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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 <author title="Chief Architect">
6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Ghost">
13 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Editor">
16 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Editor">
19 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20 </author>
21 <author title="Editor">
22 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Editor">
25 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26 </author>
27 <author title="Editor">
28 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29 </author>
30 <author title="Editor">
31 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32 </author>
33 <author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35 </author>
36 <author title="Editor">
37 <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 </author>
39 <author title="Editor">
40 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
41 </author>
42 <author title="Editor">
43 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
44 </author>
45 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
46 Linux 1.4_rc4. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
47 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
48 scratch.
49 </abstract>
50 <version>2.6</version>
51 <date>15 Apr 2003</date>
52 <chapter>
53 <title>About the Install</title>
54 <section>
55 <body>
56 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
57 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
58 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
59 kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
60 addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
61 Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
62 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
63 files. </p>
64 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
65 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
66 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
67 slow under those conditions.)</p>
68 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
69 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
70 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
71 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
72 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
73 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
74 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
75 and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
76 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
77 allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
78 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
79 go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
80 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
81 releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
82 this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
83 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
84
85
86 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
87 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</uri> . Please consider using one of our mirrors to alleviate the heavy load from
88 the main server. A list of servers can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</uri>.
89 </p>
90 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
91 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
92 carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
93 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
94 allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
95 found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
96 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
97 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
98 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
99 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
100 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
101 Gentoo 1.4_rc4 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_final will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
102 </p>
103 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
104 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
105 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
106 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
107 </impo>
108 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
109 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
110 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
111 are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
112 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
113 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
114 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
115 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
116 <table>
117 <tr>
118 <th>stage tarball</th>
119 <th>requirements for installation</th>
120 </tr>
121 <tr>
122 <ti>1</ti>
123 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
124 </tr>
125 <tr>
126 <ti>2</ti>
127 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
128 </tr>
129 <tr>
130 <ti>3</ti>
131 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
132 </tr>
133 </table>
134 </body>
135 </section>
136 </chapter>
137 <chapter>
138 <title>Booting</title>
139 <section>
140 <body>
141 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
142 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
143 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter. For example <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>. Consult the following table for a list of available kernels and options or press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
144
145 <table>
146 <tr>
147 <th>Available kernels.</th>
148 <th>description</th>
149 </tr>
150
151 <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>basic gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
152 <tr><ti>800</ti><ti>800x600 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
153 <tr><ti>1024</ti><ti>1024x768 framebuffer mode (default)</ti></tr>
154 <tr><ti>1280</ti><ti>1280x1024 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
155 <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
156 <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
157 <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
158 <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
159
160 </table>
161
162 <p>
163 <table>
164 <tr>
165 <th>Available boot options.</th>
166 <th>description</th>
167 </tr>
168
169 <tr><ti>doataraid</ti>
170 <ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
171
172 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti>
173 <ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)</ti></tr>
174
175 <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti>
176 <ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
177
178 <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti>
179 <ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
180
181 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti>
182 <ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
183
184 <tr><ti>noapm</ti>
185 <ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
186
187 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti>
188 <ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
189
190 <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti>
191 <ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
192
193 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti>
194 <ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
195
196 <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
197 <ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
198
199 <tr><ti>nousb</ti>
200 <ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
201
202 <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti>
203 <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
204
205 <tr><ti>cdcache</ti>
206 <ti>Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram, This uses 40mb of RAM , but allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another cdrom.</ti></tr>
207
208 </table></p>
209
210 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
211 booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
212 Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
213 &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
214 for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
215 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
216 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
217 Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type passwd and
218 follow the prompts.
