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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 <author title="Chief Architect">
6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Ghost">
13 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Editor">
16 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Editor">
19 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20 </author>
21 <author title="Editor">
22 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Editor">
25 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26 </author>
27 <author title="Editor">
28 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29 </author>
30 <author title="Editor">
31 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32 </author>
33 <author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35 </author>
36 <author title="Editor">
37 <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 </author>
39 <author title="Editor">
40 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
41 </author>
42 <author title="Editor">
43 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
44 </author>
45 <author title="Editor">
46 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
47 </author>
48 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
49 Linux 1.4_rc4. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
50 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
51 scratch.
52 </abstract>
53 <version>2.6.1</version>
54 <date>13 June 2003</date>
55 <chapter>
56 <title>About the Install</title>
57 <section>
58 <body>
59 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
60 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
61 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
62 kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
63 addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
64 Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
65 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
66 files. </p>
67 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
68 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
69 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
70 slow under those conditions.)</p>
71 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
72 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
73 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
74 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
75 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
76 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
77 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
78 and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
79 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
80 allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
81 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
82 go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
83 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
84 releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
85 this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
86 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
87
88
89 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
90 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</uri> . Please consider using one of our mirrors to alleviate the heavy load from
91 the main server. A list of servers can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</uri>.
92 </p>
93 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
94 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
95 carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
96 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
97 allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
98 found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
99 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
100 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
101 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
102 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
103 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
104 Gentoo 1.4_rc4 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_final will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
105 </p>
106 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
107 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
108 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
109 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
110 </impo>
111 <note>The installation instructions in the LiveCD may not be the most up-to-date. Always refer to
112 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml"</uri> for the most up-to-date
113 installation instructions.
114 </note>
115 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
116 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
117 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
118 are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
119 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
120 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
121 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
122 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
123 <table>
124 <tr>
125 <th>stage tarball</th>
126 <th>requirements for installation</th>
127 </tr>
128 <tr>
129 <ti>1</ti>
130 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
131 </tr>
132 <tr>
133 <ti>2</ti>
134 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
135 </tr>
136 <tr>
137 <ti>3</ti>
138 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
139 </tr>
140 </table>
141 </body>
142 </section>
143 </chapter>
144 <chapter>
145 <title>Booting</title>
146 <section>
147 <body>
148 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
149 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
150 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter. For example <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>. Consult the following table for a list of available kernels and options or press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
151
152 <table>
153 <tr>
154 <th>Available kernels.</th>
155 <th>description</th>
156 </tr>
157
158 <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>basic gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
159 <tr><ti>800</ti><ti>800x600 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
160 <tr><ti>1024</ti><ti>1024x768 framebuffer mode (default)</ti></tr>
161 <tr><ti>1280</ti><ti>1280x1024 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
162 <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
163 <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
164 <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
165 <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
166
167 </table>
168
169 <p>
170 <table>
171 <tr>
172 <th>Available boot options.</th>
173 <th>description</th>
174 </tr>
175
176 <tr><ti>doataraid</ti>
177 <ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
178
179 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti>
180 <ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)</ti></tr>
181
182 <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti>
183 <ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
184
185 <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti>
186 <ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
187
188 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti>
189 <ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
190
191 <tr><ti>noapm</ti>
192 <ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
193
194 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti>
195 <ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
196
197 <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti>
198 <ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
199
200 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti>
201 <ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
202
203 <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
204 <ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
205
206 <tr><ti>nousb</ti>
207 <ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
208
209 <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti>
210 <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
211
212 <tr><ti>cdcache</ti>
213 <ti>Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram, This uses 40mb of RAM , but allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another cdrom.</ti></tr>
214
215 </table></p>
216
217 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
218 booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
219 Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
220 &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
221 for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
222 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
223 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
224 Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type <c>passwd</c> and
225 follow the prompts.
