 <title>Creating filesystems</title>
747 <body>
748 <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
749 the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
750 We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
751 </p>
752
753 <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
754 its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
755 we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
756
757 <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
758 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
759 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
760 <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
761 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
762 Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
763 filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
764
765 <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
766 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
767 like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
768 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
769 Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
770 design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
771 very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
772 files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
773 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
774
775 <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
776 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
777 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
778 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
779 now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
780 filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
781 use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
782 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
783 non-boot partitions.</p>
784
785 <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
786 Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
787 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
788 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
789 a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
790 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
791 when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
792 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
793
794 <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
795 become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
796 comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
797 point.</p>
798
799 <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
800 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
801 journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
802 refined and recommended for general use.</p>
803
804 <!-- Corner case, confusing
805 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
806 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
807 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
808 a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
809 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
810 This can be done as follows:
811 </p>
812 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
813 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
814 <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
815 </pre>
816 <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
817 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
818 If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
819 </warn>
820 -->
821
822 <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
823 all our partitions for use:</p>
824
825 <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
826 # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
827 # mkswap /dev/hda2
828 # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
829 </pre>
830
831 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
832 robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
833 <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
834 here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
835 since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
836 go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
837
838 <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
839 during the installation process:</p>
840
841 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
842 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
843 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
844 </pre>
845 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
846 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
847 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
848 </pre>
849 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
850 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
851 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
852 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
853 </pre>
854 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
855 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
856 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
857 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
858 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
859 </pre>
860 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
861 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
862 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
863 </pre>
864 <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
865 <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
866 The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
867 XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
868 partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
869 a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
870 journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
871
872 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
873 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
874 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
875 </pre>
876 </body>
877 </section>
878 </chapter>
879 <chapter>
880 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
881 <section>
882 <body>
883 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
884 provides later:
885 </p>
886 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
887 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
888 </pre>
889
890 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
891 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
892 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
893 Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
894 Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
895 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
896 </p>
897
898 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
899 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
900 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
901 We will get to that in a bit.
902 </impo>
903
904 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
905 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
906 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
907 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
908 # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
909 </pre>
910
911 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
912 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
913 </body>
914 </section>
915 </chapter>
916 <chapter>
917 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
918 <section>
919 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
920 <body>
921
922 <p>
923 Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
924 basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
925
926 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
927 method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc3.tar.bz2</path> image.
928 If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
929 have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
930 time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
931 optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
932 accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
933 to see what's available on your CD.</p>
934
935 <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
936 <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
937 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
938 tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
939 tarball" section.</p>
940
941 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
942 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
943 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
944 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</c>
945 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
946 Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
947 Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
948 Save the file and quit the browser
949
950 <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
951 # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
952 </pre>
953 </body>
954 </section>
955 <section>
956 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
957 <body>
958
959 <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
960 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
961 tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
962 stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
963 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
964
965 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
966 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
967
968 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
969 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
970 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
971 <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
972 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
973 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
974 </pre>
975
976 <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
977 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
978 </body>
979 </section>
980 <section>
981 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
982 <body>
983 <p>
984 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
985 Gentoo Linux system.
986 </p>
987
988 <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
989 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
990 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
991 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
992 # <c>env-update</c>
993 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
994 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
995 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
996 </pre>
997 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
998 We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
999 </p>
1000 </body>
1001 </section>
1002 </chapter>
1003 <chapter>
1004 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1005 <section>
1006 <body>
1007
1008 <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
1009 the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
1010 The Portage tree
1011 contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
1012 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1013 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1014
1015 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1016 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1017 </pre>
1018
1019 </body>
1020 </section>
1021 </chapter>
1022 <chapter>
1023 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1024 <section>
1025 <body>
1026
1027 <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1028 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1029 Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1030 programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1031 this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1032 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1033 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1034 fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1035 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1036 of current USE flags can be found <uri
1037 link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1038
1039 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1040 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1041 (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1042 will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1043 is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1044 to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1045 so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1046 performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1047 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1048
1049 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1050 firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1051 a simple visual editor.