219 </p>
220 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
221 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
222 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
223 </p>
224 </body>
225 </section>
226 </chapter>
227 <chapter>
228 <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
229 <section>
230 <body>
231 <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
232 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
233 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
234 /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
235 type:
236 </p>
237 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
238 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
239 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
240 </pre>
241 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
242 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
243 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
244 </p>
245 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
246 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
247 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
248 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
249 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
250 </pre>
251 <note>
252 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
253 </note>
254 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
255 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
256 </p>
257 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
258 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
259 # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
260 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
261 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
262 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
263 </pre>
264 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
265 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
266 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
267 <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
268 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
269 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
270 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
271 # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
272 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
273 </pre>
274 </body>
275 </section>
276 </chapter>
277 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
278 <chapter>
279 <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
280 <section>
281 <body>
282 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
283 </p>
284 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
285 portion of the install. </warn>
286 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
287 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
288 # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
289 # <i>modprobe ds</i>
290 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
291 </pre>
292 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
293 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
294 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
295 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
296 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
297 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
298 as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
299 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
300 remove it). </p>
301 </body>
302 </section>
303 </chapter>
304 -->
305 <chapter>
306 <title>Configuring Networking</title>
307 <section>
308 <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
309 <body>
310 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
311 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
312 network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
313 among others.</p>
314
315 <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
316 list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
317 </p>
318 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
319 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
320 inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
321 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
322 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
323 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
324 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
325 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
326 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
327 Interrupt:11
328 </pre>
329 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
330 and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
331 resolution is working correctly, etc.
332 </p>
333 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
334 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
335 </pre>
336 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
337 </body>
338 </section>
339 <section>
340 <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
341 <body>
342 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
343 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
344 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
345 device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
346 the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
347 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
348 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
349 # <c> adsl-start </c>
350 </pre>
351 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
352 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
353 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
354 </body>
355 </section>
356 <section>
357 <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
358 <body>
359 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
360 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
361 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
362 </pre>
363 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
364 </body>
365 </section>
366 <section>
367 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
368 <body>
369 <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
370 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
371 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
372 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
373 </pre>
374 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
375 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
376 </note>
377 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
378 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
379 </body>
380 </section>
381 <section>
382 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
383 <body>
384 <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
385 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
386 Type in the following commands, replacing
387 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
388 with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
389 with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
390 $GTWAY with your default gateway.
391 </p>
392 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
393 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
394 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
395 </pre>
396 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
397 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
398 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
399 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
400 domain mydomain.com
401 nameserver 10.0.0.1
402 nameserver 10.0.0.2
403 </pre>
404 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
405 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
406 </body>
407 </section>
408 <section>
409 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
410 <body>
411 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
412 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
413 </p>
414 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
415 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
416 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
417 # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
418 </pre>
419 </body>
420 </section>
421 <section>
422 <title>Networking is go!</title>
423 <body>
424 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
425 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
426 </body>
427 </section>
428 <section>
429 <title>I don't have networking!</title>
430 <body>If you don't have networking there is some help in the
431 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Forums</uri>.
432 Some useful links can be found at <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=43025</uri>.
433 </body>
434 </section>
435 </chapter>
436 <chapter>
437 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
438 <section>
439 <body>
440 <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
441 You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
442 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
443 # <c>date</c>
444 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
445 <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
446 # <c>date 022709042003</c>
447 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
448 </pre>
449 </body>
450 </section>
451 </chapter>
452 <chapter>
453 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
454 <section>
455 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
456 <body>
457 <p>
458 In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
459 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
460 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
461 install.
462 </p>
463 <p>
464 To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
465 probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
466 </p>
467 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
468 /dev/hda
469 </pre>
470
471 <p>
472 If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
473 </p>
474
475 <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
476 /dev/sda
477 </pre>
478
479 <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
480 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
481 worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
482 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
483 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
484 </body>
485 </section>
486 <section>
487 <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
488 <body>
489 <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
490 <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
491 block device as a command-line argument. </p>
492
493 <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
494 device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
495 <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
496 practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
497 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
498 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
499 that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
500 up the full disk. </p>
501
502 <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
503 specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
504
505 <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
506 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c></note>
507
508 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
509 # fdisk /dev/hda
510 </pre>
511 <p>
512 or
513 </p>
514 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
515 # fdisk /dev/sda
516 </pre>
517
518 <impo>
519 <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
520 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
521 contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
522 lost.</b>
523 </impo>
524
525 <p>
526 Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
527 </p>
528
529 <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
530 Command (m for help):
531 </pre>
532
533
534 <p>
535 Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
536 </p>
537
538 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
539 Command (m for help): p
540
541 Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
542 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
543
544 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
545 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
546 /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
547 /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
548 /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
549 /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
550 /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
551 /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
552 /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
553 /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
554
555 Command (m for help):
556 </pre>
557
558 <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
559 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
560 (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
561
562 <p>
563 Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
564 devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
565 <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
566 allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
567 too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
568 created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
569 counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
570 partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
571 them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
572 </p>
573
574 <p>
575 All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
576 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
577
578 <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
579 <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
580 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
581 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
582 acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
583
584 <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
585 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
586 partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
587 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, and '82' is the correct
588 partition type for Linux swap partitions. You set the partition type using the
589 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
590 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
591 </p>
592 </body>
593 </section>
594 <section>
595 <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
596 <body>
597
598 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
599 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
600 partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
601 process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
602 look like this: </p>
603
604 <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
605 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
606 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
607 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
608
609 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
610 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
611 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
612 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
613
614 Command (m for help):
615 </pre>
616
617 <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
618 The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
619 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
620 the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
621 will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
622 us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
623 day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
624 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
625 likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
626
627 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
628 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
629 required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
630 loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
631 cylinder 1024.
