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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 <author title="Chief Architect">
6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author">Jerry Alexandratos</author>
10 <author title="Ghost">
11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
33 </author>
34 <author title="Editor">Colin Morey</author>
35 <author title="Editor">
36 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
37 </author>
38 <author title="Editor">
39 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
40 </author>
41 <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
42 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
43 </author>
44 <author title="Editor">
45 <mail link="avenj@gentoo.org">Jon Portnoy</mail>
46 </author>
47 <author title="Editor">
48 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
49 </author>
50 <author title="Reviewer">
51 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail>
52 </author>
53 <author title="Reviewer">
54 <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>
55 </author>
56 <author title="Reviewer">
57 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
58 </author>
59
60 <abstract>
61 These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
62 Linux 1.4, release version (not _rc versions). The Gentoo Linux installation
63 process supports various installation approaches, depending upon how much of
64 the system you want to custom-build from scratch.
65 </abstract>
66
67 <license/>
68
69 <version>2.6.4</version>
70 <date>11th of August 2003</date>
71
72 <chapter>
73 <title>About the Install</title>
74 <section>
75 <body>
76
77 <p>
78 First, if you are new to this, welcome to Gentoo Linux! Gentoo
79 Linux can be installed in many different ways. Those who are looking
80 for a rapid install can use pre-built packages, while those who want
81 the ultimate in customizability can compile Gentoo Linux entirely
82 from the original source code. The method you choose is up to
83 you.
84 </p>
85
86 <p>
87 One significant change in relation to the official 1.4 release is
88 our new 2-CD installation set, which can be ordered from <uri
89 link="http://store.gentoo.org">The Gentoo Linux Store</uri>, in
90 addition to being available on our mirrors. We currently have 2-CD
91 installation sets for x86 (486 and above), i686 (Pentium Pro,
92 Pentium II, Athlon/Duron and above), Pentium III, Pentium 4 and Athlon XP.
93 To see what 2-CD set is right for you, read the detailed
94 descriptions of each product in the <uri
95 link="http://store.gentoo.org">store</uri>. The store descriptions
96 contain fairly comprehensive CPU compatibility information.
97 </p>
98
99 <p>So, about the 2 CD set -- here's what's on each CD. The first
100 CD ("CD 1") is called "Live CD Installation" and is a bootable CD-ROM,
101 meaning that you can put "CD 1" in your drive and run Gentoo Linux
102 directly from the CD. You can then use this CD-based version of
103 Gentoo to install Gentoo Linux 1.4 to your hard disk. In addition
104 to containing a bootable Gentoo Linux environment, CD 1
105 contains everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly, even
106 without a connection to the Internet. In addition, several
107 pre-compiled packages are also included on CD 1, such as the
108 ever-important XFree86 X server. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image
109 file for CD 1, its name will end in "<path>-cd1.iso</path>".
110 </p>
111
112 <p>
113 In contrast, the second CD ("CD 2") isn't bootable and contains
114 lots of pre-built packages for your system. Included on this CD are
115 optimized versions of packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice,
116 Mozilla, Evolution and others. CD 2 is <e>optional</e> and is
117 intended for those people who are interested in installing Gentoo
118 Linux very quickly. The packages included on CD 2 typically take
119 about 36 hours to compile from source on a typical modern
120 single-processor system. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image file for CD
121 2, its name will end in "<path>-cd2.iso</path>".
122 </p>
123
124 <note>
125 A complete Gentoo Linux 2-CD set contains the Gentoo Reference
126 Platform, which is a complete pre-built Gentoo Linux system including GNOME,
127 KDE, Mozilla and OpenOffice. The Gentoo Reference Platform ("GRP")
128 was created to allow rapid Gentoo Linux package installations
129 for those who need this capability. The "compile from
130 source" functionality, which is the cornerstone of Gentoo Linux,
131 will always be a fully-supported installation option as well. The
132 purpose of the GRP is to make Gentoo Linux more convenient for some
133 users, without impacting Gentoo's powerful "compile from source"
134 installation process in any way.
135 </note>
136
137 <p>
138 In addition to our 2-CD set, we also have a very small "basic"
139 Live CD that you can use to boot your system. Once your system has
140 booted, you can configure a connection to the Internet and then
141 install Gentoo over the network. The advantage of this "basic" CD is
142 that it is small and thus the ISO CD-ROM image file can be
143 downloaded quickly. If you're an advanced user who wants to install
144 the most up-to-date version of Gentoo Linux available and have a
145 fast network connection, then you may prefer this option. If you
146 have an ISO CD-ROM image file for our "basic" Live CD, its name will
147 end in "<path>-basic.iso</path>".
148 </p>
149
150 <p>
151 To use any Gentoo Linux CD-based installation method, you will
152 need to have a 486+ processor and ideally at least 64 Megabytes of
153 RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully built with 64MB of RAM +
154 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully slow under
155 those conditions.)
156 </p>
157
158 <p>
159 Once you boot one of our Live CDs, you have even more options.
160 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot;
161 tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system
162 you want to compile yourself. The stage1 tarball is used when you
163 want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The
164 stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system from a
165 bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The stage3 tarball already
166 contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for
167 you. If you are interested in doing a "GRP" install, then the
168 stage3 tarball should be used.
169 </p>
170
171 <p>
172 <b>If you're not doing a GRP install, should you start from a stage1, stage2, or
173 stage3 tarball?</b> Here is some information that should help you
174 make this decision.
175 </p>
176
177 <p>
178 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total
179 control over the optimization settings and optional build-time
180 functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes
181 stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing.
182 It is also a great installation method for those who would like to
183 know more about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
184 </p>
185
186 <p>
187 Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing
188 this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we
189 chose for your particular stage2 tarball.
190 </p>
191
192 <p>
193 And choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
194 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
195 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were
196 carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
197 stability). Since major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's
198 specifically optimized for various popular processors, starting
199 from a stage3 can offer the best of all worlds -- a fast install
200 and a system that is well-optimized.
201 </p>
202
203 <p>
204 <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider using a
205 stage3 tarball for installation, or a stage3 with GRP.</b>
206 </p>
207
208 <note>
209 <b>Advanced users:</b> If you use a stage3 install, you should not
210 change the default CHOST setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If you need
211 to make such a change, you should start with a stage1 tarball and build up
212 your system with the desired CHOST setting. The CHOST setting
213 typically looks something like this: <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>.
214 </note>
215
216 <impo>
217 If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
218 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
219 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (e.g. the KDE
220 team) the <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
221 </impo>
222
223 <note>
224 The installation instructions in the LiveCD may not be as up-to-date as our
225 Web documentation at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri>.
226 Refer to our Web documentation for the most up-to-date installation
227 instructions.
228 </note>
229
230 <p>
231 Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
232 CD(s) and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create
233 partitions, create our filesystems and extract either a stage1, stage2 or
234 stage3 tarball. If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take
235 the appropriate steps to get our system to stage3. Once our system is at
236 stage3, we can configure it (customize configuration files, install a boot
237 loader, etc.), boot it and have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. After
238 your basic Gentoo Linux system is running, you can optionally use "CD 2" of
239 our 2-CD set and install any number of pre-built packages such as KDE, GNOME,
240 OpenOffice, Mozilla, or others that you'd like on your system.
241 </p>
242
243 <p>
244 Depending on what stage of the build process you're starting from, here is
245 what is required for installation:
246 </p>
247
248 <table>
249 <tr>
250 <th>Stage Tarball</th>
251 <th>Internet Access Required</th>
252 <th>Media Required</th>
253 <th>Steps</th>
254 </tr>
255 <tr>
256 <ti>1</ti>
257 <ti>Yes</ti>
258 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
259 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, final config</ti>
260 </tr>
261 <tr>
262 <ti>2</ti>
263 <ti>Yes</ti>
264 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
265 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, final config</ti>
266 </tr>
267 <tr>
268 <ti>3</ti>
269 <ti>No if using <e>CD 1</e>, Yes otherwise</ti>
270 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
271 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync (not required if using <e>CD 1</e>), final config</ti>
272 </tr>
273 <tr>
274 <ti>3+GRP</ti>
275 <ti>No</ti>
276 <ti><e>CD 1</e>, <e>CD 2</e> optionally</ti>
277 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, final config, install CD 1 pre-built packages (optional), reboot, install extra pre-built packages like KDE and GNOME (if using "CD 2")</ti>
278 </tr>
279 </table>
280
281 <note>
282 Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about ATA RAID on the bottom
283 of this document before proceeding.
284 </note>
285
286 </body>
287 </section>
288 </chapter>
289
290 <chapter>
291 <title>Booting</title>
292 <section>
293 <body>
294
295 <warn>
296 Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the available boot
297 options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong keyboard settings, unstarted
298 pcmcia services etc..
299 </warn>
300
301 <p>
302 Start by booting your Live CD of choice. You should see a fancy
303 boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you
304 can hit Enter to begin the boot process, or boot the LiveCD with
305 custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options
306 and then hitting Enter. For example: <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>.
307 If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with more than one
308 processor ("SMP"), then you should type <c>smp</c> instead of
309 <c>gentoo</c> at the prompt. This will allow the LiveCD to see all
310 the processors in your system, not just the first one.
