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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 <author title="Chief Architect">
6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author">Jerry Alexandratos</author>
10 <author title="Ghost, Reviewer">
11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
33 </author>
34 <author title="Editor">Colin Morey</author>
35 <author title="Editor">
36 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
37 </author>
38 <author title="Editor">
39 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
40 </author>
41 <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
42 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
43 </author>
44 <author title="Editor">
45 <mail link="avenj@gentoo.org">Jon Portnoy</mail>
46 </author>
47 <author title="Editor">
48 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
49 </author>
50 <author title="Reviewer">
51 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail>
52 </author>
53 <author title="Reviewer">
54 <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>
55 </author>
56 <author title="Reviewer">
57 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
58 </author>
59 <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
60 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
61 </author>
62
63 <abstract>
64 These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
65 Linux 1.4, release version (not _rc versions). The Gentoo Linux installation
66 process supports various installation approaches, depending upon how much of
67 the system you want to custom-build from scratch.
68 </abstract>
69
70 <license/>
71
72 <version>2.6.16</version>
73 <date>September 27, 2003</date>
74
75 <chapter>
76 <title>About the Install</title>
77 <section>
78 <body>
79
80 <p>
81 First, if you are new to this, welcome to Gentoo Linux! Gentoo
82 Linux can be installed in many different ways. Those who are looking
83 for a rapid install can use pre-built packages, while those who want
84 the ultimate in customizability can compile Gentoo Linux entirely
85 from the original source code. The method you choose is up to
86 you.
87 </p>
88
89 <p>
90 One significant change in relation to the official 1.4 release is
91 our new 2-CD installation set, which can be ordered from <uri
92 link="http://store.gentoo.org">The Gentoo Linux Store</uri>, in
93 addition to being available on our
94 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>.
95 We currently have 2-CD installation sets for x86 (486 and above),
96 i686 (Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Athlon/Duron and above), Pentium III,
97 Pentium 4 and Athlon XP. To see what 2-CD set is right for you, read
98 the detailed descriptions of each product in the <uri
99 link="http://store.gentoo.org">store</uri>. The store descriptions
100 contain fairly comprehensive CPU compatibility information.
101 </p>
102
103 <p>
104 You can find and download the ISOs for the LiveCDs from most of our
105 mirrors. The LiveCDs for the x86 architecture are located inside the
106 <path>releases/x86/1.4/livecd/</path> subdirectory.
107 </p>
108
109 <p>So, about the 2 CD set -- here's what's on each CD. The first
110 CD ("CD 1") is called "Live CD Installation" and is a bootable CD-ROM,
111 meaning that you can put "CD 1" in your drive and run Gentoo Linux
112 directly from the CD. You can then use this CD-based version of
113 Gentoo to install Gentoo Linux 1.4 to your hard disk. In addition
114 to containing a bootable Gentoo Linux environment, CD 1
115 contains everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly, even
116 without a connection to the Internet. In addition, several
117 pre-compiled packages are also included on CD 1, such as the
118 ever-important XFree86 X server. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image
119 file for CD 1, its name will contain <path>-cd1</path>.
120 </p>
121
122 <p>
123 In contrast, the second CD ("CD 2") isn't bootable and contains
124 lots of pre-built packages for your system. Included on this CD are
125 optimized versions of packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice,
126 Mozilla, Evolution and others. CD 2 is <e>optional</e> and is
127 intended for those people who are interested in installing Gentoo
128 Linux very quickly. The packages included on CD 2 typically take
129 about 36 hours to compile from source on a typical modern
130 single-processor system. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image file for CD
131 2, its name will contain <path>-cd2</path>.
132 </p>
133
134 <note>
135 A complete Gentoo Linux 2-CD set contains the Gentoo Reference
136 Platform, which is a complete pre-built Gentoo Linux system including GNOME,
137 KDE, Mozilla and OpenOffice. The Gentoo Reference Platform ("GRP")
138 was created to allow rapid Gentoo Linux package installations
139 for those who need this capability. The "compile from
140 source" functionality, which is the cornerstone of Gentoo Linux,
141 will always be a fully-supported installation option as well. The
142 purpose of the GRP is to make Gentoo Linux more convenient for some
143 users, without impacting Gentoo's powerful "compile from source"
144 installation process in any way.
145 </note>
146
147 <p>
148 In addition to our 2-CD set, we also have a very small "basic"
149 Live CD that you can use to boot your system. Once your system has
150 booted, you can configure a connection to the Internet and then
151 install Gentoo over the network. The advantage of this "basic" CD is
152 that it is small and thus the ISO CD-ROM image file can be
153 downloaded quickly. If you're an advanced user who wants to install
154 the most up-to-date version of Gentoo Linux available and have a
155 fast network connection, then you may prefer this option. If you
156 have an ISO CD-ROM image file for our "basic" Live CD, its name will
157 contain <path>-basic</path>.
158 </p>
159
160 <p>
161 To use any Gentoo Linux CD-based installation method, you will
162 need to have a 486+ processor and ideally at least 64 Megabytes of
163 RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully built with 64MB of RAM +
164 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully slow under
165 those conditions.)
166 </p>
167
168 <p>
169 Once you boot one of our Live CDs, you have even more options.
170 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot;
171 tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system
172 you want to compile yourself. The stage1 tarball is used when you
173 want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The
174 stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system from a
175 bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The stage3 tarball already
176 contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for
177 you. If you are interested in doing a "GRP" install, then the
178 stage3 tarball should be used.
179 </p>
180
181 <p>
182 <b>If you're not doing a GRP install, should you start from a stage1, stage2, or
183 stage3 tarball?</b> Here is some information that should help you
184 make this decision.
185 </p>
186
187 <p>
188 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total
189 control over the optimization settings and optional build-time
190 functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes
191 stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing.
192 It is also a great installation method for those who would like to
193 know more about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
194 </p>
195
196 <p>
197 Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing
198 this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we
199 chose for your particular stage2 tarball.
200 </p>
201
202 <p>
203 And choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
204 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
205 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were
206 carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
207 stability). Since major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's
208 specifically optimized for various popular processors, starting
209 from a stage3 can offer the best of all worlds -- a fast install
210 and a system that is well-optimized.
211 </p>
212
213 <p>
214 <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider using a
215 stage3 tarball for installation, or a stage3 with GRP.</b>
216 </p>
217
218 <note>
219 <b>Advanced users:</b> If you use a stage3 install, you should not
220 change the default CHOST setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If you need
221 to make such a change, you should start with a stage1 tarball and build up
222 your system with the desired CHOST setting. The CHOST setting
223 typically looks something like this: <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>.
224 </note>
225
226 <impo>
227 If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
228 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
229 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (e.g. the KDE
230 team) the <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
231 </impo>
232
233 <note>
234 The installation instructions in the LiveCD may not be as up-to-date as our
235 Web documentation at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri>.
236 Refer to our Web documentation for the most up-to-date installation
237 instructions.
238 </note>
239
240 <p>
241 Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
242 CD(s) and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create
243 partitions, create our filesystems and extract either a stage1, stage2 or
244 stage3 tarball. If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take
245 the appropriate steps to get our system to stage3. Once our system is at
246 stage3, we can configure it (customize configuration files, install a boot
247 loader, etc.), boot it and have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. After
248 your basic Gentoo Linux system is running, you can optionally use "CD 2" of
249 our 2-CD set and install any number of pre-built packages such as KDE, GNOME,
250 OpenOffice, Mozilla, or others that you'd like on your system.
251 </p>
252
253 <p>
254 Depending on what stage of the build process you're starting from, here is
255 what is required for installation:
256 </p>
257
258 <table>
259 <tcolumn width="0.75in"/>
260 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
261 <tcolumn width="1.25in"/>
262 <tcolumn width="3.5in"/>
263 <tr>
264 <th>Stage Tarball</th>
265 <th>Internet Access Required</th>
266 <th>Media Required</th>
267 <th>Steps</th>
268 </tr>
269 <tr>
270 <ti>1</ti>
271 <ti>Yes</ti>
272 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
273 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, final config</ti>
274 </tr>
275 <tr>
276 <ti>2</ti>
277 <ti>Yes</ti>
278 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
279 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, final config</ti>
280 </tr>
281 <tr>
282 <ti>3</ti>
283 <ti>No if using <e>CD 1</e>, Yes otherwise</ti>
284 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
285 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync (not required if using <e>CD 1</e>), final config</ti>
286 </tr>
287 <tr>
288 <ti>3+GRP</ti>
289 <ti>No</ti>
290 <ti><e>CD 1</e>, <e>CD 2</e> optionally</ti>
291 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, final config, install CD 1 pre-built packages (optional), reboot, install extra pre-built packages like KDE and GNOME (if using "CD 2")</ti>
292 </tr>
293 </table>
294
295 <note>
296 Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about ATA RAID on the bottom
297 of this document before proceeding.
298 </note>
299
300 </body>
301 </section>
302 </chapter>
303
304 <chapter>
305 <title>Booting</title>
306 <section>
307 <body>
308
309 <warn>
310 Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the available boot
311 options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong keyboard settings, unstarted
312 pcmcia services etc..