632 </p>
633
634 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
635 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
636 relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
637 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
638 being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
639
640 <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
641 of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
642 store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
643 this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
644
645
646 <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
647 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
648 Linux:</p>
649
650 <table>
651 <tr>
652 <th>Partition</th>
653 <th>Size</th>
654 <th>Type</th>
655 <th>example device</th>
656 </tr>
657 <tr>
658 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
659 <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
660 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
661 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
662 </tr>
663 <tr>
664 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
665 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
666 in your system.</ti>
667 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
668 <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
669 </tr>
670 <tr>
671 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
672 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
673 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
674 <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
675 </tr>
676 </table>
677
678 <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
679 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
680 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
681 current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
682 to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
683 existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
684
685 <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
686 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
687 is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
688 <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
689 from the wrong drive.</impo>
690
691 <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
692 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
693 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
694
695 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
696 Command (m for help): d
697 Partition number (1-4): 1
698 </pre>
699
700 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
701 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
702 saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
703 type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
704 deleted.</p>
705 <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
706 find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
707 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
708 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
709 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
710 disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
711 -->
712 <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
713 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
714 <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
715 with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
716
717 <pre caption="An empty partition table">
718 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
719 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
720 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
721
722 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
723
724 Command (m for help):
725 </pre>
726
727 <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
728 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
729 <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
730 create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
731 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+100M</c> to create a
732 partition 100MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
733
734 <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
735 Command (m for help): n
736 Command action
737 e extended
738 p primary partition (1-4)
739 p
740 Partition number (1-4): 1
741 First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
742 Using default value 1
743 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +100M
744 </pre>
745
746 <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
747
748 <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
749 Command (m for help): p
750
751 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
752 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
753 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
754
755 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
756 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
757 </pre>
758
759 <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
760 new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
761 type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
762 When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
763 type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
764 <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
765 type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
766 a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
767
768 <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
769 Command (m for help): p
770
771 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
772 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
773 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
774
775 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
776 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
777 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
778 </pre>
779
780 <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
781 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
782 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
783 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
784 When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
785 up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
786 typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
787 this:</p>
788
789 <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
790 Command (m for help): p
791
792 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
793 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
794 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
795
796 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
797 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
798 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
799 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
800 </pre>
801
802 <p>
803 Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
804 our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
805 <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
806 type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
807 column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
808 enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
809 install.