311 </p>
312
313 <p>
314 Consult the following table for a partial list of available kernels and
315 options or press F2 and F3 to view the help screens.
316 </p>
317
318 <table>
319 <tr><th>Available kernels</th><th>Description</th></tr>
320 <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>standard gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
321 <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
322 <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
323 <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
324 <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
325 </table>
326
327 <table>
328 <tr><th>Available boot options</th><th>Description</th></tr>
329 <tr><ti>doataraid</ti><ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
330 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti><ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc.)</ti></tr>
331 <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti><ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
332 <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti><ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
333 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti><ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
334 <tr><ti>noapm</ti><ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
335 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti><ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
336 <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti><ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
337 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti><ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
338 <tr><ti>noraid</ti><ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
339 <tr><ti>nousb</ti><ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
340 <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti><ti>force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
341 <tr><ti>cdcache</ti><ti>cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram. This uses 40mb of RAM, but allows you to umount <path>/mnt/cdrom</path> and mount another cdrom</ti></tr>
342 </table>
343
344 <p>
345 Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with an even fancier boot
346 screen and progress bar.
347 </p>
348
349 <!--
350 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-boot.png" caption="The Gentoo
351 Linux Live CD booting" />
352 -->
353
354 <p>
355 Once the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in
356 to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "<e>root</e>", the "super user". You should
357 have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
358 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
359 you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
360 </p>
361
362 <!--
363
364 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-con.png" caption="The Gentoo
365 Linux Live CD console" />
366 -->
367
368 <note>
369 <b>Advanced users:</b> When the Live CD boots, the Live CD root password is
370 set to a random string for security purposes. If you plan to start
371 <c>sshd</c> to allow remote logins to your Live CD, you should set the Live
372 CD root password now by typing <c>passwd</c> and following the prompts.
373 Otherwise, you will not know the proper password for logging into the Live
374 CD over the network.
375 </note>
376
377 <p>
378 You've probably also noticed that above your # prompt is a bunch of
379 help text that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking
380 and telling you where you can find the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages
381 on your CD.
382 </p>
383
384 </body>
385 </section>
386 </chapter>
387
388 <chapter>
389 <title>Optional hardware configuration</title>
390 <section>
391 <body>
392
393 <p>
394 When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware
395 devices and loads the appropiate kernel modules to support your
396 hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job.
397 However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules
398 you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you
399 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
400 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
401 /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
402 type:
403 </p>
404
405 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
406 # <i>modprobe pcnet32</i>
407 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
408 </pre>
409
410 <p>
411 Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't
412 detected during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to
413 load the appropriate modules from <path>/lib/modules</path>, again using
414 <c>modprobe</c>:
415 </p>
416
417 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
418 # <i>modprobe aic7xxx</i>
419 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
420 # <i>modprobe sd_mod</i>
421 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
422 </pre>
423
424 <note>
425 Support for SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
426 </note>
427
428 <note>
429 <b>Advanced users:</b> The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA
430 on your disks so that disk transfers are as fast as possible, but if it did not,
431 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives as follows:
432 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
433 <comment>(Replace hdX with your disk device)</comment>
434 # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX</i>
435 <comment>(Enables DMA)</comment>
436 # <i>hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX</i>
437 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
438 # <i>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX</i>
439 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
440 </pre>
441 </note>
442
443
444 </body>
445 </section>
446 </chapter>
447 <chapter>
448 <title>Optional Networking configuration</title>
449 <section>
450 <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
451 <body>
452
453 <p>
454 If your system is plugged into an Ethernet network, it is very
455 likely that your networking configuration has already been
456 set up automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of
457 the many included network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>,
458 <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>, among
459 others.
460 </p>
461
462 <p>
463 If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command
464 should list some internet interfaces besides lo, such as eth0:
465 </p>
466
467 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
468 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
469 inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
470 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
471 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
472 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
473 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
474 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
475 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
476 Interrupt:11 Base address:0xe800
477 </pre>
478
479 <p>
480 You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in
481 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>) and a Web site of choice, just to make sure
482 that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working
483 correctly, etc..
484 </p>
485
486 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
487 # <i>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com</i>
488 </pre>
489
490 <p>
491 Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this
492 section.
493 </p>
494
495 </body>
496 </section>
497 <section>
498 <title>PPPoE configuration</title>
499 <body>
500
501 <p>
502 Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version)
503 has made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided
504 <c>adsl-setup</c> script to configure your connection. You will be prompted
505 for the ethernet device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username
506 and password, the IPs of your DNS servers and if you need a basic firewall
507 or not.
508 </p>
509
510 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
511 # <i> adsl-setup </i>
512 # <i> adsl-start </i>
513 </pre>
514
515 <p>
516 If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed your username
517 and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
518 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and make sure you are using the right
519 ethernet device.
520 </p>
521
522 </body>
523 </section>
524
525 <section>
526 <title>Automatic Network Configuration </title>
527 <body>
528
529 <p>
530 The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured
531 automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script:
532 </p>
533
534 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
535 # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
536 </pre>
537
538 <p>
539 Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is
540 covered next.
541 </p>
542
543 </body>
544 </section>
545 <section>
546 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
547 <body>
548
549 <p>
550 Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
551 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below.
552 </p>
553
554 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
555 # <i>dhcpcd eth0</i>
556 </pre>
557
558 <note>
559 Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that, add a
560 <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
561 </note>
562
563 <p>
564 If you receive <e>dhcpConfig</e> warnings, don't panic; the errors are most
565 likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.
566 </p>
567
568 </body>
569 </section>
570 <section>
571 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
572 <body>
573
574 <p>
575 We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download sources for
576 the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed
577 information is explained in the next table.
578 </p>
579
580 <table>
581 <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
582 <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti>192.168.1.2</ti></tr>
583 <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network</ti><ti>192.168.1.255</ti></tr>
584 <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti>255.255.255.0</ti></tr>
585 <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti>192.168.1.1</ti></tr>
586 </table>
587
588 <p>
589 Type in the following commands, replacing <c>$IFACE</c> with your network
590 interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), <c>$IPNUM</c> with your IP address,
591 <c>$BCAST</c> with your broadcast address and <c>$NMASK</c> with your network
592 mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace <c>$GTWAY</c> with your default
593 gateway.
594 </p>
595
596 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
597 # <i>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</i>
598 # <i>route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1 $IFACE</i>
599 </pre>
600
601 <p>
602 Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file so that name
603 resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address)
604 will work. You can use <c>nano -w /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create
605 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use
606 editor.
607 </p>
608
609 <p>
610 Here is a template to follow for creating your <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
611 file:
612 </p>
613
614 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
615 domain mydomain.com
616 nameserver 10.0.0.1
617 nameserver 10.0.0.2
618 </pre>
619
620 <p>
621 Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
622 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.
623 </p>
624
625 </body>
626 </section>
627
628 <section>
629 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
630 <body>
631
632 <p>
633 If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy
634 before you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy
635 accordingly.
636 </p>
637
638 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
639 <comment>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</comment>
640 # <i>export http_proxy="machine.company.com:1234"</i>
641 <comment>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</comment>
642 # <i>export ftp_proxy="machine.company.com"</i>
643 <comment>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</comment>
644 # <i>export RSYNC_PROXY="machine.company.com"</i>
645 </pre>
646
647 </body>
648 </section>
649
650 <section>
651 <title>Networking is go!</title>
652 <body>
653
654 <p>
655 Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the
656 included <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c>
657 commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.
658 </p>
659
660 </body>
661 </section>
662 </chapter>
663
664 <chapter>
665 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
666 <section>
667 <body>
668
669 <p>
670 Now you need to set your system's date and time. You can do this using the
671 <c>date</c> command.
672 </p>
673
674 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
675 # <i>date</i>
676 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
677 <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
678 # <i>date 022709042003</i>
679 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
680 </pre>
681
682 </body>
683 </section>
684 </chapter>
685
686 <chapter>
687 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
688 <section>
689 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
690 <body>
691
692 <p>
693 In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo
694 Linux and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block
695 devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
696 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
697 and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
698 </p>
699
700 <p>
701 To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
702 probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
703 </p>
704
705 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
706 /dev/hda
707 </pre>
708
709 <p>
710 If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
711 </p>
712
713 <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
714 /dev/sda
715 </pre>
716
717 <p>
718 The block devices above represent an <e>abstract</e> interface to the disk.
719 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
720 worrying about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
721 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
722 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
723 </p>
724
725 </body>
726 </section>
727 <section>
728 <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
729 <body>
730
731 <p>
732 Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
733 <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc.), specifying a particular
734 block device as a command-line argument.
735 </p>
736
737 <p>
738 However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
739 device (one that represents the <e>entire</e> disk) like <path>/dev/hda</path>
740 or <path>/dev/sda</path> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never
741 done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller,
742 more manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created
743 using a tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the
744 partition table that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines
745 exactly how to split up the full disk.
746 </p>
747
748 <p>
749 We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
750 specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument:
751 </p>
752
753 <note>
754 Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
755 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> because it's
756 more powerful and well known in the Unix/Linux world.
757 </note>
758
759 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
760 # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
761 </pre>
762
763 <p>
764 or
765 </p>
766
767 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
768 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
769 </pre>
770
771 <impo>
772 Note that you should <e>not</e> save or make any changes to a disk's
773 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
774 contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
775 lost.