313 </warn>
314
315 <p>
316 Start by booting your Live CD of choice. You should see a fancy
317 boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you
318 can hit Enter to begin the boot process, or boot the LiveCD with
319 custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options
320 and then hitting Enter. For example: <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>.
321 If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with more than one
322 processor ("SMP"), then you should type <c>smp</c> instead of
323 <c>gentoo</c> at the prompt. This will allow the LiveCD to see all
324 the processors in your system, not just the first one.
325 </p>
326
327 <p>
328 Consult the following table for a partial list of available kernels and
329 options or press F2 and F3 to view the help screens.
330 </p>
331
332 <table>
333 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
334 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
335 <tr><th>Available kernels</th><th>Description</th></tr>
336 <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>standard gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
337 <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
338 <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
339 <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
340 <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
341 </table>
342
343 <table>
344 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
345 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
346 <tr><th>Available boot options</th><th>Description</th></tr>
347 <tr><ti>doataraid</ti><ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
348 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti><ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc.)</ti></tr>
349 <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti><ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
350 <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti><ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
351 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti><ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
352 <tr><ti>noapm</ti><ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
353 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti><ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
354 <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti><ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
355 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti><ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
356 <tr><ti>noraid</ti><ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
357 <tr><ti>nousb</ti><ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
358 <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti><ti>force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
359 <tr><ti>cdcache</ti><ti>cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram. This uses 40mb of RAM, but allows you to umount <path>/mnt/cdrom</path> and mount another cdrom</ti></tr>
360 </table>
361
362 <p>
363 Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with an even fancier boot
364 screen and progress bar.
365 </p>
366
367 <p>
368 Once the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in
369 to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "<e>root</e>", the "super user". You should
370 have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
371 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
372 you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
373 </p>
374
375 <note>
376 <b>Advanced users:</b> When the Live CD boots, the Live CD root password is
377 set to a random string for security purposes. If you plan to start
378 <c>sshd</c> to allow remote logins to your Live CD, you should set the Live
379 CD root password now by typing <c>passwd</c> and following the prompts.
380 Otherwise, you will not know the proper password for logging into the Live
381 CD over the network.
382 </note>
383
384 <p>
385 You've probably also noticed that above your # prompt is a bunch of
386 help text that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking
387 and telling you where you can find the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages
388 on your CD.
389 </p>
390
391 </body>
392 </section>
393 </chapter>
394
395 <chapter>
396 <title>Optional hardware configuration</title>
397 <section>
398 <body>
399
400 <p>
401 When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware
402 devices and loads the appropiate kernel modules to support your
403 hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job.
404 However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules
405 you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you
406 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
407 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
408 /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
409 type:
410 </p>
411
412 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
413 # <i>modprobe pcnet32</i>
414 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
415 </pre>
416
417 <p>
418 Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't
419 detected during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to
420 load the appropriate modules from <path>/lib/modules</path>, again using
421 <c>modprobe</c>:
422 </p>
423
424 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
425 # <i>modprobe aic7xxx</i>
426 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
427 # <i>modprobe sd_mod</i>
428 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
429 </pre>
430
431 <note>
432 Support for SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
433 </note>
434
435 <note>
436 <b>Advanced users:</b> The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA
437 on your disks so that disk transfers are as fast as possible, but if it did not,
438 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives as follows:
439 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
440 <comment>(Replace hdX with your disk device)</comment>
441 # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX</i>
442 <comment>(Enables DMA)</comment>
443 # <i>hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX</i>
444 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
445 # <i>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX</i>
446 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
447 </pre>
448 </note>
449
450
451 </body>
452 </section>
453 </chapter>
454 <chapter>
455 <title>Optional Networking configuration</title>
456 <section>
457 <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
458 <body>
459
460 <p>
461 If your system is plugged into an Ethernet network, it is very
462 likely that your networking configuration has already been
463 set up automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of
464 the many included network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>,
465 <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>links</c>, among
466 others.
467 </p>
468
469 <p>
470 If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command
471 should list some internet interfaces besides lo, such as eth0:
472 </p>
473
474 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
475 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
476 inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
477 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
478 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
479 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
480 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
481 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
482 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
483 Interrupt:11 Base address:0xe800
484 </pre>
485
486 <p>
487 You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in
488 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>) and a Web site of choice, just to make sure
489 that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working
490 correctly, etc..
491 </p>
492
493 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
494 # <i>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com</i>
495 </pre>
496
497 <p>
498 Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this
499 section.
500 </p>
501
502 </body>
503 </section>
504 <section>
505 <title>PPPoE configuration</title>
506 <body>
507
508 <p>
509 Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version)
510 has made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided
511 <c>adsl-setup</c> script to configure your connection. You will be prompted
512 for the ethernet device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username
513 and password, the IPs of your DNS servers and if you need a basic firewall
514 or not.
515 </p>
516
517 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
518 # <i> adsl-setup </i>
519 # <i> adsl-start </i>
520 </pre>
521
522 <p>
523 If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed your username
524 and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
525 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and make sure you are using the right
526 ethernet device.
527 </p>
528
529 </body>
530 </section>
531
532 <section>
533 <title>Automatic Network Configuration </title>
534 <body>
535
536 <p>
537 The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured
538 automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script:
539 </p>
540
541 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
542 # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
543 </pre>
544
545 <p>
546 Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is
547 covered next.
548 </p>
549
550 </body>
551 </section>
552 <section>
553 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
554 <body>
555
556 <p>
557 Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
558 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below.
559 </p>
560
561 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
562 # <i>dhcpcd eth0</i>
563 </pre>
564
565 <note>
566 Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that, add a
567 <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
568 </note>
569
570 <p>
571 If you receive <e>dhcpConfig</e> warnings, don't panic; the errors are most
572 likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.
573 </p>
574
575 </body>
576 </section>
577 <section>
578 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
579 <body>
580
581 <p>
582 We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download sources for
583 the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed
584 information is explained in the next table.
585 </p>
586
587 <table>
588 <tcolumn width="1.25in"/>
589 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
590 <tcolumn width="1.25in"/>
591 <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
592 <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti>192.168.1.2</ti></tr>
593 <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network</ti><ti>192.168.1.255</ti></tr>
594 <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti>255.255.255.0</ti></tr>
595 <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti>192.168.1.1</ti></tr>
596 </table>
597
598 <p>
599 Type in the following commands, replacing <c>$IFACE</c> with your network
600 interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), <c>$IPNUM</c> with your IP address,
601 <c>$BCAST</c> with your broadcast address and <c>$NMASK</c> with your network
602 mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace <c>$GTWAY</c> with your default
603 gateway.
604 </p>
605
606 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
607 # <i>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</i>
608 # <i>route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1 $IFACE</i>
609 </pre>
610
611 <p>
612 Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file so that name
613 resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address)
614 will work. You can use <c>nano -w /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create
615 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use
616 editor.
617 </p>
618
619 <p>
620 Here is a template to follow for creating your <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
621 file:
622 </p>
623
624 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
625 domain mydomain.com
626 nameserver 10.0.0.1
627 nameserver 10.0.0.2
628 </pre>
629
630 <p>
631 Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
632 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.
633 </p>
634
635 </body>
636 </section>
637
638 <section>
639 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
640 <body>
641
642 <p>
643 If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy
644 before you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy
645 accordingly.
646 </p>
647
648 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
649 <comment>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</comment>
650 # <i>export http_proxy="http://machine.company.com:1234"</i>
651 <comment>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</comment>
652 # <i>export ftp_proxy="ftp://machine.company.com"</i>
653 <comment>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</comment>
654 # <i>export RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://machine.company.com"</i>
655 </pre>
656
657 </body>
658 </section>
659
660 <section>
661 <title>Networking is go!</title>
662 <body>
663
664 <p>
665 Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the
666 included <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>links</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c>
667 commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.
668 </p>
669
670 </body>
671 </section>
672 </chapter>
673
674 <chapter>
675 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
676 <section>
677 <body>
678
679 <p>
680 Now you need to set your system's date and time. You can do this using the
681 <c>date</c> command.
682 </p>
683
684 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
685 # <i>date</i>
686 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
687 <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
688 # <i>date 022709042003</i>
689 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
690 </pre>
691
692 </body>
693 </section>
694 </chapter>
695
696 <chapter>
697 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
698 <section>
699 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
700 <body>
701
702 <p>
703 In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo
704 Linux and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block
705 devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
706 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
707 and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
708 </p>
709
710 <p>
711 To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
712 probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
713 </p>
714
715 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
716 /dev/hda
717 </pre>
718
719 <p>
720 If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
721 </p>
722
723 <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
724 /dev/sda
725 </pre>
726
727 <p>
728 The block devices above represent an <e>abstract</e> interface to the disk.
729 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
730 worrying about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
731 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
732 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
733 </p>
734
735 </body>
736 </section>
737 <section>
738 <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
739 <body>
740
741 <p>
742 Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
743 <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc.), specifying a particular
744 block device as a command-line argument.
745 </p>
746
747 <p>
748 However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
749 device (one that represents the <e>entire</e> disk) like <path>/dev/hda</path>
750 or <path>/dev/sda</path> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never
751 done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller,
752 more manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created
753 using a tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the
754 partition table that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines
755 exactly how to split up the full disk.