810 </p>
811
812 <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
813 allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
814 </body>
815 </section>
816 <section>
817 <title>Creating filesystems</title>
818 <body>
819 <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
820 the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
821 We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
822 </p>
823
824 <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
825 its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
826 we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
827
828 <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
829 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
830 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
831 <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
832 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
833 Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
834 filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
835
836 <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
837 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
838 like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
839 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
840 Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
841 design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
842 very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
843 files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
844 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
845
846 <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
847 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
848 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
849 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
850 now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
851 filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
852 use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
853 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
854 non-boot partitions.</p>
855
856 <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
857 Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
858 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
859 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
860 a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
861 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
862 when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
863 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
864
865 <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
866 become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
867 comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
868 point.</p>
869
870 <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
871 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
872 journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
873 refined and recommended for general use.</p>
874
875 <!-- Corner case, confusing
876 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
877 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
878 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
879 a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
880 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
881 This can be done as follows:
882 </p>
883 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
884 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
885 <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
886 </pre>
887 <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
888 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
889 If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
890 </warn>
891 -->
892
893 <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
894 all our partitions for use:</p>
895
896 <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
897 # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
898 # mkswap /dev/hda2
899 # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
900 </pre>
901
902 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
903 robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
904 <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
905 here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
906 since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
907 go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
908
909 <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
910 during the installation process:</p>
911
912 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
913 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
914 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
915 </pre>
916 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
917 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
918 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
919 </pre>
920 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
921 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
922 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
923 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
924 </pre>
925 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
926 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
927 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
928 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
929 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
930 </pre>
931 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
932 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
933 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
934 </pre>
935 <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
936 <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
937 The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
938 XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
939 partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
940 a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
941 journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
942
943 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
944 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
945 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
946 </pre>
947 </body>
948 </section>
949 </chapter>
950 <chapter>
951 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
952 <section>
953 <body>
954 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
955 provides later:
956 </p>
957 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
958 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
959 </pre>
960
961 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
962 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
963 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
964 Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
965 Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
966 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
967 </p>
968
969 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
970 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
971 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
972 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS, then the <c>-o notail</c>
973 is not needed. It's always safe to specify the <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're
974 not sure what to do.
975 </impo>
976
977 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
978 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
979 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
980 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
981 # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
982 </pre>
983
984 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
985 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
986 </body>
987 </section>
988 </chapter>
989 <chapter>
990 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
991 <section>
992 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
993 <body>
994
995 <p>
996 Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
997 basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
998
999 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
1000 method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc4.tar.bz2</path> image.
1001 If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
1002 have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
1003 time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
1004 optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
1005 accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
1006 to see what's available on your CD.</p>
1007
1008 <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1009 <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1010 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1011 tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
1012 tarball" section.</p>
1013
1014 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1015 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1016 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1017 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</c>
1018 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1019 Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1020 Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1021 Save the file and quit the browser
1022
1023 <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1024 # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
1025 </pre>
1026 </body>
1027 </section>
1028 <section>
1029 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1030 <body>
1031
1032 <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1033 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1034 tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1035 stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1036 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
1037
1038 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1039 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
1040
1041 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1042 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1043 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1044 <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1045 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
1046 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
1047 </pre>
1048
1049 <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
1050 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
1051 </body>
1052 </section>
1053 <section>
1054 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1055 <body>
1056 <p>
1057 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
1058 Gentoo Linux system.
1059 </p>
1060
1061 <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1062 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1063 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
1064 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
1065 # <c>env-update</c>
1066 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1067 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1068 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
1069 </pre>
1070 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
1071 We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
1072 </p>
1073 </body>
1074 </section>
1075 </chapter>
1076 <chapter>
1077 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1078 <section>
1079 <body>
1080
1081 <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
1082 the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
1083 The Portage tree
1084 contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
1085 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1086 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1087
1088 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1089 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1090 </pre>
1091
1092 </body>
1093 </section>
1094 </chapter>
1095 <chapter>
1096 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1097 <section>
1098 <body>
1099
1100 <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1101 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1102 Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1103 programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1104 this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1105 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1106 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1107 fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1108 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1109 of current USE flags can be found <uri
1110 link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1111
1112 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1113 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1114 (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1115 will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1116 is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1117 to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1118 so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1119 performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1120 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1121
1122 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1123 firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1124 a simple visual editor.
1125 </p>
1126 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1127 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1128 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1129 </pre>
1130 <note>
1131 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1132 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1133 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1134 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1135 <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1136 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1137 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1138 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1139 in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1140 </note>
1141 </body>
1142 </section>
1143 </chapter>
1144 <chapter>
1145 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1146 <section>
1147 <body>
1148 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1149 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1150 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1151 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1152 is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1153 </p>
1154 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1155 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1156 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1157 as follows:</p>
1158 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1159 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1160 # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1161 </pre>
1162 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
1163 </p>
1164 <note>
1165 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1166 using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1167 change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1168 starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1169 </note>
1170 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1171 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1172 </pre>
1173 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1174 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
1175 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1176 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1177 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1178 </p>
1179 </body>
1180 </section>
1181 </chapter>
1182 <chapter>
1183 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1184 <section>
1185 <body>
1186
1187 <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1188 this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1189 </note>
1190
1191 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1192 to do is install the rest of the system.