776 </impo>
777
778 <p>
779 Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
780 </p>
781
782 <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
783 Command (m for help):
784 </pre>
785
786 <p>
787 Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
788 </p>
789
790 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
791 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
792
793 Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
794 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
795
796 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
797 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
798 /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
799 /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
800 /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
801 /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
802 /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
803 /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
804 /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
805 /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
806
807 Command (m for help):
808 </pre>
809
810 <p>
811 This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
812 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
813 (listed as "Linux swap").
814 </p>
815
816 <p>
817 Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
818 devices on the left hand side, starting with <path>/dev/hda1</path> and going
819 up to <path>/dev/hda9</path>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning
820 software only allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary"
821 partitions). This was too limiting, so a workaround called <e>extended
822 partitioning</e> was created. An extended partition is very similar to a
823 primary partition and counts towards the primary partition limit of four.
824 However, extended partitions can hold any number of so-called <e>logical</e>
825 partitions inside them, providing an effective means of working around the
826 four partition limit.
827 </p>
828
829 <p>
830 All partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> and higher are logical partitions.
831 The numbers 1 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions.
832 </p>
833
834 <p>
835 So, In our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> through <path>/dev/hda3</path> are
836 primary partitions. <path>/dev/hda4</path> is an extended partition that
837 contains logical partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
838 <path>/dev/hda9</path>. You would never actually <e>use</e>
839 <path>/dev/hda4</path> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
840 acts as a container for partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
841 <path>/dev/hda9</path>.
842 </p>
843
844 <p>
845 Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
846 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
847 partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
848 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
849 partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
850 type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
851 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
852 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
853 </p>
854
855 </body>
856 </section>
857
858 <section>
859 <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
860 <body>
861
862 <p>
863 Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
864 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
865 partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
866 process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
867 look like this:
868 </p>
869
870 <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
871 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
872 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
873 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
874
875 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
876 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
877 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
878 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
879
880 Command (m for help):
881 </pre>
882
883 <p>
884 In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
885 The first one (<path>/dev/hda1</path>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
886 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
887 the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
888 will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
889 us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
890 day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
891 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
892 likely end up being <path>/dev/sda1</path>.
893 </p>
894
895 <p>
896 It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
897 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
898 required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
899 loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
900 cylinder 1024.
901 </p>
902
903 <p>
904 The second partition (<path>/dev/hda2</path>) is used to for swap space. The
905 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
906 relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
907 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
908 being called <path>/dev/sda2</path>.
909 </p>
910
911 <p>
912 The third partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path>) is quite large and takes up the
913 rest of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be
914 used to store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI
915 system, this partition would likely end up being <path>/dev/sda3</path>.
916 </p>
917
918 <p>
919 Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
920 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
921 Linux:
922 </p>
923
924 <table>
925 <tr>
926 <th>Partition</th>
927 <th>Size</th>
928 <th>Type</th>
929 <th>example device</th>
930 </tr>
931 <tr>
932 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
933 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
934 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
935 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
936 </tr>
937 <tr>
938 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
939 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one and two times the size of the physical RAM in your system</ti>
940 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
941 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
942 </tr>
943 <tr>
944 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc.)</ti>
945 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
946 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
947 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
948 </tr>
949 </table>
950
951 <p>
952 OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
953 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
954 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
955 current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
956 to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
957 existing data on your disk will be erased</b>.
958 </p>
959
960 <impo>
961 Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
962 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
963 is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
964 <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
965 from the wrong drive.
966 </impo>
967
968 <p>
969 Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
970 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
971 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/hda1</path>, you would type:
972 </p>
973
974 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
975 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
976 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
977 </pre>
978
979 <p>
980 The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
981 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
982 saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
983 type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
984 deleted.
985 </p>
986
987 <p>
988 Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
989 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
990 <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
991 with a partition table with nothing in it:
992 </p>
993
994 <pre caption="An empty partition table">
995 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
996 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
997 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
998
999 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1000
1001 Command (m for help):
1002 </pre>
1003
1004 <p>
1005 Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
1006 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
1007 <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
1008 create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
1009 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
1010 partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:
1011 </p>
1012
1013 <note>
1014 Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
1015 require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefore, if you are using a journaled
1016 filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
1017 for the last cylinder.
1018 </note>
1019
1020 <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
1021 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
1022 Command action
1023 e extended
1024 p primary partition (1-4)
1025 <i>p</i>
1026 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
1027 First cylinder (1-3876, default 1): <comment>(Hit Enter)</comment>
1028 Using default value 1
1029 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): <i>+32M</i>
1030 </pre>
1031
1032 <p>
1033 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition
1034 printout:
1035 </p>
1036
1037 <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
1038 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1039
1040 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1041 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1042 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1043
1044 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1045 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1046 </pre>
1047
1048 <p>
1049 Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
1050 new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition.
1051 Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
1052 <path>/dev/hda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1053 hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create
1054 a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the
1055 partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just created and then
1056 type in <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing
1057 these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks
1058 similar to this:
1059 </p>
1060
1061 <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
1062 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1063
1064 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1065 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1066 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1067
1068 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1069 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1070 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1071 </pre>
1072
1073 <p>
1074 Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
1075 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
1076 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
1077 <path>/dev/hda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1078 hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a
1079 partition that takes up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After
1080 completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that
1081 looks similar to this:
1082 </p>
1083
1084 <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
1085 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1086
1087 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1088 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1089 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1090
1091 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1092 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1093 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1094 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
1095 </pre>
1096
1097 <p>
1098 Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
1099 our changes to disk. To tag <path>/dev/hda1</path> as a "bootable" partition,
1100 type <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number.
1101 If you type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <path>/dev/hda1</path> has a
1102 <c>*</c> in the "Boot" column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do
1103 this, type <c>w</c> and hit enter. Your disk partitions are now properly
1104 configured for a Gentoo Linux install.
1105 </p>
1106
1107 <note>
1108 If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
1109 allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.
1110 </note>
1111
1112 </body>
1113 </section>
1114
1115 <section>
1116 <title>Creating filesystems</title>
1117 <body>
1118
1119 <p>
1120 Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
1121 the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store
1122 data. We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
1123 </p>
1124
1125 <p>
1126 Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
1127 its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics.
1128 Currently, we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS
1129 filesystems.
1130 </p>
1131
1132 <p>
1133 ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
1134 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
1135 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
1136 <e>journaled</e> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
1137 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
1138 Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
1139 filesystem happens to be in an <e>inconsistent</e> state.
1140 </p>
1141
1142 <p>
1143 ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
1144 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
1145 like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
1146 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
1147 Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
1148 design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
1149 very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
1150 files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
1151 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.
1152 </p>
1153
1154 <p>
1155 ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
1156 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
1157 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
1158 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
1159 now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
1160 filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
1161 use of many small files, very large files and directories containing tens of
1162 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
1163 non-boot partitions.
1164 </p>
1165
1166 <p>
1167 XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
1168 Gentoo Linux's <c>xfs-sources</c> kernel. It comes with a robust
1169 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
1170 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
1171 a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
1172 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
1173 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
1174 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
1175 </p>
1176
1177 <p>
1178 JFS is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
1179 become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
1180 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
1181 point.
1182 </p>
1183
1184 <p>
1185 If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
1186 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
1187 journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
1188 refined and recommended for general use.
1189 </p>
1190
1191 <p>
1192 Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
1193 all our partitions for use:
1194 </p>
1195
1196 <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
1197 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda1</i>
1198 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1199 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1200 </pre>
1201
1202 <p>
1203 We choose ext3 for our <path>/dev/hda1</path> boot partition because it is a
1204 robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
1205 <c>mkswap</c> for our <path>/dev/hda2</path> swap partition -- the choice is
1206 obvious here. And for our main root filesystem on <path>/dev/hda3</path> we
1207 choose ReiserFS, since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent
1208 performance. Now, go ahead and initialize your partitions.
1209 </p>
1210
1211 <p>
1212 For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
1213 during the installation process:
1214 </p>
1215
1216 <p>
1217 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
1218 </p>
1219
1220 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
1221 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1222 </pre>
1223
1224 <p>
1225 You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:
1226 </p>
1227
1228 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
1229 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1230 </pre>
1231
1232 <p>
1233 If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
1234 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:
1235 </p>
1236
1237 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
1238 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i>
1239 </pre>
1240
1241 <note>
1242 You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
1243 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
1244 </note>
1245
1246 <p>
1247 To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:
1248 </p>
1249
1250 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
1251 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1252 </pre>
1253
1254 <p>
1255 To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:
1256 </p>
1257
1258 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
1259 # <i>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</i>
1260 </pre>
1261
1262 <note>
1263 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c>
1264 command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>. The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command
1265 will lower the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at
1266 least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition, so, for example, if
1267 you have a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5. The
1268 <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing
1269 performance.
1270 </note>
1271
1272 <p>
1273 To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:
1274 </p>
1275
1276 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
1277 # <i>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</i>
1278 </pre>
1279
1280 </body>
1281 </section>
1282 </chapter>
1283
1284 <chapter>
1285 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
1286 <section>
1287 <body>
1288
1289 <p>
1290 Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need
1291 the additional virtual memory that it provides later:
1292 </p>
1293
1294 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
1295 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
1296 </pre>
1297
1298 <p>
1299 Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount point,
1300 and we will mount our filesystems to the mount points. Once our boot and
1301 root filesystems are mounted, any files we copy or create inside
1302 <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
1303 Note that if you are setting up Gentoo Linux with separate
1304 <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1305 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1306 </p>
1307
1308 <impo>
1309 If your <path>/boot</path> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS,
1310 be sure to mount it with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly
1311 installed. Make sure that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new
1312 <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1313 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS,
1314 then the <c>-o notail</c> is not needed. It's always safe to specify the
1315 <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're not sure what to do.
