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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 <author title="Chief Architect">
6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Ghost">
13 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Editor">
16 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Editor">
19 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20 </author>
21 <author title="Editor">
22 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Editor">
25 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26 </author>
27 <author title="Editor">
28 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29 </author>
30 <author title="Editor">
31 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32 </author>
33 <author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35 </author>
36 <author title="Editor">
37 <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 </author>
39 <author title="Editor">
40 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
41 </author>
42 <author title="Editor">
43 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
44 </author>
45 <author title="Editor">
46 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
47 </author>
48 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
49 Linux 1.4_rc4. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
50 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
51 scratch.
52 </abstract>
53 <version>2.6.1</version>
54 <date>6 May 2003</date>
55 <chapter>
56 <title>About the Install</title>
57 <section>
58 <body>
59 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
60 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
61 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
62 kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
63 addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
64 Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
65 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
66 files. </p>
67 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
68 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
69 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
70 slow under those conditions.)</p>
71 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
72 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
73 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
74 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
75 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
76 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
77 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
78 and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
79 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
80 allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
81 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
82 go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
83 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
84 releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
85 this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
86 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
87
88
89 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
90 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</uri> . Please consider using one of our mirrors to alleviate the heavy load from
91 the main server. A list of servers can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</uri>.
92 </p>
93 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
94 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
95 carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
96 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
97 allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
98 found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
99 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
100 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
101 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
102 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
103 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
104 Gentoo 1.4_rc4 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_final will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
105 </p>
106 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
107 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
108 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
109 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
110 </impo>
111 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
112 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
113 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
114 are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
115 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
116 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
117 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
118 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
119 <table>
120 <tr>
121 <th>stage tarball</th>
122 <th>requirements for installation</th>
123 </tr>
124 <tr>
125 <ti>1</ti>
126 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
127 </tr>
128 <tr>
129 <ti>2</ti>
130 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
131 </tr>
132 <tr>
133 <ti>3</ti>
134 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
135 </tr>
136 </table>
137 </body>
138 </section>
139 </chapter>
140 <chapter>
141 <title>Booting</title>
142 <section>
143 <body>
144 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
145 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
146 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter. For example <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>. Consult the following table for a list of available kernels and options or press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
147
148 <table>
149 <tr>
150 <th>Available kernels.</th>
151 <th>description</th>
152 </tr>
153
154 <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>basic gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
155 <tr><ti>800</ti><ti>800x600 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
156 <tr><ti>1024</ti><ti>1024x768 framebuffer mode (default)</ti></tr>
157 <tr><ti>1280</ti><ti>1280x1024 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
158 <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
159 <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
160 <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
161 <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
162
163 </table>
164
165 <p>
166 <table>
167 <tr>
168 <th>Available boot options.</th>
169 <th>description</th>
170 </tr>
171
172 <tr><ti>doataraid</ti>
173 <ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
174
175 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti>
176 <ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)</ti></tr>
177
178 <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti>
179 <ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
180
181 <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti>
182 <ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
183
184 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti>
185 <ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
186
187 <tr><ti>noapm</ti>
188 <ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
189
190 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti>
191 <ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
192
193 <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti>
194 <ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
195
196 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti>
197 <ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
198
199 <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
200 <ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
201
202 <tr><ti>nousb</ti>
203 <ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
204
205 <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti>
206 <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
207
208 <tr><ti>cdcache</ti>
209 <ti>Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram, This uses 40mb of RAM , but allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another cdrom.</ti></tr>
210
211 </table></p>
212
213 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
214 booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
215 Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
216 &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
217 for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
218 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
219 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
220 Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type <c>passwd</c> and
221 follow the prompts.