756 </p>
757
758 <p>
759 We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
760 specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument:
761 </p>
762
763 <note>
764 Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
765 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> because it's
766 more powerful and well known in the Unix/Linux world.
767 </note>
768
769 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
770 # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
771 </pre>
772
773 <p>
774 or
775 </p>
776
777 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
778 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
779 </pre>
780
781 <impo>
782 Note that you should <e>not</e> save or make any changes to a disk's
783 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
784 contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
785 lost.
786 </impo>
787
788 <p>
789 Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
790 </p>
791
792 <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
793 Command (m for help):
794 </pre>
795
796 <p>
797 Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
798 </p>
799
800 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
801 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
802
803 Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
804 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
805
806 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
807 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
808 /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
809 /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
810 /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
811 /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
812 /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
813 /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
814 /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
815 /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
816
817 Command (m for help):
818 </pre>
819
820 <p>
821 This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
822 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
823 (listed as "Linux swap").
824 </p>
825
826 <p>
827 Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
828 devices on the left hand side, starting with <path>/dev/hda1</path> and going
829 up to <path>/dev/hda9</path>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning
830 software only allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary"
831 partitions). This was too limiting, so a workaround called <e>extended
832 partitioning</e> was created. An extended partition is very similar to a
833 primary partition and counts towards the primary partition limit of four.
834 However, extended partitions can hold any number of so-called <e>logical</e>
835 partitions inside them, providing an effective means of working around the
836 four partition limit.
837 </p>
838
839 <p>
840 All partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> and higher are logical partitions.
841 The numbers 1 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions.
842 </p>
843
844 <p>
845 So, In our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> through <path>/dev/hda3</path> are
846 primary partitions. <path>/dev/hda4</path> is an extended partition that
847 contains logical partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
848 <path>/dev/hda9</path>. You would never actually <e>use</e>
849 <path>/dev/hda4</path> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
850 acts as a container for partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
851 <path>/dev/hda9</path>.
852 </p>
853
854 <p>
855 Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
856 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
857 partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
858 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
859 partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
860 type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
861 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
862 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
863 </p>
864
865 </body>
866 </section>
867
868 <section>
869 <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
870 <body>
871
872 <p>
873 Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
874 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
875 partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
876 process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
877 look like this:
878 </p>
879
880 <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
881 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
882 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
883 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
884
885 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
886 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
887 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
888 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
889
890 Command (m for help):
891 </pre>
892
893 <p>
894 In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
895 The first one (<path>/dev/hda1</path>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
896 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
897 the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
898 will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
899 us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
900 day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
901 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
902 likely end up being <path>/dev/sda1</path>.
903 </p>
904
905 <p>
906 It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
907 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
908 required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
909 loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
910 cylinder 1024.
911 </p>
912
913 <p>
914 The second partition (<path>/dev/hda2</path>) is used to for swap space. The
915 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
916 relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
917 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
918 being called <path>/dev/sda2</path>.
919 </p>
920
921 <p>
922 The third partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path>) is quite large and takes up the
923 rest of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be
924 used to store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI
925 system, this partition would likely end up being <path>/dev/sda3</path>.
926 </p>
927
928 <p>
929 Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
930 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
931 Linux:
932 </p>
933
934 <table>
935 <tcolumn width="1.5in"/>
936 <tcolumn width="2.5in"/>
937 <tcolumn width="2.5in"/>
938 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
939 <tr>
940 <th>Partition</th>
941 <th>Size</th>
942 <th>Type</th>
943 <th>example device</th>
944 </tr>
945 <tr>
946 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
947 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
948 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
949 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
950 </tr>
951 <tr>
952 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
953 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one and two times the size of the physical RAM in your system</ti>
954 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
955 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
956 </tr>
957 <tr>
958 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc.)</ti>
959 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
960 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
961 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
962 </tr>
963 </table>
964
965 <p>
966 OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
967 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
968 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
969 current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
970 to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
971 existing data on your disk will be erased</b>.
972 </p>
973
974 <impo>
975 Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
976 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
977 is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
978 <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
979 from the wrong drive.
980 </impo>
981
982 <p>
983 Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
984 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
985 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/hda1</path>, you would type:
986 </p>
987
988 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
989 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
990 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
991 </pre>
992
993 <p>
994 The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
995 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
996 saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
997 type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
998 deleted.
999 </p>
1000
1001 <p>
1002 Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
1003 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
1004 <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
1005 with a partition table with nothing in it:
1006 </p>
1007
1008 <pre caption="An empty partition table">
1009 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1010 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1011 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1012
1013 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1014
1015 Command (m for help):
1016 </pre>
1017
1018 <p>
1019 Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
1020 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
1021 <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
1022 create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
1023 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
1024 partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:
1025 </p>
1026
1027 <note>
1028 Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
1029 require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefore, if you are using a journaled
1030 filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
1031 for the last cylinder.
1032 </note>
1033
1034 <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
1035 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
1036 Command action
1037 e extended
1038 p primary partition (1-4)
1039 <i>p</i>
1040 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
1041 First cylinder (1-3876, default 1): <comment>(Hit Enter)</comment>
1042 Using default value 1
1043 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): <i>+32M</i>
1044 </pre>
1045
1046 <p>
1047 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition
1048 printout:
1049 </p>
1050
1051 <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
1052 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1053
1054 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1055 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1056 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1057
1058 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1059 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1060 </pre>
1061
1062 <p>
1063 Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
1064 new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition.
1065 Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
1066 <path>/dev/hda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1067 hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create
1068 a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the
1069 partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just created and then
1070 type in <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing
1071 these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks
1072 similar to this:
1073 </p>
1074
1075 <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
1076 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1077
1078 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1079 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1080 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1081
1082 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1083 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1084 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1085 </pre>
1086
1087 <p>
1088 Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
1089 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
1090 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
1091 <path>/dev/hda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1092 hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a
1093 partition that takes up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After
1094 completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that
1095 looks similar to this:
1096 </p>
1097
1098 <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
1099 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1100
1101 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1102 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1103 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1104
1105 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1106 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1107 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1108 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
1109 </pre>
1110
1111 <p>
1112 Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
1113 our changes to disk. To tag <path>/dev/hda1</path> as a "bootable" partition,
1114 type <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number.
1115 If you type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <path>/dev/hda1</path> has a
1116 <c>*</c> in the "Boot" column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do
1117 this, type <c>w</c> and hit enter. Your disk partitions are now properly
1118 configured for a Gentoo Linux install.
1119 </p>
1120
1121 <note>
1122 If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
1123 allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.
1124 </note>
1125
1126 </body>
1127 </section>
1128
1129 <section>
1130 <title>Creating filesystems</title>
1131 <body>
1132
1133 <p>
1134 Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
1135 the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store
1136 data. We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
1137 </p>
1138
1139 <p>
1140 Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
1141 its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics.
1142 Currently, we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS
1143 filesystems.
1144 </p>
1145
1146 <p>
1147 ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
1148 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
1149 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
1150 <e>journaled</e> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
1151 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
1152 Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
1153 filesystem happens to be in an <e>inconsistent</e> state.
1154 </p>
1155
1156 <p>
1157 ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
1158 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
1159 like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
1160 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
1161 Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
1162 design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
1163 very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
1164 files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
1165 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.
1166 </p>
1167
1168 <p>
1169 ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
1170 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
1171 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
1172 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
1173 now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
1174 filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
1175 use of many small files, very large files and directories containing tens of
1176 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
1177 non-boot partitions.
1178 </p>
1179
1180 <p>
1181 XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
1182 Gentoo Linux's <c>xfs-sources</c> kernel. It comes with a robust
1183 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
1184 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
1185 a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
1186 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
1187 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
1188 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
1189 </p>
1190
1191 <p>
1192 JFS is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
1193 become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
1194 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
1195 point.
1196 </p>
1197
1198 <p>
1199 If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
1200 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
1201 journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
1202 refined and recommended for general use.
1203 </p>
1204
1205 <p>
1206 Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
1207 all our partitions for use:
1208 </p>
1209
1210 <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
1211 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda1</i>
1212 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1213 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1214 </pre>
1215
1216 <p>
1217 We choose ext3 for our <path>/dev/hda1</path> boot partition because it is a
1218 robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
1219 <c>mkswap</c> for our <path>/dev/hda2</path> swap partition -- the choice is
1220 obvious here. And for our main root filesystem on <path>/dev/hda3</path> we
1221 choose ReiserFS, since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent
1222 performance. Now, go ahead and initialize your partitions.
1223 </p>
1224
1225 <p>
1226 For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
1227 during the installation process:
1228 </p>
1229
1230 <p>
1231 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
1232 </p>
1233
1234 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
1235 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1236 </pre>
1237
1238 <p>
1239 You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:
1240 </p>
1241
1242 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
1243 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1244 </pre>
1245
1246 <p>
1247 If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
1248 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:
1249 </p>
1250
1251 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
1252 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i>
1253 </pre>
1254
1255 <note>
1256 You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
1257 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
1258 </note>
1259
1260 <p>
1261 To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:
1262 </p>
1263
1264 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
1265 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1266 </pre>
1267
1268 <p>
1269 To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:
1270 </p>
1271
1272 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
1273 # <i>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</i>
1274 </pre>
1275
1276 <note>
1277 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c>
1278 command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>. The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command
1279 will lower the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at
1280 least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition, so, for example, if
1281 you have a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5. The
1282 <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing
1283 performance.