1316 </impo>
1317
1318 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1319 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
1320 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1321 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1322 </pre>
1323
1324 <impo>
1325 If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1326 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2</c>
1327 </impo>
1328
1329 </body>
1330 </section>
1331 </chapter>
1332
1333
1334 <chapter>
1335 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1336 <section>
1337 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1338 <body>
1339
1340 <p>
1341 Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1342 basis for the install if you haven't already. The stages on the Live CD are
1343 in <path>/mnt/cdrom/stages/</path> and you can type <c>ls
1344 /mnt/cdrom/stages/</c> to see what's available on your CD.
1345 </p>
1346
1347 <p>
1348 <b>GRP users</b> should use the <path>stage3-xx-yy.tar.bz2</path> tarball.
1349 </p>
1350
1351 <p>
1352 If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1353 <e>not</e> on your CD (which will likely be the case if you're using our
1354 "basic" Live CD), this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1355 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1356 tarball you want to use (which most users will have), then proceed to the
1357 "Extracting the stage tarball" section.
1358 </p>
1359
1360 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1361 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1362 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1363 # <i>lynx http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</i>
1364 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1365 Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1366 Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1367 Save the file and quit the browser
1368
1369 <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1370 # <i>wget </i><comment>(insert URL to the required stage tarball here)</comment>
1371 </pre>
1372
1373 </body>
1374 </section>
1375 <section>
1376 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1377 <body>
1378
1379 <p>
1380 Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1381 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1382 tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1383 stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1384 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:
1385 </p>
1386
1387 <impo>
1388 Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1389 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.
1390 </impo>
1391
1392 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1393 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1394 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1395 <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1396 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/stages/".</comment>
1397 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
1398 </pre>
1399
1400 <p>
1401 If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now
1402 delete it by typing <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.
1403 </p>
1404
1405 </body>
1406 </section>
1407
1408 <section>
1409 <title>GRP package/snapshot steps</title>
1410 <body>
1411
1412 <impo>
1413 The following instructions are for GRP users only.
1414 </impo>
1415
1416 <p>
1417 <b>GRP Users</b>: There is a Portage snapshot on the Live CD. You will
1418 need to use this snapshot so that you can skip the <c>emerge sync</c> step
1419 later in this document, since <c>emerge sync</c> requires a network
1420 connection. Untar this snapshot as follows:
1421 </p>
1422
1423 <pre caption="Using Portage snapshot">
1424 <comment>Replace yyyymmdd with the datestamp in the filename.</comment>
1425 # <i>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-yyyymmdd.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
1426 </pre>
1427
1428 <p>
1429 This will extract a snapshot of the Portage tree to your fresh Gentoo
1430 install. Now you won't need to connect to the Internet and use <c>emerge
1431 sync</c> to download a Portage tree. Now, copy distfiles and packages
1432 from the Live CD into place:
1433 </p>
1434
1435 <pre caption="Copying GRP files">
1436 # <i>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
1437 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/ /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages/</i>
1438 </pre>
1439
1440 <p>
1441 All relevant files are now in place for using GRP. You should now have
1442 everything copied over and unpacked that you'll need to install Gentoo Linux
1443 -- even without a network connection.
1444 </p>
1445
1446 </body>
1447 </section>
1448
1449 <section>
1450 <title>Selecting Mirrors (Optional)</title>
1451 <body>
1452
1453 <p>
1454 <c>mirrorselect</c> is a tool designed to automatically pick the fastest
1455 mirrors based on your location, or manually pick a mirror from a list.
1456 Unfortunately, <c>mirrorselect</c> does not work well behind all routers.
1457 </p>
1458
1459 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect">
1460 <comment>To select a mirror automatically:</comment>
1461 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1462 <comment>To select a mirror interactively:</comment>
1463 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1464 </pre>
1465
1466 <p>
1467 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails you should be able to
1468 continue with this guide since no changes are made.
1469 </p>
1470
1471 </body>
1472 </section>
1473 <section>
1474 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1475 <body>
1476
1477 <p>
1478 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to
1479 "enter" the new Gentoo Linux system:
1480 </p>
1481
1482 <note>
1483 You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1484 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1485 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document, which will resolve
1486 the problem.
1487 </note>
1488
1489 <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1490 # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
1491 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
1492 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
1493 # <i>env-update</i>
1494 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1495 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
1496 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries)</comment>
1497 </pre>
1498
1499 <p>
1500 After you execute these commands, you will be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux
1501 environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. We can perform the rest of the
1502 installation process inside the chroot.
1503 </p>
1504
1505 </body>
1506 </section>
1507 </chapter>
1508
1509 <chapter>
1510 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1511 <section>
1512 <body>
1513
1514 <impo>
1515 If you are doing a GRP install then you can ignore the following section on
1516 <c>emerge sync</c>.
1517 </impo>
1518
1519 <p>
1520 Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage
1521 to download the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree from the
1522 Internet. If you extracted a Portage tree snapshot from <e>CD 1</e> earlier,
1523 you can safely skip this step. The Portage tree contains all the scripts
1524 (called ebuilds) used to build every package under Gentoo Linux. Currently,
1525 we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1526 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in
1527 <path>/usr/portage</path>:
1528 </p>
1529
1530 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1531 # <i>emerge sync</i>
1532 </pre>
1533
1534 </body>
1535 </section>
1536 </chapter>
1537
1538 <chapter>
1539 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1540 <section>
1541 <body>
1542
1543 <p>
1544 Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1545 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1546 Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1547 programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1548 this file, you should set your USE flags, which specify optional
1549 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1550 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset USE variable) are
1551 fine. More information on USE flags can be found <uri
1552 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1553 of current USE flags can be found <uri
1554 link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
1555 </p>
1556
1557 <p>
1558 If you are starting from a stage1 tarball, You also should set appropriate
1559 CHOST, CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings for the kind of system that you are
1560 creating (commented examples can be found further down in the file). If you
1561 are using a stage2 or stage3 tarball, these settings will already be configured
1562 optimally and should not require any modification.
1563 </p>
1564
1565 <impo>
1566 <b>Advanced users:</b> The CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings are used to tell the
1567 C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that is generated on your system.
1568 It is common for users with Athlon XP processors to specify a
1569 "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings so that all
1570 packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and performance
1571 characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1572 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
1573 </impo>
1574
1575 <!-- needs qa
1576 <note>
1577 <b>Advanced users:</b>If you are building from a stage1 and don't want
1578 to manually configure CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, you can use the <c>genflags</c>
1579 utility, which will try to guess accurate flags for your CPU architecture.
1580 Simply type <c>emerge -O genflags</c> and then execute
1581 <c>info2flags</c>. <c>info2flags</c> will suggest CHOST, CFLAGS and
1582 CXXFLAGS settings, which you can then add to
1583 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
1584 </note>
1585 -->
1586
1587 <p>
1588 If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1589 firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1590 using <c>nano</c>, a simple visual editor:
1591 </p>
1592
1593 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1594 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
1595 </pre>
1596
1597 <note>
1598 <b>Advanced users:</b> People who need to substantially customize the build
1599 process should take a look at the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This
1600 file comprises gentoo defaults and should never be touched. If the defaults
1601 do not suffice, then new values should be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>,
1602 as entries in <path>make.conf</path> <e>override</e> the entries
1603 in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're interested in customizing USE
1604 settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1605 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate
1606 <c>USE="-foo"</c> in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c>
1607 USE setting enabled by default in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or
1608 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1609 </note>
1610
1611 <warn>
1612 Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your USE variables until after
1613 stage1.
1614 </warn>
1615
1616 </body>
1617 </section>
1618 </chapter>
1619
1620 <chapter>
1621 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1622 <section>
1623 <body>
1624
1625 <note>
1626 If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.
1627 </note>
1628
1629 <p>
1630 The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you
1631 have picked this tarball, you are most likely looking to have an
1632 uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun! Installing from a stage1
1633 takes a lot of time, but the result is a system that has been optimized
1634 from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1635 </p>
1636
1637 <p>
1638 Now, it is time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes
1639 about two hours on a 1200MHz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the GNU
1640 C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start
1641 the bootstrap as follows:
1642 </p>
1643
1644 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1645 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
1646 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
1647 </pre>
1648
1649 <p>
1650 The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
1651 </p>
1652
1653 <note>
1654 <c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up
1655 users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related
1656 files in one go for later compilation. See <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more
1657 information.
1658 </note>
1659
1660 <note>
1661 Portage by default uses <path>/var/tmp</path> during package building,
1662 often using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would
1663 like to change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new
1664 PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e> starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1665 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1666 # <i>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</i>
1667 </pre>
1668 </note>
1669
1670 <p>
1671 <c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1672 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c> after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to
1673 say, this process takes a while. Once this process completes, your system
1674 will be equivalent to a "stage2" system, which means you can now move on to
1675 the stage2 instructions.