1193 </p>
1194 <note>If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1195 that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1196 option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1197 safe to skip this suggestion.</note>
1198
1199 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1200 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1201 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1202 # <c>emerge system</c>
1203 </pre>
1204 <p>It is going to take a while
1205 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1206 thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1207 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1208 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1209 </p>
1210 <p>
1211 Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1212 your time zone" section.
1213 </p>
1214 </body>
1215 </section>
1216 </chapter>
1217 <chapter>
1218 <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1219 <section>
1220 <body>
1221 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1222 with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1223
1224 <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1225 However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1226 for you, you can automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1227 by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1228 otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1229 Gentoo updates and fixes.
1230 In any case, feel free to skip these
1231 steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1232 </p>
1233
1234 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1235 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"</c>
1236 # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1237 <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1238 # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1239 <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1240 # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1241 </pre>
1242 </body>
1243 </section>
1244 </chapter>
1245 <chapter>
1246 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1247 <section>
1248 <body>
1249 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1250 <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1251 in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1252 /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1253 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1254 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1255 </pre>
1256 </body>
1257 </section>
1258 </chapter>
1259 <chapter>
1260 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1261 <section>
1262 <body>
1263 <note>
1264 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1265 </note>
1266 <p>You now need to merge Linux kernel sources. Here are the ones we currently
1267 offer:
1268 </p>
1269 <table>
1270 <tr>
1271 <th>ebuild</th>
1272 <th>description</th>
1273 </tr>
1274 <tr>
1275 <ti>
1276 <path>gentoo-sources</path>
1277 </ti>
1278 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
1279 </tr>
1280 <tr>
1281 <ti>
1282 <path>xfs-sources</path>
1283 </ti>
1284 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
1285 </tr>
1286 <tr>
1287 <ti>
1288 <path>openmosix-sources</path>
1289 </ti>
1290 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
1291 </tr>
1292 <tr>
1293 <ti>
1294 <path>usermode-sources</path>
1295 </ti>
1296 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
1297 </tr>
1298 <tr>
1299 <ti>
1300 <path>vanilla-sources</path>
1301 </ti>
1302 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you would get from kernel.org</ti>
1303 </tr>
1304 </table>
1305 <warn>
1306 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1307 security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1308 </warn>
1309 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1310 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1311 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1312 </pre>
1313 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1314 </p>
1315 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1316 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1317 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1318 to the correct one before proceeding.
1319 </p>
1320 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
1321 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1322 # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1323 # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1324 # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1325 </pre>
1326 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1327 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1328 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1329 any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1330 &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1331 enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1332 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1333 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1334 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1335 <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1336 ...
1337
1338 File systems ---&gt;
1339 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1340 <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1341 ...
1342 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1343 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1344 ...
1345 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1346 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1347 ...
1348 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1349 <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1350 ...
1351 [*] /proc file system support
1352 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1353 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1354 [*] Automatically mount at boot
1355 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1356 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1357 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1358 ...
1359 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1360 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1361 ...
1362 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1363 <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1364 </pre>
1365 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1366 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1367 370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1368 support for IDE RAID
1369 controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1370 </p>
1371 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1372 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1373 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1374 &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1375 are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1376 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1377 </p>
1378 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1379 kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1380 devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1381 under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1382 &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1383 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1384 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1385 </p>
1386 <note>
1387 For those who prefer it,
1388 it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1389 However, doing this comes at a price:
1390 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1391 are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1392 filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1393 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1394 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1395 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1396 It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1397 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1398 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1399 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1400 </note>
1401 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1402 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1403 of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1404 to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1405 newer alternatives.
1406 If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1407 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1408 </p>
1409 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1410 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1411 # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1412 <comment>or</comment>
1413 # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1414 # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1415 <comment>or</comment>
1416 # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1417 # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1418 <comment>or</comment>
1419 # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1420 # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1421 </pre>
1422 <impo>
1423 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1424 the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1425 is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1426 metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1427 <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1428 in real time, as expected),
1429 and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1430 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1431 in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1432 </impo>
1433 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1434 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1435 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1436 </p>
1437 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1438 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1439 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1440 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1441 <comment>or</comment>
1442 # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1443 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1444 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1445 <comment>or</comment>
1446 # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1447 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1448 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1449 </pre>
1450 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1451 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1452 </p>
1453 </body>
1454 </section>
1455 </chapter>
1456 <chapter>
1457 <title>Installing miscellany necessary packages</title>
1458 <section>
1459 <body>
1460 <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1461 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1462 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1463 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1464 </pre>
1465
1466 <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1467 because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1468 X support later.