226 </p>
227 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
228 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
229 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
230 </p>
231 </body>
232 </section>
233 </chapter>
234 <chapter>
235 <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
236 <section>
237 <body>
238 <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
239 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
240 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
241 /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
242 type:
243 </p>
244 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
245 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
246 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
247 </pre>
248 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
249 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
250 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
251 </p>
252 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
253 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
254 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
255 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
256 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
257 </pre>
258 <note>
259 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
260 </note>
261 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
262 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
263 </p>
264 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
265 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
266 # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
267 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
268 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
269 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
270 </pre>
271 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
272 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
273 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
274 <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
275 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
276 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
277 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
278 # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
279 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
280 </pre>
281 </body>
282 </section>
283 </chapter>
284 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
285 <chapter>
286 <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
287 <section>
288 <body>
289 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
290 </p>
291 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
292 portion of the install. </warn>
293 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
294 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
295 # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
296 # <i>modprobe ds</i>
297 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
298 </pre>
299 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
300 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
301 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
302 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
303 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
304 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
305 as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
306 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
307 remove it). </p>
308 </body>
309 </section>
310 </chapter>
311 -->
312 <chapter>
313 <title>Configuring Networking</title>
314 <section>
315 <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
316 <body>
317 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
318 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
319 network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
320 among others.</p>
321
322 <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
323 list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
324 </p>
325 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
326 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
327 inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
328 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
329 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
330 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
331 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
332 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
333 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
334 Interrupt:11
335 </pre>
336 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
337 and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
338 resolution is working correctly, etc.
339 </p>
340 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
341 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
342 </pre>
343 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
344 </body>
345 </section>
346 <section>
347 <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
348 <body>
349 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
350 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
351 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
352 device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
353 the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
354 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
355 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
356 # <c> adsl-start </c>
357 </pre>
358 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
359 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
360 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
361 </body>
362 </section>
363 <section>
364 <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
365 <body>
366 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
367 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
368 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
369 </pre>
370 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
371 </body>
372 </section>
373 <section>
374 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
375 <body>
376 <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
377 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
378 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
379 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
380 </pre>
381 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
382 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
383 </note>
384 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
385 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
386 </body>
387 </section>
388 <section>
389 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
390 <body>
391 <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
392 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed information is explained in the next table.</p>
393
394 <table>
395 <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
396 <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP-address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti>192.168.1.2</ti></tr>
397 <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP-address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network.</ti><ti>192.168.1.255</ti></tr>
398 <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti>255.255.255.0</ti></tr>
399 <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP-address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti>192.168.1.1</ti></tr>
400 </table>
401
402 <p>Type in the following commands, replacing
403 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
404 with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
405 with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
406 $GTWAY with your default gateway.
407 </p>
408 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
409 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
410 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1 $IFACE</c>
411 </pre>
412 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
413 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather
414 than just by IP address) will work. You can use <c>nano -w
415 /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>.
416 <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use editor.</p>
417 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
418 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
419 domain mydomain.com
420 nameserver 10.0.0.1
421 nameserver 10.0.0.2
422 </pre>
423 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
424 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
425 </body>
426 </section>
427 <section>
428 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
429 <body>
430 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy before
431 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
432 </p>
433 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
434 <codenote>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</codenote>
435 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
436 <codenote>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</codenote>
437 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
438 <codenote>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</codenote>
439 # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
440 </pre>
441 </body>
442 </section>
443 <section>
444 <title>Networking is go!</title>
445 <body>
446 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
447 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
448 </body>
449 </section>
450 <section>
451 <title>I don't have networking!</title>
452 <body>If you don't have networking there is some help in the
453 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Forums</uri>.
454 Some useful links can be found at <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=43025</uri>.
455 </body>
456 </section>
457 </chapter>
458 <chapter>
459 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
460 <section>
461 <body>
462 <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
463 You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
464 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
465 # <c>date</c>
466 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
467 <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
468 # <c>date 022709042003</c>
469 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
470 </pre>
471 </body>
472 </section>
473 </chapter>
474 <chapter>
475 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
476 <section>
477 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
478 <body>
479 <p>
480 In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
481 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
482 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
483 install.