1284 </note>
1285
1286 <p>
1287 To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:
1288 </p>
1289
1290 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
1291 # <i>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</i>
1292 </pre>
1293
1294 </body>
1295 </section>
1296 </chapter>
1297
1298 <chapter>
1299 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
1300 <section>
1301 <body>
1302
1303 <p>
1304 Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need
1305 the additional virtual memory that it provides later:
1306 </p>
1307
1308 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
1309 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
1310 </pre>
1311
1312 <p>
1313 Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount point,
1314 and we will mount our filesystems to the mount points. Once our boot and
1315 root filesystems are mounted, any files we copy or create inside
1316 <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
1317 Note that if you are setting up Gentoo Linux with separate
1318 <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1319 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1320 </p>
1321
1322 <impo>
1323 If your <path>/boot</path> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS,
1324 be sure to mount it with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly
1325 installed. Make sure that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new
1326 <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1327 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS,
1328 then the <c>-o notail</c> is not needed. It's always safe to specify the
1329 <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're not sure what to do.
1330 </impo>
1331
1332 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1333 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
1334 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1335 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1336 </pre>
1337
1338 <impo>
1339 If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1340 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2</c>
1341 </impo>
1342
1343 </body>
1344 </section>
1345 </chapter>
1346
1347
1348 <chapter>
1349 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1350 <section>
1351 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1352 <body>
1353
1354 <p>
1355 Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1356 basis for the install if you haven't already. The stages on the Live CD are
1357 in <path>/mnt/cdrom/stages/</path> and you can type <c>ls
1358 /mnt/cdrom/stages/</c> to see what's available on your CD.
1359 </p>
1360
1361 <p>
1362 <b>GRP users</b> should use the <path>stage3-xx-yy.tar.bz2</path> tarball.
1363 </p>
1364
1365 <p>
1366 If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1367 <e>not</e> on your CD (which will likely be the case if you're using our
1368 "basic" Live CD), this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1369 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1370 tarball you want to use (which most users will have), then proceed to the
1371 "Extracting the stage tarball" section.
1372 </p>
1373
1374 <note>
1375 If you want to use a proxy (say proxy.server.tld:8080), add
1376 <c>-http-proxy proxy.server.tld:8080</c> to the <c>links</c> command
1377 mentioned below.
1378 </note>
1379
1380 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1381 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1382 <comment>Use links to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1383 # <i>links http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</i>
1384 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1385 Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1386 Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1387 Save the file and quit the browser
1388
1389 <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1390 # <i>wget </i><comment>(insert URL to the required stage tarball here)</comment>
1391 </pre>
1392
1393 </body>
1394 </section>
1395 <section>
1396 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1397 <body>
1398
1399 <p>
1400 Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1401 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1402 tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1403 stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1404 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:
1405 </p>
1406
1407 <impo>
1408 Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1409 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.
1410 </impo>
1411
1412 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1413 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1414 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1415 <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1416 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/stages/".</comment>
1417 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
1418 </pre>
1419
1420 <p>
1421 If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now
1422 delete it by typing <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.
1423 </p>
1424
1425 </body>
1426 </section>
1427
1428 <section>
1429 <title>GRP package/snapshot steps</title>
1430 <body>
1431
1432 <impo>
1433 The following instructions are for GRP users only. If you are not using
1434 GRP, continue with "Selecting Mirrors (Optional)".
1435 </impo>
1436
1437 <p>
1438 <b>GRP Users</b>: There is a Portage snapshot on the Live CD. You will
1439 need to use this snapshot so that you can skip the <c>emerge sync</c> step
1440 later in this document, since <c>emerge sync</c> requires a network
1441 connection. Untar this snapshot as follows:
1442 </p>
1443
1444 <pre caption="Using Portage snapshot">
1445 <comment>Replace yyyymmdd with the datestamp in the filename.</comment>
1446 # <i>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-yyyymmdd.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
1447 </pre>
1448
1449 <p>
1450 This will extract a snapshot of the Portage tree to your fresh Gentoo
1451 install. Now you won't need to connect to the Internet and use <c>emerge
1452 sync</c> to download a Portage tree. Now, copy distfiles and packages
1453 from the Live CD into place:
1454 </p>
1455
1456 <pre caption="Copying GRP files">
1457 # <i>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
1458 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages</i>
1459 </pre>
1460
1461 <p>
1462 All relevant files are now in place for using GRP. You should now have
1463 everything copied over and unpacked that you'll need to install Gentoo Linux
1464 -- even without a network connection.
1465 </p>
1466
1467 </body>
1468 </section>
1469
1470 <section>
1471 <title>Selecting Mirrors (Optional)</title>
1472 <body>
1473
1474 <p>
1475 <c>mirrorselect</c> is a tool designed to automatically pick the fastest
1476 mirrors based on your location, or manually pick a mirror from a list.
1477 Unfortunately, <c>mirrorselect</c> does not work well behind all routers.
1478 </p>
1479
1480 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect">
1481 <comment>To select a mirror automatically:</comment>
1482 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1483 <comment>To select a mirror interactively:</comment>
1484 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1485 </pre>
1486
1487 <p>
1488 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails you should be able to
1489 continue with this guide since no changes are made.
1490 </p>
1491
1492 </body>
1493 </section>
1494 <section>
1495 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1496 <body>
1497
1498 <p>
1499 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to
1500 "enter" the new Gentoo Linux system:
1501 </p>
1502
1503 <note>
1504 You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1505 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1506 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document, which will resolve
1507 the problem.
1508 </note>
1509
1510 <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1511 # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
1512 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
1513 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
1514 # <i>env-update</i>
1515 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1516 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
1517 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries)</comment>
1518 </pre>
1519
1520 <p>
1521 After you execute these commands, you will be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux
1522 environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. We can perform the rest of the
1523 installation process inside the chroot.
1524 </p>
1525
1526 </body>
1527 </section>
1528 </chapter>
1529
1530 <chapter>
1531 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1532 <section>
1533 <body>
1534
1535 <impo>
1536 If you are doing a GRP install then you can ignore the following section on
1537 <c>emerge sync</c>.
1538 </impo>
1539
1540 <p>
1541 Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage
1542 to download the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree from the
1543 Internet. If you extracted a Portage tree snapshot from <e>CD 1</e> earlier,
1544 you can safely skip this step. The Portage tree contains all the scripts
1545 (called ebuilds) used to build every package under Gentoo Linux. Currently,
1546 we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1547 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in
1548 <path>/usr/portage</path>:
1549 </p>
1550
1551 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1552 # <i>emerge sync</i>
1553 </pre>
1554
1555 </body>
1556 </section>
1557 </chapter>
1558
1559 <chapter>
1560 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1561 <section>
1562 <body>
1563
1564 <p>
1565 Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1566 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1567 Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1568 programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1569 this file, you should set your USE flags, which specify optional
1570 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1571 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset USE variable) are
1572 fine. More information on USE flags can be found <uri
1573 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1574 of current USE flags can be found <uri
1575 link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
1576 </p>
1577
1578 <p>
1579 If you are starting from a stage1 tarball, You also should set appropriate
1580 CHOST, CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings for the kind of system that you are
1581 creating (commented examples can be found further down in the file). If you
1582 are using a stage2 or stage3 tarball, these settings will already be configured
1583 optimally and should not require any modification.
1584 </p>
1585
1586 <warn>
1587 <b>Advanced users:</b> If you are planning on installing an
1588 ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" Gentoo system, do not set ACCEPT_KEYWORDS until
1589 the bootstrap phase (stage1) is done.
1590 </warn>
1591
1592 <impo>
1593 <b>Advanced users:</b> The CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings are used to tell the
1594 C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that is generated on your system.
1595 It is common for users with Athlon XP processors to specify a
1596 "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings so that all
1597 packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and performance
1598 characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1599 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
1600 </impo>
1601
1602 <!-- needs qa
1603 <note>
1604 <b>Advanced users:</b>If you are building from a stage1 and don't want
1605 to manually configure CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, you can use the <c>genflags</c>
1606 utility, which will try to guess accurate flags for your CPU architecture.
1607 Simply type <c>emerge -O genflags</c> and then execute
1608 <c>info2flags</c>. <c>info2flags</c> will suggest CHOST, CFLAGS and
1609 CXXFLAGS settings, which you can then add to
1610 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
1611 </note>
1612 -->
1613
1614 <p>
1615 If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1616 firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1617 using <c>nano</c>, a simple visual editor:
1618 </p>
1619
1620 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1621 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
1622 </pre>
1623
1624 <note>
1625 <b>Advanced users:</b> People who need to substantially customize the build
1626 process should take a look at the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This
1627 file comprises gentoo defaults and should never be touched. If the defaults
1628 do not suffice, then new values should be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>,
1629 as entries in <path>make.conf</path> <e>override</e> the entries
1630 in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're interested in customizing USE
1631 settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1632 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate
1633 <c>USE="-foo"</c> in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c>
1634 USE setting enabled by default in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or
1635 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1636 </note>
1637
1638 <warn>
1639 Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your USE variables until after
1640 stage1.