222 </p>
223 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
224 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
225 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
226 </p>
227 </body>
228 </section>
229 </chapter>
230 <chapter>
231 <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
232 <section>
233 <body>
234 <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
235 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
236 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
237 /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
238 type:
239 </p>
240 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
241 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
242 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
243 </pre>
244 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
245 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
246 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
247 </p>
248 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
249 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
250 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
251 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
252 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
253 </pre>
254 <note>
255 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
256 </note>
257 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
258 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
259 </p>
260 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
261 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
262 # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
263 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
264 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
265 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
266 </pre>
267 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
268 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
269 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
270 <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
271 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
272 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
273 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
274 # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
275 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
276 </pre>
277 </body>
278 </section>
279 </chapter>
280 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
281 <chapter>
282 <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
283 <section>
284 <body>
285 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
286 </p>
287 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
288 portion of the install. </warn>
289 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
290 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
291 # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
292 # <i>modprobe ds</i>
293 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
294 </pre>
295 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
296 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
297 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
298 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
299 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
300 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
301 as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
302 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
303 remove it). </p>
304 </body>
305 </section>
306 </chapter>
307 -->
308 <chapter>
309 <title>Configuring Networking</title>
310 <section>
311 <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
312 <body>
313 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
314 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
315 network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
316 among others.</p>
317
318 <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
319 list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
320 </p>
321 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
322 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
323 inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
324 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
325 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
326 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
327 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
328 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
329 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
330 Interrupt:11
331 </pre>
332 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
333 and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
334 resolution is working correctly, etc.
335 </p>
336 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
337 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
338 </pre>
339 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
340 </body>
341 </section>
342 <section>
343 <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
344 <body>
345 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
346 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
347 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
348 device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
349 the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
350 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
351 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
352 # <c> adsl-start </c>
353 </pre>
354 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
355 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
356 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
357 </body>
358 </section>
359 <section>
360 <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
361 <body>
362 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
363 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
364 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
365 </pre>
366 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
367 </body>
368 </section>
369 <section>
370 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
371 <body>
372 <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
373 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
374 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
375 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
376 </pre>
377 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
378 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
379 </note>
380 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
381 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
382 </body>
383 </section>
384 <section>
385 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
386 <body>
387 <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
388 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
389 Type in the following commands, replacing
390 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
391 with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
392 with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
393 $GTWAY with your default gateway.
394 </p>
395 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
396 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
397 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
398 </pre>
399 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
400 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
401 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
402 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
403 domain mydomain.com
404 nameserver 10.0.0.1
405 nameserver 10.0.0.2
406 </pre>
407 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
408 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
409 </body>
410 </section>
411 <section>
412 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
413 <body>
414 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
415 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
416 </p>
417 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
418 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
419 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
420 # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
421 </pre>
422 </body>
423 </section>
424 <section>
425 <title>Networking is go!</title>
426 <body>
427 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
428 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
429 </body>
430 </section>
431 <section>
432 <title>I don't have networking!</title>
433 <body>If you don't have networking there is some help in the
434 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Forums</uri>.
435 Some useful links can be found at <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=43025</uri>.
436 </body>
437 </section>
438 </chapter>
439 <chapter>
440 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
441 <section>
442 <body>
443 <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
444 You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
445 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
446 # <c>date</c>
447 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
448 <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
449 # <c>date 022709042003</c>
450 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
451 </pre>
452 </body>
453 </section>
454 </chapter>
455 <chapter>
456 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
457 <section>
458 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
459 <body>
460 <p>
461 In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
462 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
463 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
464 install.
465 </p>
466 <p>
467 To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
468 probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
469 </p>
470 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
471 /dev/hda
472 </pre>
473
474 <p>
475 If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
476 </p>
477
478 <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
479 /dev/sda
480 </pre>
481
482 <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
483 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
484 worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
485 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
486 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
487 </body>
488 </section>
489 <section>
490 <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
491 <body>
492 <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
493 <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
494 block device as a command-line argument. </p>
495
496 <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
497 device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
498 <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
499 practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
500 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
501 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
502 that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
503 up the full disk. </p>
504
505 <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
506 specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
507
508 <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
509 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c></note>
510
511 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
512 # fdisk /dev/hda
513 </pre>
514 <p>
515 or
516 </p>
517 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
518 # fdisk /dev/sda
519 </pre>
520
521 <impo>
522 <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
523 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
524 contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
525 lost.</b>
526 </impo>
527
528 <p>
529 Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
530 </p>
531
532 <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
533 Command (m for help):
534 </pre>
535
536
537 <p>
538 Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
539 </p>
540
541 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
542 Command (m for help): p
543
544 Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
545 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
546
547 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
548 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
549 /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
550 /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
551 /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
552 /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
553 /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
554 /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
555 /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
556 /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
557
558 Command (m for help):
559 </pre>
560
561 <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
562 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
563 (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
564
565 <p>
566 Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
567 devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
568 <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
569 allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
570 too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
571 created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
572 counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
573 partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
574 them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
575 </p>
576
577 <p>
578 All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
579 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
580
581 <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
582 <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
583 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
584 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
585 acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
586
587 <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
588 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
589 partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
590 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, and '82' is the correct
591 partition type for Linux swap partitions. You set the partition type using the
592 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
593 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
594 </p>
595 </body>
596 </section>
597 <section>
598 <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
599 <body>
600
601 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
602 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
603 partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
604 process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
605 look like this: </p>
606
607 <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
608 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
609 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
610 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
611
612 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
613 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
614 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
615 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
616
617 Command (m for help):
618 </pre>
619
620 <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
621 The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
622 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
623 the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
624 will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
625 us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
626 day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
627 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
628 likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
629
630 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
631 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
632 required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
633 loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
634 cylinder 1024.