484 </p>
485 <p>
486 To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
487 probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
488 </p>
489 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
490 /dev/hda
491 </pre>
492
493 <p>
494 If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
495 </p>
496
497 <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
498 /dev/sda
499 </pre>
500
501 <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
502 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
503 worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
504 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
505 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
506 </body>
507 </section>
508 <section>
509 <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
510 <body>
511 <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
512 <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
513 block device as a command-line argument. </p>
514
515 <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
516 device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
517 <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
518 practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
519 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
520 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
521 that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
522 up the full disk. </p>
523
524 <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
525 specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
526
527 <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
528 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> becuase it's
529 more powerfull and well known in the Unix/Linux world.</note>
530
531 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
532 # fdisk /dev/hda
533 </pre>
534 <p>
535 or
536 </p>
537 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
538 # fdisk /dev/sda
539 </pre>
540
541 <impo>
542 <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
543 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
544 contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
545 lost.</b>
546 </impo>
547
548 <p>
549 Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
550 </p>
551
552 <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
553 Command (m for help):
554 </pre>
555
556
557 <p>
558 Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
559 </p>
560
561 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
562 Command (m for help): p
563
564 Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
565 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
566
567 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
568 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
569 /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
570 /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
571 /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
572 /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
573 /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
574 /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
575 /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
576 /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
577
578 Command (m for help):
579 </pre>
580
581 <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
582 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
583 (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
584
585 <p>
586 Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
587 devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
588 <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
589 allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
590 too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
591 created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
592 counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
593 partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
594 them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
595 </p>
596
597 <p>
598 All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
599 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
600
601 <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
602 <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
603 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
604 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
605 acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
606
607 <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
608 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
609 partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
610 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
611 partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
612 type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
613 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
614 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
615 </p>
616 </body>
617 </section>
618 <section>
619 <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
620 <body>
621
622 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
623 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
624 partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
625 process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
626 look like this: </p>
627
628 <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
629 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
630 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
631 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
632
633 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
634 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
635 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
636 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
637
638 Command (m for help):
639 </pre>
640
641 <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
642 The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
643 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
644 the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
645 will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
646 us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
647 day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
648 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
649 likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
650
651 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
652 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
653 required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
654 loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
655 cylinder 1024.
656 </p>
657
658 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
659 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
660 relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
661 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
662 being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
663
664 <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
665 of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
666 store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
667 this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
668
669
670 <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
671 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
672 Linux:</p>
673
674 <table>
675 <tr>
676 <th>Partition</th>
677 <th>Size</th>
678 <th>Type</th>
679 <th>example device</th>
680 </tr>
681 <tr>
682 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
683 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
684 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
685 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
686 </tr>
687 <tr>
688 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
689 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
690 in your system.</ti>
691 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
692 <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
693 </tr>
694 <tr>
695 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
696 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
697 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
698 <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
699 </tr>
700 </table>
701
702 <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
703 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
704 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
705 current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
706 to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
707 existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
708
709 <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
710 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
711 is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
712 <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
713 from the wrong drive.</impo>
714
715 <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
716 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
717 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
718
719 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
720 Command (m for help): d
721 Partition number (1-4): 1
722 </pre>
723
724 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
725 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
726 saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
727 type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
728 deleted.</p>
729 <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
730 find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
731 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
732 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
733 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
734 disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
735 -->
736 <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
737 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
738 <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
739 with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
740
741 <pre caption="An empty partition table">
742 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
743 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
744 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
745
746 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
747
748 Command (m for help):
749 </pre>
750
751 <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
752 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
753 <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
754 create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
755 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
756 partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
757
758 <note>
759 Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
760 require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefor, if you are using a journaled
761 filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
762 for the last cylinder.