1469 </note>
1470 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1471 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1472 for the first time.
1473 </note>
1474 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1475 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1476 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1477 </p>
1478 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1479 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1480 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1481 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1482 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1483 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1484 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1485 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1486 </pre>
1487 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1488 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1489 </p>
1490 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1491 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1492 </pre>
1493 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1494 to work.
1495 </warn>
1496 </body>
1497 </section>
1498 </chapter>
1499 <chapter>
1500 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1501 <section>
1502 <body>
1503 <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1504 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1505 The first file we need to
1506 configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1507 the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1508 Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1509 </p>
1510 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1511 &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1512 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1513 <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1514 #
1515 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1516 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1517 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1518 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1519
1520 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1521
1522 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1523 </comment>
1524 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1525 /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1526 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1527 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1528 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1529 </pre>
1530 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1531 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1532 corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1533 </warn>
1534 </body>
1535 </section>
1536 </chapter>
1537 <chapter>
1538 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1539 <section>
1540 <body>
1541 <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1542 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1543 # <c>passwd</c>
1544 </pre>
1545
1546 <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1547 the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1548 </p>
1549 </body>
1550 </section>
1551 </chapter>
1552 <chapter>
1553 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1554 <section>
1555 <body>
1556 <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1557 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1558 </p>
1559 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1560 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1561 </pre>
1562 </body>
1563 </section>
1564 </chapter>
1565 <chapter>
1566 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1567 <section>
1568 <body>
1569 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1570 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1571 of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1572 </p>
1573 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1574 127.0.0.1 localhost
1575 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1576 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1577 </pre>
1578 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1579 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1580 </note>
1581 </body>
1582 </section>
1583 </chapter>
1584 <chapter>
1585 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1586 <section>
1587 <body>
1588 <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1589 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1590 need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1591 loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1592 it as a module:
1593 </p>
1594 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1595 Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1596 3c59x
1597 </pre>
1598 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1599 first boot: </p>
1600 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1601 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1602 # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1603 </pre>
1604 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1605 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1606 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1607 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1608 # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1609 # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1610 </pre>
1611 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1612 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1613 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1614 </p>
1615 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1616 depend() {
1617 need pcmcia
1618 }
1619 </pre>
1620 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1621 </p>
1622 </body>
1623 </section>
1624 </chapter>
1625 <chapter>
1626 <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1627 <section>
1628 <body>
1629 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1630 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1631 </pre>
1632 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1633 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1634 liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1635 variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1636 possibilities).
1637 </p>
1638 </body>
1639 </section>
1640 </chapter>
1641 <chapter>
1642 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1643 <section>
1644 <title>Notes</title>
1645 <body>
1646 <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1647 Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1648 LILO as their bootloaders.
1649 </p>
1650 <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1651 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1652 </p>
1653 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1654 with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1655 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1656 memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1657 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1658 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1659 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1660
1661 </body>
1662 </section>
1663 <section>
1664 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1665 <body>
1666 <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1667 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1668 <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1669 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1670 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1671 cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1672 (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1673 to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1674 a burner on /dev/hdc, a second hard drive on /dev/hdd and no scsi harddrive,
1675 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1676
1677 It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1678 offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1679 a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1680 grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1681 it is time to install GRUB.
1682 </p>
1683 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1684 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1685 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1686 # <c>grub</c>
1687 </pre>
1688 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1689 this time.
1690 Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1691 grub setup for RAID controllers
1692 </impo>
1693 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1694 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1695 right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1696 I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1697 the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1698 I want to type are:
1699 </p>
1700
1701 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1702 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1703 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1704 </pre>
1705
1706 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1707 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1708 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1709 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1710 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1711 </pre>
1712
1713 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1714 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1715 <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1716 </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1717 boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1718 ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1719 MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1720 If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1721 could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1722 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1723 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1724 </p>
1725
1726 <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1727 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1728 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1729 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1730 available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1731 would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1732
1733 Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1734 to make the right choice.