635 </p>
636
637 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
638 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
639 relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
640 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
641 being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
642
643 <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
644 of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
645 store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
646 this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
647
648
649 <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
650 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
651 Linux:</p>
652
653 <table>
654 <tr>
655 <th>Partition</th>
656 <th>Size</th>
657 <th>Type</th>
658 <th>example device</th>
659 </tr>
660 <tr>
661 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
662 <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
663 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
664 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
665 </tr>
666 <tr>
667 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
668 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
669 in your system.</ti>
670 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
671 <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
672 </tr>
673 <tr>
674 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
675 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
676 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
677 <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
678 </tr>
679 </table>
680
681 <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
682 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
683 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
684 current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
685 to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
686 existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
687
688 <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
689 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
690 is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
691 <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
692 from the wrong drive.</impo>
693
694 <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
695 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
696 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
697
698 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
699 Command (m for help): d
700 Partition number (1-4): 1
701 </pre>
702
703 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
704 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
705 saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
706 type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
707 deleted.</p>
708 <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
709 find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
710 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
711 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
712 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
713 disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
714 -->
715 <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
716 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
717 <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
718 with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
719
720 <pre caption="An empty partition table">
721 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
722 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
723 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
724
725 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
726
727 Command (m for help):
728 </pre>
729
730 <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
731 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
732 <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
733 create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
734 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+100M</c> to create a
735 partition 100MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
736
737 <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
738 Command (m for help): n
739 Command action
740 e extended
741 p primary partition (1-4)
742 p
743 Partition number (1-4): 1
744 First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
745 Using default value 1
746 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +100M
747 </pre>
748
749 <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
750
751 <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
752 Command (m for help): p
753
754 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
755 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
756 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
757
758 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
759 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
760 </pre>
761
762 <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
763 new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
764 type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
765 When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
766 type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
767 <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
768 type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
769 a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
770
771 <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
772 Command (m for help): p
773
774 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
775 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
776 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
777
778 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
779 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
780 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
781 </pre>
782
783 <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
784 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
785 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
786 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
787 When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
788 up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
789 typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
790 this:</p>
791
792 <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
793 Command (m for help): p
794
795 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
796 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
797 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
798
799 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
800 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
801 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
802 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
803 </pre>
804
805 <p>
806 Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
807 our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
808 <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
809 type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
810 column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
811 enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
812 install.
813 </p>
814
815 <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
816 allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
817 </body>
818 </section>
819 <section>
820 <title>Creating filesystems</title>
821 <body>
822 <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
823 the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
824 We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
825 </p>
826
827 <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
828 its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
829 we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
830
831 <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
832 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
833 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
834 <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
835 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
836 Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
837 filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
838
839 <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
840 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
841 like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
842 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
843 Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
844 design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
845 very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
846 files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
847 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
848
849 <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
850 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
851 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
852 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
853 now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
854 filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
855 use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
856 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
857 non-boot partitions.</p>
858
859 <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
860 Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
861 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
862 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
863 a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
864 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
865 when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
866 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
867
868 <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
869 become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
870 comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
871 point.</p>
872
873 <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
874 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
875 journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
876 refined and recommended for general use.</p>
877
878 <!-- Corner case, confusing
879 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
880 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
881 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
882 a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
883 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
884 This can be done as follows:
885 </p>
886 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
887 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
888 <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
889 </pre>
890 <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
891 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
892 If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
893 </warn>
894 -->
895
896 <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
897 all our partitions for use:</p>
898
899 <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
900 # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
901 # mkswap /dev/hda2
902 # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
903 </pre>
904
905 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
906 robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
907 <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
908 here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
909 since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
910 go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
911
912 <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
913 during the installation process:</p>
914
915 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
916 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
917 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
918 </pre>
919 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
920 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
921 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
922 </pre>
923 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
924 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
925 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
926 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
927 </pre>
928 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
929 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
930 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
931 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
932 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
933 </pre>
934 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
935 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
936 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
937 </pre>
938 <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
939 <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
940 The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
941 XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
942 partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
943 a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
944 journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
945
946 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
947 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
948 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
949 </pre>
950 </body>
951 </section>
952 </chapter>
953 <chapter>
954 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
955 <section>
956 <body>
957 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
958 provides later:
959 </p>
960 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
961 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
962 </pre>
963
964 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
965 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
966 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
967 Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
968 Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
969 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
970 </p>
971
972 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
973 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
974 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
975 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS, then the <c>-o notail</c>
976 is not needed. It's always safe to specify the <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're
977 not sure what to do.