763 </note>
764
765 <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
766 Command (m for help): n
767 Command action
768 e extended
769 p primary partition (1-4)
770 p
771 Partition number (1-4): 1
772 First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
773 Using default value 1
774 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +32M
775 </pre>
776
777 <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
778
779 <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
780 Command (m for help): p
781
782 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
783 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
784 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
785
786 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
787 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
788 </pre>
789
790 <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
791 new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
792 type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
793 When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
794 type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
795 <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just
796 created, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
797 type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
798 a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
799
800 <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
801 Command (m for help): p
802
803 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
804 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
805 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
806
807 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
808 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
809 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
810 </pre>
811
812 <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
813 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
814 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
815 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
816 When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
817 up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
818 typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
819 this:</p>
820
821 <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
822 Command (m for help): p
823
824 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
825 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
826 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
827
828 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
829 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
830 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
831 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
832 </pre>
833
834 <p>
835 Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
836 our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
837 <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
838 type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
839 column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
840 enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
841 install.
842 </p>
843
844 <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
845 allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
846 </body>
847 </section>
848 <section>
849 <title>Creating filesystems</title>
850 <body>
851 <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
852 the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
853 We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
854 </p>
855
856 <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
857 its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
858 we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
859
860 <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
861 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
862 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
863 <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
864 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
865 Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
866 filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
867
868 <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
869 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
870 like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
871 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
872 Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
873 design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
874 very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
875 files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
876 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
877
878 <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
879 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
880 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
881 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
882 now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
883 filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
884 use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
885 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
886 non-boot partitions.</p>
887
888 <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
889 Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
890 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
891 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
892 a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
893 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
894 when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
895 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
896
897 <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
898 become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
899 comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
900 point.</p>
901
902 <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
903 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
904 journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
905 refined and recommended for general use.</p>
906
907 <!-- Corner case, confusing
908 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
909 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
910 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
911 a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
912 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
913 This can be done as follows:
914 </p>
915 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
916 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
917 <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
918 </pre>
919 <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
920 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
921 If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
922 </warn>
923 -->
924
925 <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
926 all our partitions for use:</p>
927
928 <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
929 # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
930 # mkswap /dev/hda2
931 # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
932 </pre>
933
934 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
935 robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
936 <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
937 here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
938 since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
939 go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
940
941 <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
942 during the installation process:</p>
943
944 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
945 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
946 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
947 </pre>
948 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
949 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
950 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
951 </pre>
952 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
953 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
954 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
955 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
956 </pre>
957 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
958 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
959 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
960 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
961 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
962 </pre>
963 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
964 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
965 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
966 </pre>
967 <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
968 <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
969 The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
970 XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
971 partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
972 a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
973 journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
974
975 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
976 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
977 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
978 </pre>
979 </body>
980 </section>
981 </chapter>
982 <chapter>
983 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
984 <section>
985 <body>
986 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
987 provides later:
988 </p>
989 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
990 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
991 </pre>
992
993 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
994 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
995 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
996 Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
997 Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
998 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
999 </p>
1000
1001 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
1002 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
1003 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1004 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS, then the <c>-o notail</c>
1005 is not needed. It's always safe to specify the <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're
1006 not sure what to do.
1007 </impo>
1008
1009 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1010 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
1011 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1012 # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1013 </pre>
1014
1015 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1016 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
1017 </body>
1018 </section>
1019 </chapter>
1020 <chapter>
1021 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1022 <section>
1023 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1024 <body>
1025
1026 <p>
1027 Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1028 basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
1029
1030 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
1031 method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc4.tar.bz2</path> image.