1052 </p>
1053 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1054 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1055 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1056 </pre>
1057 <note>
1058 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1059 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1060 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1061 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1062 <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1063 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1064 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1065 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1066 in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1067 </note>
1068 </body>
1069 </section>
1070 </chapter>
1071 <chapter>
1072 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1073 <section>
1074 <body>
1075 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1076 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1077 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1078 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1079 is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1080 </p>
1081 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1082 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1083 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1084 as follows:</p>
1085 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1086 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1087 # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1088 </pre>
1089 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
1090 </p>
1091 <note>
1092 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1093 using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1094 change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1095 starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1096 </note>
1097 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1098 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1099 </pre>
1100 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1101 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
1102 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1103 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1104 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1105 </p>
1106 </body>
1107 </section>
1108 </chapter>
1109 <chapter>
1110 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1111 <section>
1112 <body>
1113
1114 <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1115 this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1116 </note>
1117
1118 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1119 to do is install the rest of the system.
1120 </p>
1121 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1122 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1123 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1124 # <c>emerge system</c>
1125 </pre>
1126 <p>It is going to take a while
1127 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1128 thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1129 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1130 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1131 </p>
1132 <p>When this process completes, your system will be the equivalent of a stage3 system. You have
1133 a couple of choices on how to continue
1134 at this point. You can move onto the stage3 instructions and complete those. Doing that will
1135 get your system right up to date with what is in the current Portage tree. This is not necessary,
1136 but it is highly recommended.
1137 </p>
1138 </body>
1139 </section>
1140 </chapter>
1141 <chapter>
1142 <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1143 <section>
1144 <body>
1145 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1146 with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1147 <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1148 However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1149 for you, you can update your stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1150 by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1151 otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1152 Gentoo updates and fixes.
1153 In any case, feel free to skip these
1154 steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1155 </p>
1156
1157 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1158 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"</c>
1159 # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1160 <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1161 # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1162 <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1163 # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1164 </pre>
1165 </body>
1166 </section>
1167 </chapter>
1168 <chapter>
1169 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1170 <section>
1171 <body>
1172 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1173 <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1174 in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1175 /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1176 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1177 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1178 </pre>
1179 </body>
1180 </section>
1181 </chapter>
1182 <chapter>
1183 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1184 <section>
1185 <body>
1186 <note>
1187 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1188 </note>
1189 <p>You now need to merge Linux kernel sources. Here are the ones we currently
1190 offer:
1191 </p>
1192 <table>
1193 <tr>
1194 <th>ebuild</th>
1195 <th>description</th>
1196 </tr>
1197 <tr>
1198 <ti>
1199 <path>gentoo-sources</path>
1200 </ti>
1201 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
1202 </tr>
1203 <tr>
1204 <ti>
1205 <path>xfs-sources</path>
1206 </ti>
1207 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
1208 </tr>
1209 <tr>
1210 <ti>
1211 <path>openmosix-sources</path>
1212 </ti>
1213 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
1214 </tr>
1215 <tr>
1216 <ti>
1217 <path>usermode-sources</path>
1218 </ti>
1219 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
1220 </tr>
1221 <tr>
1222 <ti>
1223 <path>vanilla-sources</path>
1224 </ti>
1225 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you would get from kernel.org</ti>
1226 </tr>
1227 </table>
1228 <warn>
1229 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1230 security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1231 </warn>
1232 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1233 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1234 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1235 </pre>
1236 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1237 </p>
1238 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1239 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1240 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1241 to the correct one before proceeding.
1242 </p>
1243 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
1244 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1245 # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1246 # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1247 # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1248 </pre>
1249 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1250 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1251 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1252 any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1253 &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1254 enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1255 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1256 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1257 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1258 <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1259 ...
1260
1261 File systems ---&gt;
1262 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1263 <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1264 ...
1265 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1266 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1267 ...
1268 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1269 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1270 ...
1271 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1272 <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1273 ...
1274 [*] /proc file system support
1275 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1276 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1277 [*] Automatically mount at boot
1278 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1279 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1280 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1281 ...
1282 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1283 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1284 ...
1285 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1286 <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1287 </pre>
1288 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1289 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1290 370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1291 support for IDE RAID
1292 controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1293 </p>
1294 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1295 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1296 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1297 &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1298 are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1299 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1300 </p>
1301 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1302 kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1303 devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1304 under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1305 &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1306 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1307 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1308 </p>
1309 <note>
1310 For those who prefer it,
1311 it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1312 However, doing this comes at a price:
1313 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1314 are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1315 filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1316 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1317 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1318 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1319 It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1320 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1321 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1322 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1323 </note>
1324 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1325 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1326 of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1327 to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1328 newer alternatives.