978 </impo>
979
980 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
981 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
982 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
983 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
984 # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
985 </pre>
986
987 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
988 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
989 </body>
990 </section>
991 </chapter>
992 <chapter>
993 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
994 <section>
995 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
996 <body>
997
998 <p>
999 Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1000 basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
1001
1002 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
1003 method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc4.tar.bz2</path> image.
1004 If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
1005 have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
1006 time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
1007 optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
1008 accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
1009 to see what's available on your CD.</p>
1010
1011 <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1012 <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1013 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1014 tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
1015 tarball" section.</p>
1016
1017 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1018 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1019 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1020 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</c>
1021 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1022 Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1023 Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1024 Save the file and quit the browser
1025
1026 <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1027 # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
1028 </pre>
1029 </body>
1030 </section>
1031 <section>
1032 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1033 <body>
1034
1035 <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1036 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1037 tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1038 stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1039 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
1040
1041 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1042 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
1043
1044 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1045 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1046 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1047 <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1048 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
1049 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
1050 </pre>
1051
1052 <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
1053 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
1054 </body>
1055 </section>
1056 <section>
1057 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1058 <body>
1059 <p>
1060 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
1061 Gentoo Linux system.
1062 </p>
1063
1064 <note>
1065 You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1066 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1067 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document which will resolve
1068 the problem.
1069 </note>
1070
1071 <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1072 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1073 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
1074 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
1075 # <c>env-update</c>
1076 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1077 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1078 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
1079 </pre>
1080 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
1081 We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
1082 </p>
1083 </body>
1084 </section>
1085 </chapter>
1086 <chapter>
1087 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1088 <section>
1089 <body>
1090
1091 <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
1092 the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
1093 The Portage tree
1094 contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
1095 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1096 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1097
1098 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1099 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1100 </pre>
1101
1102 </body>
1103 </section>
1104 </chapter>
1105 <chapter>
1106 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1107 <section>
1108 <body>
1109
1110 <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1111 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1112 Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1113 programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1114 this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1115 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1116 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1117 fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1118 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1119 of current USE flags can be found <uri
1120 link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1121
1122 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1123 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1124 (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1125 will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1126 is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1127 to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1128 so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1129 performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1130 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1131
1132 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1133 firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1134 a simple visual editor.
1135 </p>
1136 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1137 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1138 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1139 </pre>
1140 <note>
1141 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1142 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1143 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1144 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1145 <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1146 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1147 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1148 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1149 in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1150 </note>
1151 </body>
1152 </section>
1153 </chapter>
1154 <chapter>
1155 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1156 <section>
1157 <body>
1158 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1159 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1160 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1161 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1162 is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1163 </p>
1164 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1165 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1166 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1167 as follows:</p>
1168 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1169 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1170 # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1171 </pre>
1172 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
1173 </p>
1174 <note>
1175 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1176 using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1177 change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1178 starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1179 </note>
1180 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1181 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1182 </pre>
1183 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1184 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
1185 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1186 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1187 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1188 </p>
1189 </body>
1190 </section>
1191 </chapter>
1192 <chapter>
1193 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1194 <section>
1195 <body>
1196
1197 <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1198 this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1199 </note>
1200
1201 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1202 to do is install the rest of the system.