1032 If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
1033 have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
1034 time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
1035 optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
1036 accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
1037 to see what's available on your CD.</p>
1038
1039 <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1040 <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1041 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1042 tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
1043 tarball" section.</p>
1044
1045 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1046 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1047 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1048 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</c>
1049 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1050 Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1051 Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1052 Save the file and quit the browser
1053
1054 <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1055 # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
1056 </pre>
1057 </body>
1058 </section>
1059 <section>
1060 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1061 <body>
1062
1063 <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1064 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1065 tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1066 stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1067 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
1068
1069 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1070 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
1071
1072 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1073 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1074 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1075 <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1076 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
1077 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
1078 </pre>
1079
1080 <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
1081 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
1082 </body>
1083 </section>
1084 <section>
1085 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1086 <body>
1087 <p>
1088 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
1089 Gentoo Linux system.
1090 </p>
1091
1092 <note>
1093 You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1094 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1095 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document which will resolve
1096 the problem.
1097 </note>
1098
1099 <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1100 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1101 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
1102 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
1103 # <c>env-update</c>
1104 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1105 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1106 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
1107 </pre>
1108 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
1109 We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
1110 </p>
1111 </body>
1112 </section>
1113 </chapter>
1114 <chapter>
1115 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1116 <section>
1117 <body>
1118
1119 <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
1120 the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
1121 The Portage tree
1122 contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
1123 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1124 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1125
1126 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1127 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1128 </pre>
1129
1130 </body>
1131 </section>
1132 </chapter>
1133 <chapter>
1134 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1135 <section>
1136 <body>
1137
1138 <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1139 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1140 Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1141 programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1142 this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1143 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1144 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1145 fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1146 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1147 of current USE flags can be found <uri
1148 link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1149
1150 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1151 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1152 (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1153 will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1154 is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1155 to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1156 so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1157 performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1158 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1159
1160 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1161 firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1162 a simple visual editor.
1163 </p>
1164 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1165 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1166 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1167 </pre>
1168 <note>
1169 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1170 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1171 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1172 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1173 <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1174 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1175 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1176 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1177 in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1178 </note>
1179 </body>
1180 </section>
1181 </chapter>
1182 <chapter>
1183 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1184 <section>
1185 <body>
1186 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1187 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1188 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1189 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1190 is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1191 </p>
1192 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1193 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1194 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1195 as follows:</p>
1196 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1197 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1198 # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1199 </pre>
1200 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.</p>
1201 <note><c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related files in one go for later compilation. <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more information.</note>
1202 <note>
1203 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1204 using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1205 change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1206 starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1207 </note>
1208 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1209 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1210 </pre>
1211 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1212 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c>
1213 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1214 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1215 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1216 </p>
1217 </body>
1218 </section>
1219 </chapter>
1220 <chapter>
1221 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1222 <section>
1223 <body>
1224
1225 <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1226 this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1227 </note>
1228
1229 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1230 to do is install the rest of the system.
1231 </p>
1232 <note>If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1233 that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1234 option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1235 safe to skip this suggestion.</note>
1236
1237 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1238 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1239 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1240 # <c>emerge system</c>
1241 </pre>
1242 <p>It is going to take a while
1243 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1244 thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1245 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1246 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1247 </p>
1248 <p>
1249 Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1250 your time zone" section.
1251 </p>
1252 </body>
1253 </section>
1254 </chapter>
1255 <chapter>
1256 <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1257 <section>
1258 <body>
1259 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1260 with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1261
1262 <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1263 However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1264 for you, you can automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1265 by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1266 otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1267 Gentoo updates and fixes.
1268 In any case, feel free to skip these
1269 steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1270 </p>
1271
1272 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1273 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-* /etc/make.conf"</c>
1274 # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1275 <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1276 # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1277 <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1278 # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1279 </pre>
1280 </body>
1281 </section>
1282 </chapter>
1283 <chapter>
1284 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1285 <section>
1286 <body>
1287 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1288 <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1289 in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1290 /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1291 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1292 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1293 </pre>
1294 </body>
1295 </section>
1296 </chapter>
1297 <chapter>
1298 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1299 <section>
1300 <body>
1301 <note>
1302 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1303 </note>
1304 <p>You now need to merge the Linux kernel sources.