1676 </p>
1677
1678 </body>
1679 </section>
1680 </chapter>
1681
1682 <chapter>
1683 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1684 <section>
1685 <body>
1686
1687 <note>
1688 This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1689 this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3), then skip this section.
1690 </note>
1691
1692 <warn>
1693 If you start from stage2, don't change the CHOST variable in
1694 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so results in strange and
1695 broad compilation failures.
1696 </warn>
1697
1698 <p>
1699 The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you
1700 have to do is install the rest of the system:
1701 </p>
1702
1703 <note>
1704 If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1705 that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1706 option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1707 safe to skip this suggestion.
1708 </note>
1709
1710 <pre caption="Installing the rest of the system">
1711 # <i>emerge -p system</i>
1712 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1713 # <i>emerge system</i>
1714 </pre>
1715
1716 <p>
1717 It is going to take a while to finish building the entire base system.
1718 Your reward is that it will be thoroughly optimized for your system.
1719 The drawback is that you have to find a way to keep yourself occupied for
1720 some time to come. The author suggests "Star Wars - Super Bombad Racing"
1721 for the PS2.
1722 </p>
1723
1724 <p>
1725 Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1726 your time zone" section.
1727 </p>
1728
1729 </body>
1730 </section>
1731 </chapter>
1732
1733
1734 <chapter>
1735 <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1736 <section>
1737 <body>
1738
1739 <note>
1740 This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3 and not for those who
1741 have started with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section. GRP users
1742 should skip ahead to the next section.
1743 </note>
1744
1745 <warn>
1746 Remember, if you start from stage3, don't change the CHOST variable in
1747 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so can result in compilation failures.
1748 </warn>
1749
1750 <p>
1751 The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system,
1752 so no building is required.
1753 </p>
1754
1755 <note>
1756 <b>Advanced users:</b> However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it
1757 may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern for you, you can
1758 automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date
1759 versions of all system packages by typing <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*
1760 /etc/make.conf" emerge -u system</c> (this requires a network connection).
1761 Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1762 otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit
1763 from the very latest Gentoo updates and fixes. In any case, feel free to skip
1764 these steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1765 </note>
1766
1767 </body>
1768 </section>
1769 </chapter>
1770
1771
1772 <chapter>
1773 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1774 <section>
1775 <body>
1776
1777 <p>
1778 Now you need to set your time zone.
1779 </p>
1780
1781 <p>
1782 Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1783 in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1784 <path>/etc/localtime</path> by typing:
1785 </p>
1786
1787 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1788 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</i>
1789 </pre>
1790
1791 </body>
1792 </section>
1793 </chapter>
1794
1795 <chapter>
1796 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1797 <section>
1798 <body>
1799
1800 <impo>
1801 To edit files, remember to use <c>nano -w "filename"</c>.
1802 </impo>
1803
1804 <p>
1805 Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is
1806 configure a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1807 The first file we need to configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember
1808 that you should use the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if
1809 you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it. Remember to specify
1810 <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1811 </p>
1812
1813 <p>
1814 Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be
1815 sure to replace "BOOT", "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices you
1816 are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.):
1817 </p>
1818
1819 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1820 <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1821 #
1822 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1823 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1824 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1825 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1826
1827 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1828
1829 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1830 </comment>
1831 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1832 /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1833 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1834 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1835 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1836 </pre>
1837
1838 <warn>
1839 Please notice that <path>/boot</path> is <e>not</e> mounted at boot time. This
1840 is to protect the data in <path>/boot</path> from corruption. If you need to
1841 access <path>/boot</path>, please mount it!
1842 </warn>
1843
1844 </body>
1845 </section>
1846 </chapter>
1847
1848
1849 <chapter>
1850 <title>Installing the kernel and system logger</title>
1851 <section>
1852 <title>Kernel selections</title>
1853 <body>
1854
1855 <p>
1856 There are two options for installing a kernel. You can either configure your
1857 own kernel or use the <c>genkernel</c> utility to configure and compile your
1858 kernel automatically.
1859 </p>
1860
1861 <p>
1862 Whether configuring a kernel by hand or using <c>genkernel</c>,
1863 you'll need to merge the Linux kernel sources you'd like to use.
1864 Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1865 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1866 which kernel sources to choose, we advise using <c>gentoo-sources</c>.
1867 If you want XFS support, you should choose <c>xfs-sources</c> or
1868 <c>gs-sources</c>. Gentoo's LiveCD uses <c>gs-sources</c> and
1869 <c>xfs-sources</c>. There is also a <c>gaming-sources</c> kernel optimized
1870 for game-playing responsiveness that works wonderfully for this purpose when
1871 the "Preemptible kernel" option is enabled.
1872 </p>
1873
1874 <p>
1875 Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:
1876 </p>
1877
1878 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1879 # <i>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</i>
1880 </pre>
1881
1882 <p>
1883 The <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link will point to your
1884 newly-installed kernel source tree. Portage uses the
1885 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link for a special purpose. Any ebuilds
1886 you install that contain kernel modules will be configured to work with the
1887 kernel source tree pointed to by <path>/usr/src/linux</path>.
1888 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is created when you emerge your first kernel
1889 source package, but after it exists, Portage does not modify this symbolic
1890 link.
1891 </p>
1892
1893 </body>
1894 </section>
1895 <section>
1896 <title>Using genkernel to compile your kernel</title>
1897 <body>
1898
1899 <p>
1900 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
1901 kernel. There are two ways to do this. The first way is to use our new
1902 <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for you.
1903 <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the way
1904 our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use <c>genkernel</c>
1905 to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all your hardware at
1906 boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any
1907 manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may
1908 not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
1909 </p>
1910
1911 <p>
1912 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
1913 </p>
1914
1915 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
1916 # <i>emerge -k genkernel</i>
1917 </pre>
1918
1919 <p>
1920 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>:
1921 </p>
1922
1923 <note>
1924 <b>Advanced users:</b> you can type <c>genkernel --config</c> instead,
1925 which will cause genkernel to allow you to tweak the default kernel
1926 configuration before building begins.
1927 </note>
1928
1929 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
1930 <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.2 (included in the 1.4-20030803 x86/i686 GRP set), use the following:</comment>
1931 # <i>genkernel gentoo-sources</i>
1932 <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.4 or newer, there's no need to specify a kernel:</comment>
1933 # <i>genkernel</i>
1934 Gentoo Linux genkernel, version 1.4
1935 Copyright 2003 Gentoo Technologies, Inc., Bob Johnson, Daniel Robbins
1936 Distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2
1937
1938 Settings:
1939 compile optimization: 1 processor(s)
1940 source tree: /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1941 config: gentoo (customized)
1942 config loc: /etc/kernels/config-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1943 initrd config: (default) /etc/kernels/settings
1944
1945 * Running "make oldconfig"... [ ok ]
1946 * Logging to /var/log/genkernel.log... [ ok ]
1947 * Starting 2.4.20-gaming-r3 build... [ ok ]
1948 * Running "make dep"... [ ok ]
1949 * Running "make bzImage"... [ ok ]
1950 * Running "make modules"... [ ok ]
1951 * Running "make modules_install"... [ ok ]
1952 * Moving bzImage to /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3... [ ok ]
1953 * Building busybox... [ ok ]
1954 * Creating initrd... [ ok ]
1955
1956 * Build completed successfully!
1957
1958 * Please specify /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3 and /boot/initrd-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1959 * when customizing your boot loader configuration files.
1960 </pre>
1961
1962 <p>
1963 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
1964 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
1965 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. The
1966 initrd will be started immediately after booting to perform hardware
1967 autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before your "real" system starts
1968 up.
1969 </p>
1970
1971 <p>
1972 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
1973 CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
1974 is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
1975 To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
1976 </p>
1977
1978 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
1979 # <i>emerge -k hotplug</i>
1980 # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
1981 </pre>
1982
1983 <p>
1984 Finally, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is on
1985 your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
1986 </p>
1987
1988 <table>
1989 <tr>
1990 <th>Ebuild</th>
1991 <th>Purpose</th>
1992 <th>Command</th>
1993 </tr>
1994 <tr>
1995 <ti>nvidia-kernel</ti>
1996 <ti>Accelerated NVIDIA graphics for XFree86</ti>
1997 <ti><c>emerge -k nvidia-kernel</c></ti>
1998 </tr>
1999 <tr>
2000 <ti>nforce-net</ti>
2001 <ti>On-board ethernet controller on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2002 <ti><c>emerge nforce-net</c></ti>
2003 </tr>
2004 <tr>
2005 <ti>nforce-audio</ti>
2006 <ti>On-board audio on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2007 <ti><c>emerge nforce-audio</c></ti>
2008 </tr>
2009 <tr>
2010 <ti>e100</ti>
2011 <ti>Intel e100 Fast Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2012 <ti><c>emerge e100</c></ti>
2013 </tr>
2014 <tr>
2015 <ti>e1000</ti>
2016 <ti>Intel e1000 Gigabit Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2017 <ti><c>emerge e1000</c></ti>
2018 </tr>
2019 <tr>
2020 <ti>emu10k1</ti>
2021 <ti>Creative Sound Blaster Live!/Audigy support</ti>
2022 <ti><c>emerge emu10k1</c></ti>
2023 </tr>
2024 <tr>
2025 <ti>ati-drivers</ti>
2026 <ti>Accelerated ATI Radeon 8500+/FireGL graphics for XFree86</ti>
2027 <ti><c>emerge ati-drivers</c></ti>
2028 </tr>
2029 <tr>
2030 <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
2031 <ti>Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and other cards for XFree86</ti>
2032 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
2033 </tr>
2034 </table>
2035
2036 <p>
2037 The <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, <c>ati-drivers</c> and <c>xfree-drm</c> packages
2038 will require additional configuration to be enabled. All other ebuilds listed
2039 above should be auto-detected at boot-time by the <c>hotplug</c> package.