1203 </p>
1204 <note>If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1205 that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1206 option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1207 safe to skip this suggestion.</note>
1208
1209 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1210 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1211 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1212 # <c>emerge system</c>
1213 </pre>
1214 <p>It is going to take a while
1215 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1216 thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1217 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1218 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1219 </p>
1220 <p>
1221 Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1222 your time zone" section.
1223 </p>
1224 </body>
1225 </section>
1226 </chapter>
1227 <chapter>
1228 <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1229 <section>
1230 <body>
1231 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1232 with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1233
1234 <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1235 However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1236 for you, you can automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1237 by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1238 otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1239 Gentoo updates and fixes.
1240 In any case, feel free to skip these
1241 steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1242 </p>
1243
1244 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1245 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"</c>
1246 # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1247 <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1248 # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1249 <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1250 # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1251 </pre>
1252 </body>
1253 </section>
1254 </chapter>
1255 <chapter>
1256 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1257 <section>
1258 <body>
1259 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1260 <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1261 in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1262 /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1263 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1264 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1265 </pre>
1266 </body>
1267 </section>
1268 </chapter>
1269 <chapter>
1270 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1271 <section>
1272 <body>
1273 <note>
1274 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1275 </note>
1276 <p>You now need to merge Linux kernel sources. Here are the ones we currently
1277 offer:
1278 </p>
1279 <table>
1280 <tr>
1281 <th>ebuild</th>
1282 <th>description</th>
1283 </tr>
1284 <tr>
1285 <ti>
1286 <path>gentoo-sources</path>
1287 </ti>
1288 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
1289 </tr>
1290 <tr>
1291 <ti>
1292 <path>xfs-sources</path>
1293 </ti>
1294 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
1295 </tr>
1296 <tr>
1297 <ti>
1298 <path>openmosix-sources</path>
1299 </ti>
1300 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
1301 </tr>
1302 <tr>
1303 <ti>
1304 <path>usermode-sources</path>
1305 </ti>
1306 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
1307 </tr>
1308 <tr>
1309 <ti>
1310 <path>vanilla-sources</path>
1311 </ti>
1312 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you would get from kernel.org</ti>
1313 </tr>
1314 </table>
1315 <warn>
1316 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1317 security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1318 </warn>
1319 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1320 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1321 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1322 </pre>
1323 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1324 </p>
1325 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1326 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1327 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1328 to the correct one before proceeding.
1329 </p>
1330 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
1331 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1332 # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1333 # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1334 # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1335 </pre>
1336 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1337 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1338 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1339 any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1340 &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1341 enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1342 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1343 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1344 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1345 <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1346 ...
1347
1348 File systems ---&gt;
1349 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1350 <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1351 ...
1352 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1353 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1354 ...
1355 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1356 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1357 ...
1358 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1359 <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1360 ...
1361 [*] /proc file system support
1362 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1363 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1364 [*] Automatically mount at boot
1365 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1366 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1367 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1368 ...
1369 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1370 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1371 ...
1372 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1373 <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1374 </pre>
1375 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1376 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1377 370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1378 support for IDE RAID
1379 controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1380 </p>
1381 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1382 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1383 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1384 &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1385 are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1386 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1387 </p>
1388 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1389 kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1390 devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1391 under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1392 &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1393 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1394 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1395 </p>
1396 <note>
1397 For those who prefer it,
1398 it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1399 However, doing this comes at a price:
1400 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1401 are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1402 filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1403 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1404 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1405 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1406 It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1407 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1408 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1409 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1410 </note>
1411 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1412 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1413 of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1414 to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1415 newer alternatives.
1416 If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1417 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1418 </p>
1419 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1420 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1421 # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1422 <comment>or</comment>
1423 # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1424 # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1425 <comment>or</comment>
1426 # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1427 # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1428 <comment>or</comment>
1429 # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1430 # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1431 </pre>
1432 <impo>
1433 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1434 the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1435 is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1436 metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1437 <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1438 in real time, as expected),
1439 and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1440 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1441 in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1442 </impo>
1443 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1444 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1445 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1446 </p>
1447 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1448 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1449 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1450 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1451 <comment>or</comment>
1452 # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1453 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1454 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1455 <comment>or</comment>
1456 # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1457 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1458 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1459 </pre>
1460 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1461 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1462 </p>
1463 </body>
1464 </section>
1465 </chapter>
1466 <chapter>
1467 <title>Installing miscellany necessary packages</title>
1468 <section>
1469 <body>
1470 <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1471 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1472 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1473 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1474 </pre>
1475
1476 <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1477 because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1478 X support later.