1305 Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1306 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1307 which kernel sources to choose, we advise the <c>gentoo-sources</c> or
1308 <c>vanilla-sources</c>. If you want XFS support, you should choose
1309 <c>xfs-sources</c>. Btw, Gentoo's LiveCD uses the <c>xfs-sources</c>.
1310 </p>
1311 <warn>
1312 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1313 security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1314 </warn>
1315 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1316 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1317 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1318 </pre>
1319 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1320 </p>
1321 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1322 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1323 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1324 to the correct one before proceeding.
1325 </p>
1326 <note>
1327 If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
1328 your configuration on it, you should execute
1329 <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
1330 If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
1331 about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
1332 </note>
1333 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
1334 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1335 # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1336 </pre>
1337 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1338 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1339 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1340 any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1341 &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1342 enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1343 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1344 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1345 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1346 <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1347 ...
1348
1349 File systems ---&gt;
1350 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1351 <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1352 ...
1353 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1354 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1355 ...
1356 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1357 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1358 ...
1359 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1360 <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1361 ...
1362 [*] /proc file system support
1363 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1364 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1365 [*] Automatically mount at boot
1366 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1367 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1368 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1369 ...
1370 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1371 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1372 ...
1373 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1374 <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1375 </pre>
1376 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1377 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1378 370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1379 support for IDE RAID
1380 controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1381 </p>
1382 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1383 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1384 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1385 &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1386 are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1387 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1388 </p>
1389 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1390 kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1391 devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1392 under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1393 &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1394 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1395 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1396 </p>
1397 <note>
1398 For those who prefer it,
1399 it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1400 However, doing this comes at a price:
1401 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1402 are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1403 filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1404 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1405 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1406 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1407 It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1408 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1409 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1410 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1411 </note>
1412
1413 <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
1414 # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1415 # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1416 </pre>
1417
1418 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1419 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1420 of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1421 to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1422 newer alternatives.
1423 If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1424 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1425 </p>
1426 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1427 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1428 # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1429 <comment>or</comment>
1430 # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1431 # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1432 <comment>or</comment>
1433 # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1434 # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1435 <comment>or</comment>
1436 # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1437 # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1438 </pre>
1439 <impo>
1440 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1441 the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1442 is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1443 metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1444 <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1445 in real time, as expected),
1446 and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1447 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1448 in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1449 </impo>
1450 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
1451 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
1452 # <c>killall -USR1 metalog</c>
1453 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
1454 # <c>killall -USR2 metalog</c>
1455 </pre>
1456 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1457 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1458 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1459 </p>
1460 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1461 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1462 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1463 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1464 <comment>or</comment>
1465 # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1466 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1467 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1468 <comment>or</comment>
1469 # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1470 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1471 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1472 </pre>
1473 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1474 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1475 </p>
1476 </body>
1477 </section>
1478 </chapter>
1479 <chapter>
1480 <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
1481 <section>
1482 <body>
1483 <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1484 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1485 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1486 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1487 </pre>
1488
1489 <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1490 because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1491 X support later.
1492 </note>
1493 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1494 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1495 for the first time.
1496 </note>
1497 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1498 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1499 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1500 </p>
1501 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1502 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1503 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1504 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1505 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1506 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1507 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1508 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1509 </pre>
1510 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1511 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1512 </p>
1513 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1514 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1515 </pre>
1516 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1517 to work.