2040 </p>
2041
2042 <p>
2043 More information on <c>xfree-drm</c> can be found in our <uri
2044 link="/doc/en/dri-howto.xml">Direct Rendering Guide</uri>.
2045 </p>
2046
2047 <p>
2048 Now that you've run and configured your system to use <c>genkernel</c>, you
2049 can skip the "manual kernel configuration" section below.
2050 </p>
2051
2052 </body>
2053 </section>
2054 <section>
2055 <title>Manual kernel configuration</title>
2056 <body>
2057
2058 <p>
2059 If you opted not to use genkernel to compile your kernel, this section
2060 will guide you through the process of configuring and compiling a kernel by
2061 hand. Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your
2062 current emerged kernel source package and is set automatically by Portage at
2063 emerge time. If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to
2064 set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink to the correct one before
2065 proceeding.
2066 </p>
2067
2068 <warn>
2069 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i>
2070 option. Being too aggressive with your security settings can cause certain
2071 programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
2072 </warn>
2073
2074 <note>
2075 If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
2076 your configuration on it, you should execute <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
2077 If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
2078 about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
2079 </note>
2080
2081 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
2082 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
2083 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
2084 </pre>
2085
2086 <warn>
2087 For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
2088 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <e>be enabled
2089 and not compiled as modules</e>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you
2090 have any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're
2091 using XFS, enable the &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's
2092 always a good idea to leave ext2 enabled whether you are using it or not.
2093 </warn>
2094
2095 <p>
2096 Below are some common options that you will need:
2097 </p>
2098
2099 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
2100 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
2101 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
2102 <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below)</comment>
2103 ...
2104
2105 File systems ---&gt;
2106 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
2107 <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs)</comment>
2108 ...
2109 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
2110 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3)</comment>
2111 ...
2112 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
2113 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2114 ...
2115 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
2116 <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS)</comment>
2117 ...
2118 [*] /proc file system support
2119 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2120 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
2121 [*] Automatically mount at boot
2122 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2123 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
2124 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed)</comment>
2125 ...
2126 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
2127 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2)</comment>
2128 ...
2129 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
2130 <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS)</comment>
2131 </pre>
2132
2133 <p>
2134 If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
2135 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) : &quot;PPP
2136 (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial
2137 ports&quot;, &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression
2138 options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP
2139 over Ethernet&quot; option, that might only be used by <c>rp-pppoe</c> when
2140 configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
2141 </p>
2142
2143 <p>
2144 If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
2145 kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA
2146 and ATAPI Block devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot;
2147 (I usually make it a module), then under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable
2148 &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and &quot;SCSI
2149 generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
2150 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
2151 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot
2152 time.
2153 </p>
2154
2155 <p>
2156 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
2157 ethernet card.
2158 </p>
2159
2160 <note>
2161 For those who prefer it, it is possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2
2162 kernel. However, doing this comes at a price: you will lose many of the nifty
2163 features that are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
2164 filesystems, iptables and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
2165 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
2166 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the
2167 kernel, so 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled
2168 in (ie, not a module). It is <comment>vital</comment> that a
2169 <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel line in
2170 <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in
2171 <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
2172 for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
2173 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
2174 </note>
2175
2176 <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
2177 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</i>
2178 # <i>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
2179 </pre>
2180
2181 </body>
2182 </section>
2183 <section>
2184 <title>Installing a system logger</title>
2185 <body>
2186
2187 <p>
2188 Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose
2189 a system logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is
2190 the traditional set of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and
2191 syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem to gravitate away from
2192 sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the newer alternatives.
2193 If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
2194 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four command
2195 sets:
2196 </p>
2197
2198 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
2199 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/sysklogd</i>
2200 # <i>rc-update add sysklogd default</i>
2201 <comment>or</comment>
2202 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng</i>
2203 # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
2204 <comment>or</comment>
2205 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/metalog</i>
2206 # <i>rc-update add metalog default</i>
2207 <comment>or</comment>
2208 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/msyslog</i>
2209 # <i>rc-update add msyslog default</i>
2210 </pre>
2211
2212 <impo>
2213 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
2214 recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
2215 performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
2216 system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
2217 turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
2218 <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
2219 expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
2220 disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
2221 METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
2222 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
2223 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
2224 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
2225 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
2226 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
2227 </pre>
2228 </impo>
2229
2230 <p>
2231 Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
2232 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to
2233 choose, you might as well grab vcron.
2234 </p>
2235
2236 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
2237 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/dcron</i>
2238 # <i>rc-update add dcron default</i>
2239 # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2240 <comment>or</comment>
2241 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/fcron</i>
2242 # <i>rc-update add fcron default</i>
2243 # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2244 <comment>or</comment>
2245 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/vcron</i>
2246 # <i>rc-update add vcron default</i>
2247 <comment>You do not need to run <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i> if using vcron.</comment>
2248 </pre>
2249
2250 <p>
2251 For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
2252 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
2253 </p>
2254
2255 </body>
2256 </section>
2257 </chapter>
2258
2259 <chapter>
2260 <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
2261 <section>
2262 <body>
2263
2264 <p>
2265 If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
2266 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it:
2267 </p>
2268
2269 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
2270 # <i>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</i>
2271 <comment>GRP users should type the following:</comment>
2272 # <i>USE="-X bindist" emerge -K rp-pppoe</i>
2273 </pre>
2274
2275 <note>
2276 The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface,
2277 which is a good thing, because X and its dependencies would also be emerged.
2278 You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with X support later.
2279 </note>
2280
2281 <note>
2282 Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured. You will have to
2283 do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
2284 for the first time.
2285 </note>
2286
2287 <p>
2288 You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
2289 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
2290 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
2291 </p>
2292
2293 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
2294 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/xfsprogs</i>
2295 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
2296 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</i>
2297 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
2298 # <i>emerge -k jfsutils</i>
2299 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
2300 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/lvm-user</i>
2301 </pre>
2302
2303 <p>
2304 If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
2305 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i>
2306 package.
2307 </p>
2308
2309 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
2310 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</i>
2311 </pre>
2312
2313 <!-- fix the bug or fix the docs, don't send the user in circles
2314 (drobbins)
2315 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
2316 to work.
2317 </warn>
2318 -->
2319
2320 </body>
2321 </section>
2322 </chapter>
2323
2324 <chapter>
2325 <title>User Management</title>
2326 <section>
2327 <title>Setting a root password</title>
2328 <body>
2329
2330 <p>
2331 Before you forget, set the root password by typing:
2332 </p>
2333
2334 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
2335 # <i>passwd</i>
2336 </pre>
2337
2338 </body>
2339 </section>
2340 <section>
2341 <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
2342 <body>
2343
2344 <p>
2345 Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
2346 should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
2347 recommended to add a user for day-to-day use:
2348 </p>
2349
2350 <pre caption = "Adding a user">
2351 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
2352 # <i>passwd your_user</i>
2353 </pre>
2354
2355 <p>
2356 Substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.
2357 </p>
2358
2359 <p>
2360 Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
2361 use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
2362 a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.
2363 </p>
2364
2365 </body>
2366 </section>
2367 </chapter>
2368
2369 <chapter>
2370 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
2371 <section>
2372 <body>
2373
2374 <p>
2375 Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
2376 on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
2377 </p>
2378
2379 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
2380 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
2381 </pre>
2382
2383 <p>
2384 Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
2385 domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
2386 </p>
2387
2388 <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
2389 # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
2390 </pre>
2391
2392 <p>
2393 If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
2394 <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
2395 </p>
2396
2397 <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
2398 # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
2399 </pre>
2400
2401 </body>
2402 </section>
2403 </chapter>
2404
2405
2406 <chapter>
2407 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
2408 <section>
2409 <body>
2410
2411 <p>
2412 This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
2413 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses of any hostnames that
2414 may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
2415 </p>
2416
2417 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
2418 127.0.0.1 localhost
2419 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN and your associated machine name</comment>
2420 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
2421 </pre>
2422
2423 <note>
2424 If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
2425 machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
2426 GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
2427 </note>
2428
2429 </body>
2430 </section>
2431 </chapter>
2432
2433
2434 <chapter>
2435 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
2436 <section>
2437 <body>
2438
2439 <p>
2440 Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of
2441 your system to <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any
2442 options you need to the same line). When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules
2443 will be automatically loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet
2444 card module, if you happened to compile it as a module:
2445 </p>
2446
2447 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload">
2448 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
2449 Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
2450 3c59x
2451 </pre>
2452
2453 <p>
2454 Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured
2455 for your first boot:
2456 </p>
2457
2458 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
2459 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
2460 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
2461 </pre>
2462
2463 <p>
2464 If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create
2465 additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or
2466 <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path> scripts respectively for each one
2467 (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...):
2468 </p>
2469
2470 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
2471 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
2472 # <i>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></i>
2473 # <i>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</i>
2474 </pre>
2475
2476 <p>
2477 If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
2478 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for
2479 your setup, then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
2480 </p>
2481
2482 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
2483 depend() {
2484 need pcmcia
2485 }
2486 </pre>
2487
2488 <p>
2489 This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network
2490 is loaded.