1641 </warn>
1642
1643 </body>
1644 </section>
1645 </chapter>
1646
1647 <chapter>
1648 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1649 <section>
1650 <body>
1651
1652 <note>
1653 If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.
1654 </note>
1655
1656 <p>
1657 The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you
1658 have picked this tarball, you are most likely looking to have an
1659 uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun! Installing from a stage1
1660 takes a lot of time, but the result is a system that has been optimized
1661 from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1662 </p>
1663
1664 <p>
1665 Now, it is time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes
1666 about two hours on a 1200MHz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the GNU
1667 C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start
1668 the bootstrap as follows:
1669 </p>
1670
1671 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1672 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
1673 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
1674 </pre>
1675
1676 <p>
1677 The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
1678 </p>
1679
1680 <note>
1681 <c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up
1682 users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related
1683 files in one go for later compilation. See <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more
1684 information.
1685 </note>
1686
1687 <note>
1688 Portage by default uses <path>/var/tmp</path> during package building,
1689 often using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would
1690 like to change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new
1691 PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e> starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1692 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1693 # <i>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</i>
1694 </pre>
1695 </note>
1696
1697 <p>
1698 <c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1699 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c> after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to
1700 say, this process takes a while. Once this process completes, your system
1701 will be equivalent to a "stage2" system, which means you can now move on to
1702 the stage2 instructions.
1703 </p>
1704
1705 </body>
1706 </section>
1707 </chapter>
1708
1709 <chapter>
1710 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1711 <section>
1712 <body>
1713
1714 <note>
1715 This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1716 this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3), then skip this section.
1717 </note>
1718
1719 <warn>
1720 If you start from stage2, don't change the CHOST variable in
1721 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so results in strange and
1722 broad compilation failures.
1723 </warn>
1724
1725 <p>
1726 The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you
1727 have to do is install the rest of the system:
1728 </p>
1729
1730 <note>
1731 If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1732 that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1733 option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1734 safe to skip this suggestion.
1735 </note>
1736
1737 <pre caption="Installing the rest of the system">
1738 # <i>emerge -p system</i>
1739 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1740 # <i>emerge system</i>
1741 </pre>
1742
1743 <p>
1744 It is going to take a while to finish building the entire base system.
1745 Your reward is that it will be thoroughly optimized for your system.
1746 The drawback is that you have to find a way to keep yourself occupied for
1747 some time to come. The author suggests "Star Wars - Super Bombad Racing"
1748 for the PS2.
1749 </p>
1750
1751 <p>
1752 Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1753 your time zone" section.
1754 </p>
1755
1756 </body>
1757 </section>
1758 </chapter>
1759
1760
1761 <chapter>
1762 <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1763 <section>
1764 <body>
1765
1766 <note>
1767 This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3 and not for those who
1768 have started with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section. GRP users
1769 should skip ahead to the next section.
1770 </note>
1771
1772 <warn>
1773 Remember, if you start from stage3, don't change the CHOST variable in
1774 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so can result in compilation failures.
1775 </warn>
1776
1777 <p>
1778 The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system,
1779 so no building is required.
1780 </p>
1781
1782 <note>
1783 <b>Advanced users:</b> However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it
1784 may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern for you, you can
1785 automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date
1786 versions of all system packages by making a backup of
1787 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, then typing <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"
1788 emerge -u system</c> (this requires a network connection) and replacing
1789 the backup afterwards. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is
1790 very old; otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you
1791 to benefit from the very latest Gentoo updates and fixes. In any case, feel
1792 free to skip these steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1793 </note>
1794
1795 </body>
1796 </section>
1797 </chapter>
1798
1799
1800 <chapter>
1801 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1802 <section>
1803 <body>
1804
1805 <p>
1806 Now you need to set your time zone.
1807 </p>
1808
1809 <p>
1810 Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1811 in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1812 <path>/etc/localtime</path> by typing:
1813 </p>
1814
1815 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1816 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</i>
1817 </pre>
1818
1819 </body>
1820 </section>
1821 </chapter>
1822
1823 <chapter>
1824 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1825 <section>
1826 <body>
1827
1828 <impo>
1829 To edit files, remember to use <c>nano -w "filename"</c>.
1830 </impo>
1831
1832 <p>
1833 Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is
1834 configure a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1835 The first file we need to configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember
1836 that you should use the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if
1837 you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it. Remember to specify
1838 <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1839 </p>
1840
1841 <warn>
1842 Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be
1843 sure to replace "BOOT", "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices (such
1844 as <c>hda1</c>, etc.) and "ext2" and "ext3" with the actual filesystems you
1845 are using:
1846 </warn>
1847
1848 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1849 <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1850 #
1851 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1852 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1853 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1854 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1855
1856 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1857
1858 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1859 </comment>
1860 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1861 /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1862 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1863 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1864 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1865 </pre>
1866
1867 <warn>
1868 Please notice that <path>/boot</path> is <e>not</e> mounted at boot time. This
1869 is to protect the data in <path>/boot</path> from corruption. If you need to
1870 access <path>/boot</path>, please mount it!
1871 </warn>
1872
1873 </body>
1874 </section>
1875 </chapter>
1876
1877
1878 <chapter>
1879 <title>Installing the kernel and system logger</title>
1880 <section>
1881 <title>Kernel selections</title>
1882 <body>
1883
1884 <p>
1885 There are two options for installing a kernel. You can either configure your
1886 own kernel or use the <c>genkernel</c> utility to configure and compile your
1887 kernel automatically.
1888 </p>
1889
1890 <p>
1891 Whether configuring a kernel by hand or using <c>genkernel</c>,
1892 you'll need to merge the Linux kernel sources you'd like to use.
1893 Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1894 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1895 which kernel sources to choose, we advise using <c>gentoo-sources</c>.
1896 If you want XFS support, you should choose <c>xfs-sources</c> or
1897 <c>gs-sources</c>. Gentoo's LiveCD uses <c>gs-sources</c> and
1898 <c>xfs-sources</c>. There is also a <c>gaming-sources</c> kernel optimized
1899 for game-playing responsiveness that works wonderfully for this purpose when
1900 the "Preemptible kernel" option is enabled.
1901 </p>
1902
1903 <p>
1904 Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:
1905 </p>
1906
1907 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1908 # <i>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</i>
1909 </pre>
1910
1911 <p>
1912 The <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link will point to your
1913 newly-installed kernel source tree. Portage uses the
1914 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link for a special purpose. Any ebuilds
1915 you install that contain kernel modules will be configured to work with the
1916 kernel source tree pointed to by <path>/usr/src/linux</path>.
1917 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is created when you emerge your first kernel
1918 source package, but after it exists, Portage does not modify this symbolic
1919 link.
1920 </p>
1921
1922 </body>
1923 </section>
1924 <section>
1925 <title>Using genkernel to compile your kernel</title>
1926 <body>
1927
1928 <p>
1929 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
1930 kernel. There are two ways to do this. The first way is to use our new
1931 <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for you.
1932 <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the way
1933 our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use <c>genkernel</c>
1934 to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all your hardware at
1935 boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any
1936 manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may
1937 not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
1938 </p>
1939
1940 <p>
1941 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
1942 </p>
1943
1944 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
1945 # <i>emerge -k genkernel</i>
1946 </pre>
1947
1948 <p>
1949 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>:
1950 </p>
1951
1952 <note>
1953 <b>Advanced users:</b> you can type <c>genkernel --config</c> instead,
1954 which will cause genkernel to allow you to tweak the default kernel
1955 configuration before building begins.
1956 </note>
1957
1958 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
1959 <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.2 (included in the 1.4-20030803 x86/i686 GRP set), use the following:</comment>
1960 # <i>genkernel gentoo-sources</i>
1961 <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.4 or newer, there's no need to specify a kernel:</comment>
1962 # <i>genkernel</i>
1963 Gentoo Linux genkernel, version 1.4
1964 Copyright 2003 Gentoo Technologies, Inc., Bob Johnson, Daniel Robbins
1965 Distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2
1966
1967 Settings:
1968 compile optimization: 1 processor(s)
1969 source tree: /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1970 config: gentoo (customized)
1971 config loc: /etc/kernels/config-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1972 initrd config: (default) /etc/kernels/settings
1973
1974 * Running "make oldconfig"... [ ok ]
1975 * Logging to /var/log/genkernel.log... [ ok ]
1976 * Starting 2.4.20-gaming-r3 build... [ ok ]
1977 * Running "make dep"... [ ok ]
1978 * Running "make bzImage"... [ ok ]
1979 * Running "make modules"... [ ok ]
1980 * Running "make modules_install"... [ ok ]
1981 * Moving bzImage to /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3... [ ok ]
1982 * Building busybox... [ ok ]
1983 * Creating initrd... [ ok ]
1984
1985 * Build completed successfully!
1986
1987 * Please specify /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3 and /boot/initrd-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1988 * when customizing your boot loader configuration files.