1518 </warn>
1519 </body>
1520 </section>
1521 </chapter>
1522 <chapter>
1523 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1524 <section>
1525 <body>
1526 <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1527 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1528 The first file we need to
1529 configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1530 the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1531 Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1532 </p>
1533 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1534 &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1535 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1536 <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1537 #
1538 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1539 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1540 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1541 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1542
1543 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1544
1545 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1546 </comment>
1547 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1548 /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1549 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1550 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1551 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1552 </pre>
1553 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1554 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1555 corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1556 </warn>
1557 </body>
1558 </section>
1559 </chapter>
1560 <chapter>
1561 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1562 <section>
1563 <body>
1564 <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1565 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1566 # <c>passwd</c>
1567 </pre>
1568
1569 <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1570 the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1571 </p>
1572 </body>
1573 </section>
1574 </chapter>
1575 <chapter>
1576 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1577 <section>
1578 <body>
1579 <p>
1580 Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
1581 on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
1582 </p>
1583 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1584 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
1585 </pre>
1586 <p>
1587 Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
1588 domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
1589 </p>
1590 <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
1591 # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
1592 </pre>
1593 <p>
1594 If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
1595 <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
1596 </p>
1597 <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
1598 # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
1599 </pre>
1600 </body>
1601 </section>
1602 </chapter>
1603 <chapter>
1604 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1605 <section>
1606 <body>
1607 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1608 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1609 of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1610 </p>
1611 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1612 127.0.0.1 localhost
1613 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1614 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1615 </pre>
1616 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1617 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1618 </note>
1619 </body>
1620 </section>
1621 </chapter>
1622 <chapter>
1623 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1624 <section>
1625 <body>
1626 <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1627 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1628 need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1629 loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1630 it as a module:
1631 </p>
1632 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1633 Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1634 3c59x
1635 </pre>
1636 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1637 first boot: </p>
1638 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1639 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1640 # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1641 </pre>
1642 <p>If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path>
1643 scripts respectively for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1644 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1645 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1646 # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1647 # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1648 </pre>
1649 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1650 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1651 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1652 </p>
1653 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1654 depend() {
1655 need pcmcia
1656 }
1657 </pre>
1658 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1659 </p>
1660 </body>
1661 </section>
1662 </chapter>
1663 <chapter>
1664 <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1665 <section>
1666 <body>
1667 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1668 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1669 </pre>
1670 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1671 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1672 liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1673 variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1674 possibilities).
1675 </p>
1676 </body>
1677 </section>
1678 </chapter>
1679 <chapter>
1680 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1681 <section>
1682 <title>Notes</title>
1683 <body>
1684 <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1685 Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1686 LILO as their bootloaders.
1687 </p>
1688 <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1689 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1690 </p>
1691 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1692 with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1693 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1694 memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1695 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1696 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1697 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1698 <p>
1699 People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c> to their bootloader configuration file as a kernel parameter. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the following table:
1700 </p>
1701 <table>
1702 <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
1703 <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
1704 <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
1705 <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
1706 </table>
1707 </body>
1708 </section>
1709 <section>
1710 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1711 <body>
1712 <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1713 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1714 <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1715 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1716 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1717 cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1718 (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1719 to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1720 a burner on /dev/hdc, a second hard drive on /dev/hdd and no scsi harddrive,
1721 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1722
1723 It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1724 offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1725 a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1726 grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1727 it is time to install GRUB.
1728 </p>
1729 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1730 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1731 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1732 # <c>grub</c>
1733 </pre>
1734 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1735 this time.
1736 Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1737 grub setup for RAID controllers
1738 </impo>
1739 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1740 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1741 right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1742 I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1743 the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1744 I want to type are:
1745 </p>
1746
1747 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1748 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1749 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1750 </pre>
1751
1752 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1753 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1754 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1755 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1756 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1757 </pre>
1758
1759 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1760 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1761 <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1762 </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1763 boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1764 ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1765 MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1766 If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1767 could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1768 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1769 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1770 </p>
1771
1772 <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1773 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1774 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1775 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1776 available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1777 would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1778
1779 Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1780 to make the right choice.
1781 </note>
1782
1783 <p>
1784 Gentoo Linux is now
1785 installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1786 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1787 </p>
1788 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1789 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1790 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1791 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1792 </p>
1793 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1794 default 0
1795 timeout 30
1796 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1797
1798 title=My example Gentoo Linux
1799 root (hd0,0)
1800 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1801
1802 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1803 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1804 root (hd0,0)
1805 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1806
1807 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1808 title=Windows XP
1809 root (hd0,5)
1810 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1811 </pre>
1812 <note>
1813 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1814 </note>
1815 <impo>
1816 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1817 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1818 line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1819 </impo>
1820 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1821 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1822 and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1823 </p>
1824 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1825 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1826 your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1827 loader.