2491 </p>
2492
2493 </body>
2494 </section>
2495 </chapter>
2496
2497 <chapter>
2498 <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
2499 <section>
2500 <body>
2501
2502 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
2503 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
2504 </pre>
2505
2506 <p>
2507 Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings. All users
2508 will want to make sure that CLOCK is set to his/her liking. International
2509 keyboard users will want to set the KEYMAP variable (browse
2510 <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various possibilities).
2511 </p>
2512
2513 </body>
2514 </section>
2515 </chapter>
2516
2517 <chapter>
2518 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
2519 <section>
2520 <title>Notes</title>
2521 <body>
2522
2523 <p>
2524 In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose
2525 from. Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between
2526 both GRUB and LILO as their bootloaders.
2527 </p>
2528
2529 <p>
2530 Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
2531 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
2532 </p>
2533
2534 <p>
2535 In addition, you will need to configure our bootloader differently depending
2536 upon whether you are using <c>genkernel</c> (with kernel and initrd) or a
2537 kernel you compiled by hand. Be sure to take note of the important
2538 differences.
2539 </p>
2540
2541 <impo>
2542 If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or
2543 nForce2 chipset with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use
2544 LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board video enabled, the low memory area of your
2545 RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low memory at boot time,
2546 it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
2547 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using
2548 off-board video right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics
2549 card and use the on-board video in a pinch, wouldn't it? :)
2550 </impo>
2551
2552 </body>
2553 </section>
2554 <section>
2555 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
2556 <body>
2557
2558 <p>
2559 The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how
2560 GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition
2561 <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the
2562 parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required. Hard drives count from zero
2563 rather than "a" and partitions start at zero rather than one. Be aware too
2564 that with the hd devices, only hard drives are counted, not atapi-ide devices
2565 such as cdrom players, burners and that the same construct can be used with
2566 scsi drives. (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the
2567 bios is configured to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a hard drive
2568 on <path>/dev/hda</path>, a cdrom player on <path>/dev/hdb</path>, a burner on
2569 <path>/dev/hdc</path>, a second hard drive on <path>/dev/hdd</path> and no
2570 SCSI hard drive, <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to
2571 <path>(hd1,6)</path>. It might sound tricky and tricky it is indeed, but as
2572 we will see, GRUB offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for
2573 those of you having a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a little
2574 lost in the GRUB numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that, it is
2575 time to install GRUB.
2576 </p>
2577
2578 <p>
2579 The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted
2580 shell prompt:
2581 </p>
2582
2583 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
2584 # <i>emerge -k grub</i>
2585 # <i>grub</i>
2586 </pre>
2587
2588 <p>
2589 You will be presented with the <e>grub&gt;</e> grub command-line prompt.
2590 Now, you need to type in the right commands to install the GRUB boot record
2591 onto your hard drive. In my example configuration, I want to install the GRUB
2592 boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that the first
2593 thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the
2594 commands I want to type are:
2595 </p>
2596
2597 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
2598 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2599 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here, it is the MBR)</comment>
2600 </pre>
2601
2602 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
2603 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR:</comment>
2604 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2605 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0,4)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here it is /dev/hda5)</comment>
2606 grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2607 </pre>
2608
2609 <p>
2610 Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells
2611 GRUB the location of your boot partition (in our example,
2612 <path>/dev/hda1</path> or <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the
2613 second <c>setup ( )</c> command tells GRUB where to install the boot record -
2614 it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root ( )</c>
2615 location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the MBR
2616 of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as
2617 <path>(hd0)</path>). If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up
2618 GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I could install GRUB to the boot record of
2619 a particular partition. In that case, I would specify a particular partition
2620 rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB boot record has been successfully
2621 installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
2622 </p>
2623
2624 <note>
2625 The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB,
2626 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
2627 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only hard drives),
2628 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, GRUB would print the
2629 available hard drives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
2630 would make GRUB print the list of partitions on the first hard drive.
2631 Checking the syntax of the GRUB location with completion should really help
2632 to make the right choice.
2633 </note>
2634
2635 <p>
2636 Gentoo Linux is now installed, but we need to create the
2637 <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that we get a nice GRUB boot menu
2638 when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
2639 </p>
2640
2641 <impo>
2642 To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
2643 <path>grub.conf</path> to <path>menu.lst</path>. You can do this by typing
2644 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst</c>.
2645 </impo>
2646
2647 <p>
2648 Now, create the <path>grub.conf</path> file (<c>nano -w
2649 /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>) and add the following to it:
2650 </p>
2651
2652 <pre caption="grub.conf for GRUB">
2653 default 0
2654 timeout 30
2655 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
2656
2657 <comment># If you compiled your own kernel, use something like this:</comment>
2658 title=My example Gentoo Linux
2659 root (hd0,0)
2660 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
2661
2662 <comment># If you're using genkernel, use something like this instead:</comment>
2663 title=My example Gentoo Linux (genkernel)
2664 root (hd0,0)
2665 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/kernel-KV root=/dev/hda3
2666 initrd (hd0,0)/boot/initrd-KV
2667
2668 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
2669 title=Windows XP
2670 root (hd0,5)
2671 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
2672 </pre>
2673
2674 <p>
2675 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed.
2676 </p>
2677
2678 <note>
2679 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
2680 </note>
2681
2682 <impo>
2683 If you set up SCSI emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
2684 actually work you need to add an <c>hdx=ide-scsi</c> fragment to the kernel
2685 line in <path>grub.conf</path> (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd
2686 burner).
2687 </impo>
2688
2689 <p>
2690 After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the
2691 first option will tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second
2692 part of the <path>grub.conf</path> file is optional and shows you how to use
2693 GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
2694 </p>
2695
2696 <note>
2697 Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
2698 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path>
2699 should point to your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT
2700 boot loader.
2701 </note>
2702
2703 <note>
2704 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for
2705 example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root
2706 partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the <path>grub.conf</path> file
2707 above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
2708 </note>
2709
2710 <p>
2711 If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply add them to
2712 the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
2713 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you
2714 can turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're
2715 doing) by adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c>
2716 command.
2717 </p>
2718
2719 <note>
2720 Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
2721 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs.
2722 Now devfs is enabled by default.
2723 </note>
2724
2725 </body>
2726 </section>
2727 <section>
2728 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
2729 <body>
2730
2731 <p>
2732 While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the
2733 best choice. LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux
2734 bootloaders. Here is how to install LILO if you would like to use it instead
2735 of GRUB.
2736 </p>
2737
2738 <p>
2739 The first step is to emerge LILO:
2740 </p>
2741
2742 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
2743 # <i>emerge -k lilo</i>
2744 </pre>
2745
2746 <p>
2747 Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file
2748 <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>:
2749 </p>
2750
2751 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
2752 boot=/dev/hda
2753 map=/boot/map
2754 install=/boot/boot.b
2755 prompt
2756 timeout=50
2757 lba32
2758 default=linux
2759
2760 <comment># Use something like the following 4 lines if you compiled your kernel yourself</comment>
2761 image=/boot/bzImage
2762 label=linux
2763 read-only
2764 root=/dev/hda3
2765
2766 <comment># If you used genkernel, use something like this:</comment>
2767 image=/boot/kernel-KV
2768 label=gk_linux
2769 root=/dev/hda3
2770 initrd=/boot/initrd-KV
2771 append="root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc"
2772
2773
2774 <comment># For dual booting windows/other OS</comment>
2775 other=/dev/hda1
2776 label=dos
2777 </pre>
2778
2779 <p>
2780 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed.
2781 </p>
2782
2783 <ul>
2784 <li><c>boot=/dev/hda</c> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller.</li>
2785 <li><c>map=/boot/map</c> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
2786 <li><c>install=/boot/boot.b</c> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector. In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will assume a default of <path>/boot/boot.b</path> as the file to be used. </li>
2787 <li>The existence of <c>prompt</c> tells LILO to display the classic <e>lilo:</e> prompt at bootup. While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
2788 <li><c>timeout=50</c> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
2789 <li><c>lba32</c> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put your system in an unbootable state. </li>
2790 <li><c>default=linux</c> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
2791 <li><c>image=/boot/bzImage</c> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
2792 <li><c>label=linux</c> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case, it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
2793 <li><c>read-only</c> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be altered during the boot process. </li>
2794 <li><c>root=/dev/hda3</c> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
2795 </ul>
2796
2797 <p>
2798 After you have edited your <path>lilo.conf</path> file, it is time to run LILO
2799 to load the information into the MBR:
2800 </p>
2801
2802 <pre caption="Running LILO">
2803 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
2804 </pre>
2805
2806 <p>
2807 LILO is configured and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
2808 </p>
2809
2810 </body>
2811 </section>
2812
2813 <section>
2814 <title>Using framebuffer</title>
2815 <body>
2816
2817 <p>
2818 People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c>
2819 to their bootloader configuration file. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the
2820 following table:
2821 </p>
2822
2823 <table>
2824 <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
2825 <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
2826 <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
2827 <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
2828 </table>
2829
2830 <p>
2831 LILO-users will have to add <c>vga=xxx</c> on top of their configuration
2832 file.