1989 </pre>
1990
1991 <p>
1992 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
1993 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
1994 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
1995 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
1996 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
1997 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
1998 your "real" system starts up.
1999 </p>
2000
2001 <p>
2002 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
2003 CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
2004 is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
2005 To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
2006 </p>
2007
2008 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
2009 # <i>emerge -k hotplug</i>
2010 # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
2011 </pre>
2012
2013 <p>
2014 Now that you've run and configured your system to use <c>genkernel</c>, you
2015 can skip the "manual kernel configuration" section below.
2016 </p>
2017
2018 </body>
2019 </section>
2020 <section>
2021 <title>Manual kernel configuration</title>
2022 <body>
2023
2024 <p>
2025 If you opted not to use genkernel to compile your kernel, this section
2026 will guide you through the process of configuring and compiling a kernel by
2027 hand. Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your
2028 current emerged kernel source package and is set automatically by Portage at
2029 emerge time. If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to
2030 set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink to the correct one before
2031 proceeding.
2032 </p>
2033
2034 <warn>
2035 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i>
2036 option. Being too aggressive with your security settings can cause certain
2037 programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
2038 </warn>
2039
2040 <note>
2041 If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
2042 your configuration on it, you should execute <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
2043 If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
2044 about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
2045 </note>
2046
2047 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
2048 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
2049 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
2050 </pre>
2051
2052 <warn>
2053 For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
2054 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <e>be enabled
2055 and not compiled as modules</e>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you
2056 have any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're
2057 using XFS, enable the &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's
2058 always a good idea to leave ext2 enabled whether you are using it or not.
2059 </warn>
2060
2061 <p>
2062 Below are some common options that you will need:
2063 </p>
2064
2065 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
2066 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
2067 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
2068 <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below)</comment>
2069 ...
2070
2071 File systems ---&gt;
2072 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
2073 <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs)</comment>
2074 ...
2075 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
2076 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3)</comment>
2077 ...
2078 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
2079 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2080 ...
2081 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
2082 <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS)</comment>
2083 ...
2084 [*] /proc file system support
2085 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2086 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
2087 [*] Automatically mount at boot
2088 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2089 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
2090 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is not needed unless you use a 2.6 kernel)</comment>
2091 ...
2092 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
2093 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2)</comment>
2094 ...
2095 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
2096 <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS)</comment>
2097 </pre>
2098
2099 <p>
2100 If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
2101 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) : &quot;PPP
2102 (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial
2103 ports&quot;, &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression
2104 options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP
2105 over Ethernet&quot; option, that might only be used by <c>rp-pppoe</c> when
2106 configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
2107 </p>
2108
2109 <p>
2110 If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
2111 kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA
2112 and ATAPI Block devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot;
2113 (I usually make it a module), then under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable
2114 &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and &quot;SCSI
2115 generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
2116 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
2117 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</c> to have them automatically
2118 added at boot time.
2119 </p>
2120
2121 <p>
2122 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
2123 ethernet card.
2124 </p>
2125
2126 <note>
2127 For those who prefer it, it is possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2
2128 kernel. However, doing this comes at a price: you will lose many of the nifty
2129 features that are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
2130 filesystems, iptables and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
2131 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
2132 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the
2133 kernel, so 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled
2134 in (ie, not a module). It is <comment>vital</comment> that a
2135 <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel line in
2136 <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in
2137 <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
2138 for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
2139 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
2140 </note>
2141
2142 <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
2143 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</i>
2144 # <i>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
2145 </pre>
2146
2147 </body>
2148 </section>
2149 <section>
2150 <title>Installing additional hardware-specific ebuilds</title>
2151 <body>
2152
2153 <p>
2154 Finally, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is on
2155 your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
2156 </p>
2157
2158 <table>
2159 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
2160 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
2161 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
2162 <tr>
2163 <th>Ebuild</th>
2164 <th>Purpose</th>
2165 <th>Command</th>
2166 </tr>
2167 <tr>
2168 <ti>nvidia-kernel</ti>
2169 <ti>Accelerated NVIDIA graphics for XFree86</ti>
2170 <ti><c>emerge -k nvidia-kernel</c></ti>
2171 </tr>
2172 <tr>
2173 <ti>nforce-net</ti>
2174 <ti>On-board ethernet controller on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2175 <ti><c>emerge nforce-net</c></ti>
2176 </tr>
2177 <tr>
2178 <ti>nforce-audio</ti>
2179 <ti>On-board audio on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2180 <ti><c>emerge nforce-audio</c></ti>
2181 </tr>
2182 <tr>
2183 <ti>e100</ti>
2184 <ti>Intel e100 Fast Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2185 <ti><c>emerge e100</c></ti>
2186 </tr>
2187 <tr>
2188 <ti>e1000</ti>
2189 <ti>Intel e1000 Gigabit Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2190 <ti><c>emerge e1000</c></ti>
2191 </tr>
2192 <tr>
2193 <ti>emu10k1</ti>
2194 <ti>Creative Sound Blaster Live!/Audigy support</ti>
2195 <ti><c>emerge emu10k1</c></ti>
2196 </tr>
2197 <tr>
2198 <ti>ati-drivers</ti>
2199 <ti>Accelerated ATI Radeon 8500+/FireGL graphics for XFree86</ti>
2200 <ti><c>emerge ati-drivers</c></ti>
2201 </tr>
2202 <tr>
2203 <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
2204 <ti>Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and other cards for XFree86</ti>
2205 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
2206 </tr>
2207 </table>
2208
2209 <p>
2210 The <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, <c>ati-drivers</c> and <c>xfree-drm</c> packages
2211 will require additional configuration to be enabled. All other ebuilds listed
2212 above should be auto-detected at boot-time by the <c>hotplug</c> package. If
2213 you are not using hotplug, be sure to add the appropriate modules to
2214 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path>.
2215 </p>
2216
2217 <p>
2218 More information on <c>xfree-drm</c> can be found in our <uri
2219 link="/doc/en/dri-howto.xml">Direct Rendering Guide</uri>.
2220 </p>
2221
2222
2223 </body>
2224 </section>
2225 <section>
2226 <title>Installing a system logger</title>
2227 <body>
2228
2229 <p>
2230 Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose
2231 a system logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is
2232 the traditional set of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and
2233 syslog-ng as well as metalog. If in doubt, you may want to try
2234 syslog-ng, since it is very flexible and feature-rich. To merge your logger of
2235 choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four command sets:
2236 </p>
2237
2238 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
2239 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/sysklogd</i>
2240 # <i>rc-update add sysklogd default</i>
2241 <comment>or</comment>
2242 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng</i>
2243 # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
2244 <comment>or</comment>
2245 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/metalog</i>
2246 # <i>rc-update add metalog default</i>
2247 <comment>or</comment>
2248 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/msyslog</i>
2249 # <i>rc-update add msyslog default</i>
2250 </pre>
2251
2252 <impo>
2253 If you chose <c>metalogd</c>, please read <uri link="faq.xml#doc_chap6_sect3">this FAQ</uri> on metalogd's buffering.
2254 </impo>
2255
2256 <p>
2257 Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
2258 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to
2259 choose, you might as well grab vcron.
2260 </p>
2261
2262 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
2263 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/dcron</i>
2264 # <i>rc-update add dcron default</i>
2265 # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2266 <comment>or</comment>
2267 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/fcron</i>
2268 # <i>rc-update add fcron default</i>
2269 # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2270 <comment>or</comment>
2271 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/vcron</i>
2272 # <i>rc-update add vcron default</i>
2273 <comment>You do not need to run <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i> if using vcron.</comment>
2274 </pre>
2275
2276 <p>
2277 For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
2278 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
2279 </p>
2280
2281 </body>
2282 </section>
2283 </chapter>
2284
2285 <chapter>
2286 <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
2287 <section>
2288 <body>
2289
2290 <p>
2291 If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
2292 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it:
2293 </p>
2294
2295 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
2296 # <i>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</i>
2297 <comment>GRP users should type the following:</comment>
2298 # <i>emerge -K rp-pppoe</i>
2299 </pre>
2300
2301 <note>
2302 The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface,
2303 which is a good thing, because X and its dependencies would also be emerged.
2304 You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with X support later. The GRP version
2305 of rp-pppoe has the optional X interface enabled. If you're not using GRP, compile from
2306 source as in the first example.
2307 </note>
2308 <!-- this pkg is a candidate for moving from .tbz2 to distfiles/ (source) -->
2309
2310
2311 <note>
2312 Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured. You will have to
2313 do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
2314 for the first time.
2315 </note>
2316
2317 <p>
2318 You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
2319 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
2320 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
2321 </p>
2322
2323 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
2324 # <i>emerge -k xfsprogs</i>
2325 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
2326 # <i>emerge -k reiserfsprogs</i>
2327 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
2328 # <i>emerge -k jfsutils</i>
2329 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
2330 # <i>emerge -k lvm-user</i>
2331 </pre>
2332
2333 <p>
2334 If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
2335 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i>
2336 package.
2337 </p>
2338
2339 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
2340 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</i>
2341 </pre>
2342
2343 <!-- fix the bug or fix the docs, don't send the user in circles
2344 (drobbins)
2345 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
2346 to work.