1735 </note>
1736
1737 <p>
1738 Gentoo Linux is now
1739 installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1740 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1741 </p>
1742 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1743 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1744 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1745 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1746 </p>
1747 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1748 default 0
1749 timeout 30
1750 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1751
1752 title=My example Gentoo Linux
1753 root (hd0,0)
1754 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1755
1756 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1757 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1758 root (hd0,0)
1759 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1760
1761 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1762 title=Windows XP
1763 root (hd0,5)
1764 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1765 </pre>
1766 <note>
1767 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1768 </note>
1769 <impo>
1770 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1771 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1772 line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1773 </impo>
1774 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1775 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1776 and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1777 </p>
1778 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1779 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1780 your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1781 loader.
1782 </note>
1783 <note>
1784 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1785 </note>
1786 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1787 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1788 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1789 turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1790 adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1791 </p>
1792 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1793 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1794 devfs is enabled by default.
1795 </note>
1796 </body>
1797 </section>
1798 <section>
1799 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1800 <body>
1801 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1802 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1803 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1804 </p>
1805 <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1806 </p>
1807 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1808 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1809 </pre>
1810 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1811 </p>
1812 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1813 boot=/dev/hda
1814 map=/boot/map
1815 install=/boot/boot.b
1816 prompt
1817 timeout=50
1818 lba32
1819 default=linux
1820
1821 image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1822 label=linux
1823 read-only
1824 root=/dev/hda3
1825
1826 #For dual booting windows/other OS
1827 other=/dev/hda1
1828 label=dos
1829 </pre>
1830 <ul>
1831 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1832 <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1833 <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1834 In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1835 assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1836 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1837 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1838 get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1839 <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1840 with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1841 <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1842 not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1843 your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1844 <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1845 options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1846 <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1847 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1848 it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1849 <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1850 altered during the boot process. </li>
1851 <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1852 </ul>
1853 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1854 into the MBR:
1855 </p>
1856 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1857 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1858 </pre>
1859 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1860 </p>
1861 </body>
1862 </section>
1863 </chapter>
1864 <chapter>
1865 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1866 <section>
1867 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1868 <body>
1869 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1870 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1871 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot
1872 disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1873 if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1874 make a GRUB
1875 boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1876 to the MBR. Make your
1877 bootdisks like this:
1878 </p>
1879 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1880 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1881 # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1882 # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1883 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1884 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1885 # <c>umount /mnt/floppy</c>
1886 # <c>grub</c>
1887
1888 grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1889 grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1890 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1891 </pre>
1892 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1893 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1894 </body>
1895 </section>
1896 <section>
1897 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1898 <body>
1899 <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1900 </p>
1901 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1902 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1903 <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1904 </pre>
1905 </body>
1906 </section>
1907 </chapter>
1908 <chapter>
1909 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1910 <section>
1911 <body>
1912 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1913
1914 safely unmount your partitions
1915 and reboot the system:
1916 </p>
1917 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1918 # <c>etc-update</c>
1919 # <c>exit</c>
1920 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1921 # <c>cd / </c>
1922 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1923 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1924 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1925 # <c>reboot</c>
1926 </pre>
1927 <note>
1928 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1929 the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1930 generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1931 </note>
1932 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1933 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1934 then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1935 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1936 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1937 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1938 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
1939 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1940 that will
1941 help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1942 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1943 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1944 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1945 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1946 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1947 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1948 </p>
1949 </body>
1950 </section>
1951 </chapter>
1952 <chapter>
1953 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1954 <section>
1955 <body>
1956 <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1957 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1958 us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1959 appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1960 </p>
1961 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1962 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1963 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
1964 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1965 development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1966 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1967 </p>
1968 <ul>
1969 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1970 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1971 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1972 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1973 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1974 </ul>
1975 <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1976 (just as it is to the developers).
1977 </p>
1978 <ul>
1979 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1980 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1981 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1982 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1983 in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1984 </ul>
1985 <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1986 </p>
1987 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1988 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1989 # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1990 </pre>
1991 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1992 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1993 to see additional configuration options.
1994 </p>
1995 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1996 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1997 </p>
1998 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1999 <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
2000 </pre>
2001 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
2002 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
2003 </body>
2004 </section>
2005 </chapter>
2006 </guide>

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