2833 </p>
2834
2835 <p>
2836 GRUB-users will have to append <c>vga=xxx</c> to the <c>kernel
2837 (hd0,0)...</c> line.
2838 </p>
2839
2840 </body>
2841 </section>
2842 </chapter>
2843
2844 <chapter>
2845 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
2846 <section>
2847 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
2848 <body>
2849
2850 <impo>
2851 Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2852 </impo>
2853
2854 <p>
2855 It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
2856 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
2857 blanket and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
2858 let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
2859 you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
2860 If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk and when you reboot
2861 the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
2862 like this:
2863 </p>
2864
2865 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
2866 # <i>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</i>
2867 # <i>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</i>
2868 </pre>
2869
2870 <p>
2871 Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you
2872 can now execute the necessary <c>root</c> and <c>setup</c> commands.
2873 </p>
2874
2875 </body>
2876 </section>
2877 <section>
2878 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
2879 <body>
2880
2881 <impo>
2882 Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2883 </impo>
2884
2885 <p>
2886 If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
2887 </p>
2888
2889 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
2890 # <i>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </i>
2891 <comment>(This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB)</comment>
2892 </pre>
2893
2894 </body>
2895 </section>
2896 </chapter>
2897
2898 <chapter>
2899 <title>Using GRP</title>
2900 <section>
2901 <body>
2902
2903 <p>
2904 GRP users can, at this point, install binary packages:
2905 </p>
2906
2907 <pre caption="Installing from GRP">
2908 # <i>USE="bindist" emerge -k xfree</i>
2909 <codenote>(USE="bindist" must be set while installing GRP packages that use XFree86)</codenote>
2910 </pre>
2911
2912 <p>
2913 CD 1 contains enough applications to install a working system with XFree86.
2914 Additionally, CD2 of the 2-CD GRP set contains other applications including
2915 KDE, GNOME, Mozilla and others. To install these packages, you will need to
2916 reboot into your new Gentoo system first (covered in the "Installation
2917 complete!" section near the end of this document). After you are running your
2918 basic Gentoo system from the hard drive, you can mount the second CD and copy
2919 files:
2920 </p>
2921
2922 <pre caption="Loading binary packages from CD2">
2923 # <i>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</i>
2924 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/ /usr/portage/</i>
2925 </pre>
2926
2927 <p>
2928 Now various other applications can be installed the same way. For example:
2929 </p>
2930
2931 <pre caption="Installing KDE from GRP">
2932 # <i>USE="bindist" emerge -k kde</i>
2933 </pre>
2934
2935 </body>
2936 </section>
2937 </chapter>
2938
2939 <chapter>
2940 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
2941 <section>
2942 <body>
2943
2944 <p>
2945 Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary
2946 configuration files, exit the chrooted shell, safely unmount your partitions
2947 and reboot the system:
2948 </p>
2949
2950 <warn>
2951 <c>etc-update</c> can provide you with a list of configuration files
2952 that have newer versions at your disposal. Verify that none of the
2953 configuration files have a big impact (such as <path>/etc/fstab</path>,
2954 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, ...). Merge the
2955 files that don't have such a big impact, remove the updates of the
2956 others or view the diff and manually update the configuration file.
2957 </warn>
2958
2959 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
2960 # <i>etc-update</i>
2961 # <i>exit</i>
2962 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <i>^D</i>)</comment>
2963 # <i>cd / </i>
2964 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
2965 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
2966 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo</i>
2967 # <i>reboot</i>
2968 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the bootable CD)</comment>
2969 </pre>
2970
2971 <note>
2972 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to
2973 create the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this
2974 file directly, you should generally make changes to the files in
2975 <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
2976 </note>
2977
2978 <p>
2979 If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux
2980 evelopment, consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
2981 (more information on our <uri
2982 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
2983 We also have a handy <uri
2984 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration
2985 guide</uri> that will help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux
2986 system and a useful <uri
2987 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
2988 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the
2989 Gentoo Documentation <uri
2990 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any
2991 other questions involving installation or anything for that matter, please
2992 check the Gentoo Linux <uri
2993 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>. Enjoy and welcome to
2994 Gentoo Linux!
2995 </p>
2996
2997 </body>
2998 </section>
2999 </chapter>
3000
3001 <chapter>
3002 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
3003 <section>
3004 <body>
3005
3006 <p>
3007 The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give
3008 the developers a way to find out about their user base. It collects information
3009 about Gentoo Linux usage to help us in set priorities our development.
3010 Installing it is completely optional and it would be greatly appreciated if
3011 you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at
3012 <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
3013 </p>
3014
3015 <p>
3016 The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
3017 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID
3018 will not be used to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched
3019 against an IP address or other personal information. Every precaution has been
3020 taken to assure your privacy in the development of this system. The following
3021 are the things that we are monitoring right now through our "gentoo-stats"
3022 program:
3023 </p>
3024
3025 <ul>
3026 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
3027 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx" or "3dnow")</li>
3028 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
3029 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
3030 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> link is pointing to).</li>
3031 </ul>
3032
3033 <p>
3034 We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most
3035 Gentoo Linux users (just as it is to the developers).
3036 </p>
3037
3038 <ul>
3039 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
3040 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
3041 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID" pairs.</li>
3042 </ul>
3043
3044 <p>
3045 The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
3046 </p>
3047
3048 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
3049 # <i>emerge gentoo-stats</i> <comment>(Installs gentoo-stats)</comment>
3050 # <i>gentoo-stats --new</i> <comment>(Obtains a new system ID)</comment>
3051 </pre>
3052
3053 <p>
3054 The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
3055 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view
3056 this file to see additional configuration options.
3057 </p>
3058
3059 <p>
3060 After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule (gentoo-stats does
3061 not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
3062 </p>
3063
3064 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
3065 0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null
3066 </pre>
3067
3068 <p>
3069 The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
3070 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>.
3071 </p>
3072
3073 </body>
3074 </section>
3075 </chapter>
3076
3077 <chapter>
3078 <title>Gentoo On Less-Common Hardware</title>
3079 <section>
3080 <title>Hardware ATA RAID</title>
3081 <body>
3082
3083 <p>
3084 Users who want to install Gentoo on Hardware ATA RAID must pay
3085 attention to the next steps in order for them to succesfully
3086 install Gentoo Linux:
3087 </p>
3088
3089 <ul>
3090 <li>Be sure to start the LiveCD with the <c>doataraid</c> kerneloption.</li>
3091 <li>If you've forgotten to select <c>doataraid</c> during bootup, or the modules mysteriously didn't load, load them as needed:
3092 <pre caption = "Loading RAID modules">
3093 # <i>modprobe ataraid</i>
3094 <comment>For Promise Raid Controllers:</comment>
3095 # <i>modprobe pdcraid</i>
3096 <comment>For Highpoint Raid Controllers:</comment>
3097 # <i>modprobe hptraid</i>
3098 </pre></li>
3099 <li>Some ATA RAID Controllers require you to reboot after partitioning; formatting will otherwise fail.</li>
3100 <li>Before chrooting, mount the devicetree into the new environment:
3101 <pre caption = "Mounting /dev into /mnt/gentoo/dev">
3102 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
3103 </pre></li>
3104 <li>During kernel configuration, select the required RAID options:
3105 <pre caption = "RAID in the Linux Kernel Configuration">
3106 <comment>For Highpoint RAID controllers:</comment>
3107 ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3108 [*] HPT36X/37X chipset support
3109 [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3110 [*] Highpoint 370 software RAID
3111 <comment>For Promise RAID controllers:</comment>
3112 ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3113 [*] PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67} support
3114 <comment>and/or</comment>
3115 [*] PROMISE PDC202{68|69|70|71|75|76|77} support
3116 [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3117 [*] Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
3118 </pre></li>
3119 <li>When using GRUB add <c>--stage2=/boot/grub/stage2</c> when running <c>grub</c> to the <c>setup</c> command:
3120 <pre caption = "Installing GRUB for Hardware RAID systems">
3121 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
3122 grub&gt; <i>setup --stage2=/boot/grub/stage2 (hd0)</i>
3123 grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
3124 </pre>
3125 Also, in the GRUB configuration be sure to point the <c>root</c>
3126 to the appropriate RAID device:
3127 <pre caption = "grub.conf for RAID">
3128 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
3129 root (hd0,0)
3130 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3131 </pre></li>
3132 <li>LILO users should set the <c>root</c> option to the appropriate RAID device:
3133 <pre caption = "lilo.conf for RAID">
3134 image=/boot/bzImage
3135 label=linux
3136 read-only
3137 root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3138 </pre></li>
3139 </ul>
3140
3141 <p>
3142 If you still have problems installing Gentoo Linux on your Hardware
3143 RAID, be sure to report them on <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>.
3144 </p>
3145
3146 <p>
3147 Thanks for using Gentoo Linux, and have fun with your new installation!
3148 </p>
3149
3150
3151 </body>
3152 </section>
3153 </chapter>
3154 </guide>

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