2347 </warn>
2348 -->
2349
2350 </body>
2351 </section>
2352 </chapter>
2353
2354 <chapter>
2355 <title>User Management</title>
2356 <section>
2357 <title>Setting a root password</title>
2358 <body>
2359
2360 <p>
2361 Before you forget, set the root password by typing:
2362 </p>
2363
2364 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
2365 # <i>passwd</i>
2366 </pre>
2367
2368 </body>
2369 </section>
2370 <section>
2371 <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
2372 <body>
2373
2374 <p>
2375 Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
2376 should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
2377 recommended to add a user for day-to-day use:
2378 </p>
2379
2380 <pre caption = "Adding a user">
2381 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
2382 # <i>passwd your_user</i>
2383 </pre>
2384
2385 <p>
2386 Substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.
2387 </p>
2388
2389 <p>
2390 Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
2391 use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
2392 a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.
2393 </p>
2394
2395 </body>
2396 </section>
2397 </chapter>
2398
2399 <chapter>
2400 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
2401 <section>
2402 <body>
2403
2404 <p>
2405 Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
2406 on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
2407 </p>
2408
2409 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
2410 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
2411 </pre>
2412
2413 <p>
2414 Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
2415 domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
2416 </p>
2417
2418 <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
2419 # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
2420 </pre>
2421
2422 <p>
2423 If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
2424 <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
2425 </p>
2426
2427 <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
2428 # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
2429 </pre>
2430
2431 </body>
2432 </section>
2433 </chapter>
2434
2435
2436 <chapter>
2437 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
2438 <section>
2439 <body>
2440
2441 <p>
2442 This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
2443 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses of any hostnames that
2444 may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
2445 </p>
2446
2447 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
2448 127.0.0.1 localhost
2449 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN and your associated machine name</comment>
2450 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
2451 </pre>
2452
2453 <note>
2454 If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
2455 machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
2456 GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
2457 </note>
2458
2459 </body>
2460 </section>
2461 </chapter>
2462
2463
2464 <chapter>
2465 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
2466 <section>
2467 <body>
2468
2469 <p>
2470 Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of
2471 your system to <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> file (you can
2472 also add any options you need to the same line). When Gentoo Linux boots, these
2473 modules will be automatically loaded. Of particular importance is your
2474 ethernet card module, if you happened to compile it as a module:
2475 </p>
2476
2477 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
2478 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
2479 Check <path>/lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
2480 3c59x
2481 </pre>
2482
2483 <p>
2484 Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured
2485 for your first boot:
2486 </p>
2487
2488 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
2489 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
2490 <comment>Only for non-PCMCIA network cards:</comment>
2491 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
2492 </pre>
2493
2494 <p>
2495 If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create
2496 additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or
2497 <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path> scripts respectively for each one
2498 (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...):
2499 </p>
2500
2501 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
2502 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
2503 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></i>
2504 <comment>Only for non-PCMCIA network cards:</comment>
2505 # <i>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</i>
2506 </pre>
2507
2508 <p>
2509 If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
2510 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for
2511 your setup, then run the following command:
2512 </p>
2513
2514 <pre caption = "Have PCMCIA services start automatically">
2515 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
2516 </pre>
2517
2518 <p>
2519 This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network
2520 is loaded. The appropriate <path>/etc/init.d/net.eth*</path> services
2521 will be started by the pcmcia service automatically.
2522 </p>
2523
2524 </body>
2525 </section>
2526 </chapter>
2527
2528 <chapter>
2529 <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
2530 <section>
2531 <body>
2532
2533 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
2534 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
2535 </pre>
2536
2537 <p>
2538 Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings. All users
2539 will want to make sure that CLOCK is set to his/her liking. International
2540 keyboard users will want to set the KEYMAP variable (browse
2541 <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various possibilities).
2542 </p>
2543
2544 </body>
2545 </section>
2546 </chapter>
2547
2548 <chapter>
2549 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
2550 <section>
2551 <title>Notes</title>
2552 <body>
2553
2554 <p>
2555 In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose
2556 from. Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between
2557 both GRUB and LILO as their bootloaders.
2558 </p>
2559
2560 <p>
2561 Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
2562 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
2563 </p>
2564
2565 <p>
2566 In addition, you will need to configure our bootloader differently depending
2567 upon whether you are using <c>genkernel</c> (with kernel and initrd) or a
2568 kernel you compiled by hand. Be sure to take note of the important
2569 differences.
2570 </p>
2571
2572 </body>
2573 </section>
2574 <section>
2575 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
2576 <body>
2577
2578 <p>
2579 The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how
2580 GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition
2581 <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the
2582 parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required. Hard drives count from zero
2583 rather than "a" and partitions start at zero rather than one. Be aware too
2584 that with the hd devices, only hard drives are counted, not atapi-ide devices
2585 such as cdrom players, burners and that the same construct can be used with
2586 scsi drives. (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the
2587 bios is configured to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a hard drive
2588 on <path>/dev/hda</path>, a cdrom player on <path>/dev/hdb</path>, a burner on
2589 <path>/dev/hdc</path>, a second hard drive on <path>/dev/hdd</path> and no
2590 SCSI hard drive, <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to
2591 <path>(hd1,6)</path>. It might sound tricky and tricky it is indeed, but as
2592 we will see, GRUB offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for
2593 those of you having a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a little
2594 lost in the GRUB numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that, it is
2595 time to install GRUB.
2596 </p>
2597
2598 <p>
2599 The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted
2600 shell prompt:
2601 </p>
2602
2603 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
2604 # <i>emerge -k grub</i>
2605 # <i>grub</i>
2606 </pre>
2607
2608 <p>
2609 You will be presented with the <e>grub&gt;</e> grub command-line prompt.
2610 Now, you need to type in the right commands to install the GRUB boot record
2611 onto your hard drive. In my example configuration, I want to install the GRUB
2612 boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that the first
2613 thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the
2614 commands I want to type are:
2615 </p>
2616
2617 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
2618 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2619 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here, it is the MBR)</comment>
2620 </pre>
2621
2622 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
2623 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR:</comment>
2624 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2625 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0,4)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here it is /dev/hda5)</comment>
2626 grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2627 </pre>
2628
2629 <p>
2630 Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells
2631 GRUB the location of your boot partition (in our example,
2632 <path>/dev/hda1</path> or <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the
2633 second <c>setup ( )</c> command tells GRUB where to install the boot record -
2634 it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root ( )</c>
2635 location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the MBR
2636 of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as
2637 <path>(hd0)</path>). If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up
2638 GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I could install GRUB to the boot record of
2639 a particular partition. In that case, I would specify a particular partition
2640 rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB boot record has been successfully
2641 installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
2642 </p>
2643
2644 <note>
2645 The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB,
2646 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
2647 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only hard drives),
2648 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, GRUB would print the
2649 available hard drives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
2650 would make GRUB print the list of partitions on the first hard drive.
2651 Checking the syntax of the GRUB location with completion should really help
2652 to make the right choice.
2653 </note>
2654
2655 <p>
2656 Gentoo Linux is now installed, but we need to create the
2657 <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that we get a nice GRUB boot menu
2658 when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
2659 </p>
2660
2661 <impo>
2662 To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
2663 <path>grub.conf</path> to <path>menu.lst</path>. You can do this by typing
2664 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst</c>.
2665 </impo>
2666
2667 <p>
2668 Now, create the <path>grub.conf</path> file (<c>nano -w
2669 /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>) and add the following to it:
2670 </p>
2671
2672 <pre caption="grub.conf for GRUB">
2673 default 0
2674 timeout 30
2675 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
2676
2677 <comment># If you compiled your own kernel, use something like this:</comment>
2678 title=My example Gentoo Linux
2679 root (hd0,0)
2680 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
2681
2682 <comment># If you're using genkernel, use something like this instead:</comment>
2683 title=My example Gentoo Linux (genkernel)
2684 root (hd0,0)
2685 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/kernel-KV root=/dev/hda3
2686 initrd (hd0,0)/boot/initrd-KV
2687
2688 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
2689 title=Windows XP
2690 root (hd0,5)
2691 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
2692 </pre>
2693
2694 <warn>
2695 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed.
2696 </warn>
2697
2698 <note>
2699 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
2700 </note>
2701
2702 <impo>
2703 If you set up SCSI emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
2704 actually work you need to add an <c>hdx=ide-scsi</c> fragment to the kernel
2705 line in <path>grub.conf</path> (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd
2706 burner).
2707 </impo>
2708
2709 <p>
2710 After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the
2711 first option will tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second
2712 part of the <path>grub.conf</path> file is optional and shows you how to use
2713 GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
2714 </p>
2715
2716 <note>
2717 Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
2718 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path>
2719 should point to your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT
2720 boot loader.
2721 </note>
2722
2723 <note>
2724 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for
2725 example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root
2726 partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the <path>grub.conf</path> file
2727 above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
2728 </note>
2729
2730 <p>
2731 If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply add them to
2732 the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
2733 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you
2734 can turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're
2735 doing) by adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c>
2736 command.
2737 </p>
2738
2739 <note>
2740 Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
2741 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs.