1828 </note>
1829 <note>
1830 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1831 </note>
1832 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1833 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1834 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1835 turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1836 adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1837 </p>
1838 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1839 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1840 devfs is enabled by default.
1841 </note>
1842 </body>
1843 </section>
1844 <section>
1845 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1846 <body>
1847 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1848 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1849 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1850 </p>
1851 <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1852 </p>
1853 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1854 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1855 </pre>
1856 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1857 </p>
1858 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1859 boot=/dev/hda
1860 map=/boot/map
1861 install=/boot/boot.b
1862 prompt
1863 timeout=50
1864 lba32
1865 default=linux
1866
1867 image=/boot/bzImage
1868 label=linux
1869 read-only
1870 root=/dev/hda3
1871
1872 #For dual booting windows/other OS
1873 other=/dev/hda1
1874 label=dos
1875 </pre>
1876 <ul>
1877 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1878 <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1879 <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1880 In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1881 assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1882 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1883 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1884 get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1885 <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1886 with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1887 <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1888 not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1889 your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1890 <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1891 options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1892 <li><i>image=/boot/bzImage</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1893 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1894 it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1895 <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1896 altered during the boot process. </li>
1897 <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1898 </ul>
1899 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1900 into the MBR:
1901 </p>
1902 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1903 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1904 </pre>
1905 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1906 </p>
1907 </body>
1908 </section>
1909 </chapter>
1910 <chapter>
1911 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1912 <section>
1913 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1914 <body>
1915 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1916 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1917 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, or your hardware doesn't let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment, you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot
1918 disk. With these types of hardware RAID or systems,
1919 if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1920 make a GRUB
1921 boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1922 to the MBR. Make your
1923 bootdisks like this:
1924 </p>
1925 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1926 # <c>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</c>
1927 # <c>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</c>
1928 </pre>
1929 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1930 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1931 </body>
1932 </section>
1933 <section>
1934 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1935 <body>
1936 <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1937 </p>
1938 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
1939 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1940 <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1941 </pre>
1942 </body>
1943 </section>
1944 </chapter>
1945 <chapter>
1946 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1947 <section>
1948 <body>
1949 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1950
1951 safely unmount your partitions
1952 and reboot the system:
1953 </p>
1954 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1955 # <c>etc-update</c>
1956 # <c>exit</c>
1957 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1958 # <c>cd / </c>
1959 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1960 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1961 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1962 # <c>reboot</c>
1963 </pre>
1964 <note>
1965 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1966 the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1967 generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1968 </note>
1969 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1970 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1971 then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1972 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1973 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1974 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1975 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
1976 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1977 that will
1978 help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1979 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1980 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1981 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1982 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1983 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1984 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1985 </p>
1986 </body>
1987 </section>
1988 </chapter>
1989 <chapter>
1990 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1991 <section>
1992 <body>
1993 <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1994 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1995 us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1996 appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1997 </p>
1998 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1999 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
2000 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
2001 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
2002 development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
2003 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
2004 </p>
2005 <ul>
2006 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
2007 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
2008 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
2009 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
2010 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
2011 </ul>
2012 <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
2013 (just as it is to the developers).
2014 </p>
2015 <ul>
2016 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
2017 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
2018 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
2019 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
2020 in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
2021 </ul>
2022 <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
2023 </p>
2024 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
2025 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
2026 # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
2027 </pre>
2028 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
2029 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
2030 to see additional configuration options.
2031 </p>
2032 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
2033 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
2034 </p>
2035 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
2036 <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
2037 </pre>
2038 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
2039 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
2040 </body>
2041 </section>
2042 </chapter>
2043 </guide>

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