1479 </note>
1480 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1481 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1482 for the first time.
1483 </note>
1484 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1485 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1486 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1487 </p>
1488 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1489 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1490 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1491 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1492 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1493 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1494 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1495 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1496 </pre>
1497 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1498 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1499 </p>
1500 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1501 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1502 </pre>
1503 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1504 to work.
1505 </warn>
1506 </body>
1507 </section>
1508 </chapter>
1509 <chapter>
1510 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1511 <section>
1512 <body>
1513 <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1514 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1515 The first file we need to
1516 configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1517 the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1518 Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1519 </p>
1520 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1521 &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1522 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1523 <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1524 #
1525 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1526 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1527 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1528 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1529
1530 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1531
1532 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1533 </comment>
1534 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1535 /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1536 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1537 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1538 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1539 </pre>
1540 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1541 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1542 corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1543 </warn>
1544 </body>
1545 </section>
1546 </chapter>
1547 <chapter>
1548 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1549 <section>
1550 <body>
1551 <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1552 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1553 # <c>passwd</c>
1554 </pre>
1555
1556 <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1557 the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1558 </p>
1559 </body>
1560 </section>
1561 </chapter>
1562 <chapter>
1563 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1564 <section>
1565 <body>
1566 <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1567 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1568 </p>
1569 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1570 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1571 </pre>
1572 </body>
1573 </section>
1574 </chapter>
1575 <chapter>
1576 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1577 <section>
1578 <body>
1579 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1580 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1581 of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1582 </p>
1583 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1584 127.0.0.1 localhost
1585 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1586 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1587 </pre>
1588 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1589 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1590 </note>
1591 </body>
1592 </section>
1593 </chapter>
1594 <chapter>
1595 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1596 <section>
1597 <body>
1598 <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1599 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1600 need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1601 loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1602 it as a module:
1603 </p>
1604 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1605 Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1606 3c59x
1607 </pre>
1608 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1609 first boot: </p>
1610 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1611 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1612 # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1613 </pre>
1614 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1615 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1616 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1617 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1618 # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1619 # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1620 </pre>
1621 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1622 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1623 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1624 </p>
1625 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1626 depend() {
1627 need pcmcia
1628 }
1629 </pre>
1630 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1631 </p>
1632 </body>
1633 </section>
1634 </chapter>
1635 <chapter>
1636 <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1637 <section>
1638 <body>
1639 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1640 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1641 </pre>
1642 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1643 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1644 liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1645 variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1646 possibilities).
1647 </p>
1648 </body>
1649 </section>
1650 </chapter>
1651 <chapter>
1652 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1653 <section>
1654 <title>Notes</title>
1655 <body>
1656 <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1657 Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1658 LILO as their bootloaders.
1659 </p>
1660 <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1661 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1662 </p>
1663 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1664 with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1665 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1666 memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1667 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1668 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1669 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1670
1671 </body>
1672 </section>
1673 <section>
1674 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1675 <body>
1676 <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1677 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1678 <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1679 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1680 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1681 cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1682 (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1683 to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1684 a burner on /dev/hdc, a second hard drive on /dev/hdd and no scsi harddrive,
1685 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1686
1687 It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1688 offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1689 a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1690 grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1691 it is time to install GRUB.
1692 </p>
1693 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1694 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1695 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1696 # <c>grub</c>
1697 </pre>
1698 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1699 this time.
1700 Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1701 grub setup for RAID controllers
1702 </impo>
1703 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1704 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1705 right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1706 I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1707 the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1708 I want to type are:
1709 </p>
1710
1711 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1712 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1713 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1714 </pre>
1715
1716 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1717 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1718 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1719 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1720 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1721 </pre>
1722
1723 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1724 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1725 <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1726 </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1727 boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1728 ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1729 MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1730 If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1731 could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1732 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1733 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1734 </p>
1735
1736 <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1737 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1738 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1739 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1740 available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1741 would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1742
1743 Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1744 to make the right choice.