1329 If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1330 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1331 </p>
1332 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1333 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1334 # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1335 <comment>or</comment>
1336 # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1337 # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1338 <comment>or</comment>
1339 # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1340 # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1341 <comment>or</comment>
1342 # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1343 # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1344 </pre>
1345 <impo>
1346 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1347 the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1348 is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1349 metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1350 <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1351 in real time, as expected),
1352 and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1353 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1354 in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1355 </impo>
1356 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1357 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1358 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1359 </p>
1360 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1361 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1362 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1363 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1364 <comment>or</comment>
1365 # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1366 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1367 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1368 <comment>or</comment>
1369 # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1370 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1371 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1372 </pre>
1373 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1374 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1375 </p>
1376 </body>
1377 </section>
1378 </chapter>
1379 <chapter>
1380 <title>Installing miscellany necessary packages</title>
1381 <section>
1382 <body>
1383 <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1384 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1385 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1386 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1387 </pre>
1388
1389 <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1390 because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1391 X support later.
1392 </note>
1393 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1394 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1395 for the first time.
1396 </note>
1397 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1398 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1399 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1400 </p>
1401 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1402 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1403 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1404 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1405 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1406 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1407 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1408 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1409 </pre>
1410 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1411 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1412 </p>
1413 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1414 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1415 </pre>
1416 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1417 to work.
1418 </warn>
1419 </body>
1420 </section>
1421 </chapter>
1422 <chapter>
1423 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1424 <section>
1425 <body>
1426 <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1427 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1428 The first file we need to
1429 configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1430 the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1431 Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1432 </p>
1433 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1434 &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1435 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1436 <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1437 #
1438 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1439 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1440 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1441 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1442
1443 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1444
1445 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1446 </comment>
1447 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1448 /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1449 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1450 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1451 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1452 </pre>
1453 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1454 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1455 corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1456 </warn>
1457 </body>
1458 </section>
1459 </chapter>
1460 <chapter>
1461 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1462 <section>
1463 <body>
1464 <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1465 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1466 # <c>passwd</c>
1467 </pre>
1468
1469 <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1470 the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1471 </p>
1472 </body>
1473 </section>
1474 </chapter>
1475 <chapter>
1476 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1477 <section>
1478 <body>
1479 <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1480 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1481 </p>
1482 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1483 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1484 </pre>
1485 </body>
1486 </section>
1487 </chapter>
1488 <chapter>
1489 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1490 <section>
1491 <body>
1492 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1493 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1494 of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1495 </p>
1496 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1497 127.0.0.1 localhost
1498 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1499 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1500 </pre>
1501 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1502 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1503 </note>
1504 </body>
1505 </section>
1506 </chapter>
1507 <chapter>
1508 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1509 <section>
1510 <body>
1511 <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1512 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1513 need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1514 loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1515 it as a module:
1516 </p>
1517 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1518 Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1519 3c59x
1520 </pre>
1521 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1522 first boot: </p>
1523 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1524 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1525 # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1526 </pre>
1527 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1528 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1529 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1530 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1531 # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1532 # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1533 </pre>
1534 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1535 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1536 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1537 </p>
1538 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1539 depend() {
1540 need pcmcia
1541 }
1542 </pre>
1543 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1544 </p>
1545 </body>
1546 </section>
1547 </chapter>
1548 <chapter>
1549 <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1550 <section>
1551 <body>
1552 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1553 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1554 </pre>
1555 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1556 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1557 liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1558 variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1559 possibilities).
1560 </p>
1561 </body>
1562 </section>
1563 </chapter>
1564 <chapter>
1565 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1566 <section>
1567 <title>Notes</title>
1568 <body>
1569 <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1570 Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1571 LILO as their bootloaders.
1572 </p>
1573 <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1574 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1575 </p>
1576 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1577 with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1578 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1579 memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1580 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1581 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1582 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1583
1584 </body>
1585 </section>
1586 <section>
1587 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1588 <body>
1589 <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1590 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1591 <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1592 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1593 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1594 cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1595 (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1596 to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1597 a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hard drive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1598 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1599
1600 It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1601 offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1602 a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1603 grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1604 it is time to install GRUB.
1605 </p>
1606 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1607 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1608 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1609 # <c>grub</c>
1610 </pre>
1611 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1612 this time.
1613 Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1614 grub setup for RAID controllers
1615 </impo>
1616 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1617 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1618 right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1619 I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1620 the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1621 I want to type are:
1622 </p>
1623
1624 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1625 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1626 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1627 </pre>
1628
1629 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1630 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1631 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1632 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1633 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1634 </pre>
1635
1636 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1637 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1638 <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1639 </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1640 boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1641 ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1642 MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1643 If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1644 could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1645 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1646 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1647 </p>
1648
1649 <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1650 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1651 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1652 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1653 available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1654 would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1655
1656 Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1657 to make the right choice.
1658 </note>
1659
1660 <p>
1661 Gentoo Linux is now
1662 installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1663 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1664 </p>
1665 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1666 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1667 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1668 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1669 </p>
1670 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1671 default 0
1672 timeout 30
1673 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1674
1675 title=My example Gentoo Linux
1676 root (hd0,0)
1677 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1678
1679 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1680 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1681 root (hd0,0)
1682 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1683
1684 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1685 title=Windows XP
1686 root (hd0,5)
1687 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1688 </pre>
1689 <note>
1690 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1691 </note>
1692 <impo>
1693 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1694 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1695 line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1696 </impo>
1697 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1698 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1699 and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1700 </p>
1701 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1702 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1703 your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1704 loader.
1705 </note>
1706 <note>
1707 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1708 </note>
1709 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1710 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1711 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1712 turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1713 adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1714 </p>
1715 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1716 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1717 devfs is enabled by default.
1718 </note>
1719 </body>
1720 </section>
1721 <section>
1722 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1723 <body>
1724 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1725 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1726 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1727 </p>
1728 <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1729 </p>
1730 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1731 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1732 </pre>
1733 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1734 </p>
1735 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1736 boot=/dev/hda
1737 map=/boot/map
1738 install=/boot/boot.b
1739 prompt
1740 timeout=50
1741 lba32
1742 default=linux
1743
1744 image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1745 label=linux
1746 read-only
1747 root=/dev/hda3
1748
1749 #For dual booting windows/other OS
1750 other=/dev/hda1
1751 label=dos
1752 </pre>
1753 <ul>
1754 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1755 <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1756 <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1757 In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1758 assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1759 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1760 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1761 get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1762 <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1763 with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1764 <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1765 not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1766 your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1767 <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1768 options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1769 <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1770 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1771 it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1772 <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1773 altered during the boot process. </li>
1774 <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1775 </ul>
1776 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1777 into the MBR:
1778 </p>
1779 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1780 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1781 </pre>
1782 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1783 </p>
1784 </body>
1785 </section>
1786 </chapter>
1787 <chapter>
1788 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1789 <section>
1790 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1791 <body>
1792 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1793 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1794 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1795 disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1796 if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1797 make a GRUB
1798 boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1799 to the MBR. Make your
1800 bootdisks like this:
1801 </p>
1802 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1803 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1804 # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1805 # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1806 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1807 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1808 # <c>umount /mnt/floppy</c>
1809 # <c>grub</c>
1810
1811 grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1812 grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1813 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1814 </pre>
1815 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1816 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1817 </body>
1818 </section>
1819 <section>
1820 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1821 <body>
1822 <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1823 </p>
1824 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1825 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1826 <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1827 </pre>
1828 </body>
1829 </section>
1830 </chapter>
1831 <chapter>
1832 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1833 <section>
1834 <body>
1835 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1836
1837 safely unmount your partitions
1838 and reboot the system:
1839 </p>
1840 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1841 # <c>etc-update</c>
1842 # <c>exit</c>
1843 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1844 # <c>cd / </c>
1845 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1846 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1847 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1848 # <c>reboot</c>
1849 </pre>
1850 <note>
1851 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1852 the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1853 generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1854 </note>
1855 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1856 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1857 then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1858 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1859 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1860 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1861 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
1862 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1863 that will
1864 help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1865 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1866 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1867 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1868 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1869 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1870 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1871 </p>
1872 </body>
1873 </section>
1874 </chapter>
1875 <chapter>
1876 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1877 <section>
1878 <body>
1879 <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1880 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1881 us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1882 appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1883 </p>
1884 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1885 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1886 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
1887 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1888 development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1889 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1890 </p>
1891 <ul>
1892 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1893 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1894 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1895 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1896 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1897 </ul>
1898 <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1899 (just as it is to the developers).
1900 </p>
1901 <ul>
1902 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1903 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1904 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1905 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1906 in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1907 </ul>
1908 <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1909 </p>
1910 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1911 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1912 # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1913 </pre>
1914 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1915 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1916 to see additional configuration options.
1917 </p>
1918 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1919 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1920 </p>
1921 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1922 <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1923 </pre>
1924 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1925 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1926 </body>
1927 </section>
1928 </chapter>
1929 </guide>

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