1745 </note>
1746
1747 <p>
1748 Gentoo Linux is now
1749 installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1750 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1751 </p>
1752 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1753 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1754 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1755 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1756 </p>
1757 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1758 default 0
1759 timeout 30
1760 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1761
1762 title=My example Gentoo Linux
1763 root (hd0,0)
1764 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1765
1766 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1767 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1768 root (hd0,0)
1769 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1770
1771 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1772 title=Windows XP
1773 root (hd0,5)
1774 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1775 </pre>
1776 <note>
1777 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1778 </note>
1779 <impo>
1780 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1781 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1782 line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1783 </impo>
1784 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1785 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1786 and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1787 </p>
1788 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1789 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1790 your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1791 loader.
1792 </note>
1793 <note>
1794 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1795 </note>
1796 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1797 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1798 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1799 turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1800 adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1801 </p>
1802 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1803 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1804 devfs is enabled by default.
1805 </note>
1806 </body>
1807 </section>
1808 <section>
1809 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1810 <body>
1811 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1812 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1813 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1814 </p>
1815 <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1816 </p>
1817 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1818 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1819 </pre>
1820 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1821 </p>
1822 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1823 boot=/dev/hda
1824 map=/boot/map
1825 install=/boot/boot.b
1826 prompt
1827 timeout=50
1828 lba32
1829 default=linux
1830
1831 image=/boot/bzImage
1832 label=linux
1833 read-only
1834 root=/dev/hda3
1835
1836 #For dual booting windows/other OS
1837 other=/dev/hda1
1838 label=dos
1839 </pre>
1840 <ul>
1841 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1842 <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1843 <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1844 In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1845 assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1846 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1847 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1848 get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1849 <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1850 with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1851 <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1852 not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1853 your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1854 <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1855 options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1856 <li><i>image=/boot/bzImage</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1857 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1858 it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1859 <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1860 altered during the boot process. </li>
1861 <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1862 </ul>
1863 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1864 into the MBR:
1865 </p>
1866 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1867 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1868 </pre>
1869 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1870 </p>
1871 </body>
1872 </section>
1873 </chapter>
1874 <chapter>
1875 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1876 <section>
1877 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1878 <body>
1879 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1880 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1881 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot
1882 disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1883 if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1884 make a GRUB
1885 boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1886 to the MBR. Make your
1887 bootdisks like this:
1888 </p>
1889 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1890 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1891 # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1892 # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1893 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1894 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1895 # <c>umount /mnt/floppy</c>
1896 # <c>grub</c>
1897
1898 grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1899 grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1900 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1901 </pre>
1902 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1903 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1904 </body>
1905 </section>
1906 <section>
1907 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1908 <body>
1909 <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1910 </p>
1911 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1912 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1913 <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1914 </pre>
1915 </body>
1916 </section>
1917 </chapter>
1918 <chapter>
1919 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1920 <section>
1921 <body>
1922 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1923
1924 safely unmount your partitions
1925 and reboot the system:
1926 </p>
1927 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1928 # <c>etc-update</c>
1929 # <c>exit</c>
1930 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1931 # <c>cd / </c>
1932 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1933 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1934 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1935 # <c>reboot</c>
1936 </pre>
1937 <note>
1938 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1939 the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1940 generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1941 </note>
1942 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1943 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1944 then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1945 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1946 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1947 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1948 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
1949 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1950 that will
1951 help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1952 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1953 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1954 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1955 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1956 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1957 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1958 </p>
1959 </body>
1960 </section>
1961 </chapter>
1962 <chapter>
1963 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1964 <section>
1965 <body>
1966 <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1967 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1968 us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1969 appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1970 </p>
1971 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1972 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1973 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
1974 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1975 development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1976 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1977 </p>
1978 <ul>
1979 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1980 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1981 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1982 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1983 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1984 </ul>
1985 <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1986 (just as it is to the developers).
1987 </p>
1988 <ul>
1989 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1990 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1991 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1992 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1993 in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1994 </ul>
1995 <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1996 </p>
1997 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1998 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1999 # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
2000 </pre>
2001 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
2002 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
2003 to see additional configuration options.
2004 </p>
2005 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
2006 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
2007 </p>
2008 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
2009 <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
2010 </pre>
2011 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
2012 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
2013 </body>
2014 </section>
2015 </chapter>
2016 </guide>

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