2742 Now devfs is enabled by default.
2743 </note>
2744
2745 </body>
2746 </section>
2747 <section>
2748 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
2749 <body>
2750
2751 <p>
2752 While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the
2753 best choice. LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux
2754 bootloaders. Here is how to install LILO if you would like to use it instead
2755 of GRUB.
2756 </p>
2757
2758 <p>
2759 The first step is to emerge LILO:
2760 </p>
2761
2762 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
2763 # <i>emerge -k lilo</i>
2764 </pre>
2765
2766 <p>
2767 Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file
2768 <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>:
2769 </p>
2770
2771 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
2772 boot=/dev/hda
2773 map=/boot/map
2774 install=/boot/boot.b
2775 prompt
2776 timeout=50
2777 lba32
2778 default=linux
2779
2780 <comment># Use something like the following 4 lines if you compiled your kernel yourself</comment>
2781 image=/boot/bzImage
2782 label=linux
2783 read-only
2784 root=/dev/hda3
2785
2786 <comment># If you used genkernel, use something like this:</comment>
2787 image=/boot/kernel-KV
2788 label=gk_linux
2789 root=/dev/hda3
2790 initrd=/boot/initrd-KV
2791 append="root=/dev/hda3 init=/linuxrc"
2792
2793
2794 <comment># For dual booting windows/other OS</comment>
2795 other=/dev/hda1
2796 label=dos
2797 </pre>
2798
2799 <warn>
2800 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed, and
2801 make sure that <c>default=</c> points to your label (<c>gk_linux</c> if
2802 you used genkernel).
2803 </warn>
2804
2805 <ul>
2806 <li><c>boot=/dev/hda</c> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller.</li>
2807 <li><c>map=/boot/map</c> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
2808 <li><c>install=/boot/boot.b</c> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector. In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will assume a default of <path>/boot/boot.b</path> as the file to be used. </li>
2809 <li>The existence of <c>prompt</c> tells LILO to display the classic <e>lilo:</e> prompt at bootup. While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
2810 <li><c>timeout=50</c> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
2811 <li><c>lba32</c> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put your system in an unbootable state. </li>
2812 <li><c>default=linux</c> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
2813 <li><c>image=/boot/bzImage</c> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
2814 <li><c>label=linux</c> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case, it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
2815 <li><c>read-only</c> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be altered during the boot process. </li>
2816 <li><c>root=/dev/hda3</c> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
2817 </ul>
2818
2819 <p>
2820 After you have edited your <path>lilo.conf</path> file, it is time to run LILO
2821 to load the information into the MBR:
2822 </p>
2823
2824 <pre caption="Running LILO">
2825 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
2826 </pre>
2827
2828 <p>
2829 LILO is configured and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
2830 </p>
2831
2832 </body>
2833 </section>
2834
2835 <section>
2836 <title>Using framebuffer</title>
2837 <body>
2838
2839 <p>
2840 People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c>
2841 to their bootloader configuration file. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the
2842 following table:
2843 </p>
2844
2845 <table>
2846 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
2847 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
2848 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
2849 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
2850 <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
2851 <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
2852 <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
2853 <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
2854 </table>
2855
2856 <p>
2857 LILO-users will have to add <c>vga=xxx</c> on top of their configuration
2858 file.
2859 </p>
2860
2861 <p>
2862 GRUB-users will have to append <c>vga=xxx</c> to the <c>kernel
2863 (hd0,0)...</c> line.
2864 </p>
2865
2866 </body>
2867 </section>
2868 </chapter>
2869
2870 <chapter>
2871 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
2872 <section>
2873 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
2874 <body>
2875
2876 <impo>
2877 Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2878 </impo>
2879
2880 <p>
2881 It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
2882 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
2883 blanket and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
2884 let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
2885 you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
2886 If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk and when you reboot
2887 the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
2888 like this:
2889 </p>
2890
2891 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
2892 # <i>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</i>
2893 # <i>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</i>
2894 </pre>
2895
2896 <p>
2897 Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you
2898 can now execute the necessary <c>root</c> and <c>setup</c> commands.
2899 </p>
2900
2901 </body>
2902 </section>
2903 <section>
2904 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
2905 <body>
2906
2907 <impo>
2908 Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2909 </impo>
2910
2911 <p>
2912 If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
2913 </p>
2914
2915 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
2916 # <i>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </i>
2917 <comment>(This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB)</comment>
2918 </pre>
2919
2920 </body>
2921 </section>
2922 </chapter>
2923
2924 <chapter>
2925 <title>Using GRP</title>
2926 <section>
2927 <body>
2928
2929 <p>
2930 GRP users can, at this point, install binary packages:
2931 </p>
2932
2933 <pre caption="Installing from GRP">
2934 # <i>emerge -k xfree</i>
2935 </pre>
2936
2937 <p>
2938 CD 1 contains enough applications to install a working system with XFree86.
2939 Additionally, CD2 of the 2-CD GRP set contains other applications including
2940 KDE, GNOME, Mozilla and others. To install these packages, you will need to
2941 reboot into your new Gentoo system first (covered in the "Installation
2942 complete!" section near the end of this document). After you are running your
2943 basic Gentoo system from the hard drive, you can mount the second CD and copy
2944 files:
2945 </p>
2946
2947 <pre caption="Loading binary packages from CD2">
2948 # <i>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</i>
2949 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/* /usr/portage/packages/</i>
2950 </pre>
2951
2952 <p>
2953 Now various other applications can be installed the same way. For example:
2954 </p>
2955
2956 <pre caption="Installing KDE from GRP">
2957 # <i>emerge -k kde</i>
2958 </pre>
2959
2960 </body>
2961 </section>
2962 </chapter>
2963
2964 <chapter>
2965 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
2966 <section>
2967 <body>
2968
2969 <p>
2970 Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary
2971 configuration files, exit the chrooted shell, safely unmount your partitions
2972 and reboot the system:
2973 </p>
2974
2975 <warn>
2976 <c>etc-update</c> can provide you with a list of configuration files
2977 that have newer versions at your disposal. Verify that none of the
2978 configuration files have a big impact (such as <path>/etc/fstab</path>,
2979 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, ...). Merge the
2980 files that don't have such a big impact, remove the updates of the
2981 others or view the diff and manually update the configuration file.
2982 </warn>
2983
2984 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
2985 # <i>etc-update</i>
2986 # <i>exit</i>
2987 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <i>^D</i>)</comment>
2988 # <i>cd / </i>
2989 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
2990 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
2991 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo</i>
2992 # <i>reboot</i>
2993 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the bootable CD)</comment>
2994 </pre>
2995
2996 <note>
2997 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>modules-update</c> command to
2998 create the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this
2999 file directly, you should generally make changes to the files in
3000 <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
3001 </note>
3002
3003 <p>
3004 If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux
3005 evelopment, consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
3006 (more information on our <uri
3007 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
3008 We also have a handy <uri
3009 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration
3010 guide</uri> that will help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux
3011 system and a useful <uri
3012 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
3013 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the
3014 Gentoo Documentation <uri
3015 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any
3016 other questions involving installation or anything for that matter, please
3017 check the Gentoo Linux <uri
3018 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>. Enjoy and welcome to
3019 Gentoo Linux!
3020 </p>
3021
3022 </body>
3023 </section>
3024 </chapter>
3025
3026 <!--
3027 Gentoo Stats is down currently. Commenting out for the
3028 time being. I've also changed double-dash to dash-space-dash
3029 because otherwise commenting fails.
3030 <chapter>
3031 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
3032 <section>
3033 <body>
3034
3035 <p>
3036 The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give
3037 the developers a way to find out about their user base. It collects information
3038 about Gentoo Linux usage to help us in set priorities our development.
3039 Installing it is completely optional and it would be greatly appreciated if
3040 you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at
3041 <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
3042 </p>
3043
3044 <p>
3045 The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
3046 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID
3047 will not be used to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched
3048 against an IP address or other personal information. Every precaution has been
3049 taken to assure your privacy in the development of this system. The following
3050 are the things that we are monitoring right now through our "gentoo-stats"
3051 program:
3052 </p>
3053
3054 <ul>
3055 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
3056 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx" or "3dnow")</li>
3057 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
3058 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
3059 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> link is pointing to).</li>
3060 </ul>
3061
3062 <p>
3063 We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most
3064 Gentoo Linux users (just as it is to the developers).
3065 </p>
3066
3067 <ul>
3068 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
3069 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
3070 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID" pairs.</li>
3071 </ul>
3072
3073 <p>
3074 The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
3075 </p>
3076
3077 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
3078 # <i>emerge gentoo-stats</i> <comment>(Installs gentoo-stats)</comment>
3079 # <i>gentoo-stats - -new</i> <comment>(Obtains a new system ID)</comment>
3080 </pre>
3081
3082 <p>
3083 The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
3084 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view
3085 this file to see additional configuration options.
3086 </p>
3087
3088 <p>
3089 After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule (gentoo-stats does
3090 not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
3091 </p>
3092
3093 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
3094 0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats - -update &gt; /dev/null
3095 </pre>
3096
3097 <p>
3098 The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
3099 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>.
3100 </p>
3101
3102 </body>
3103 </section>
3104 </chapter>
3105
3106 -->
3107
3108 <chapter>
3109 <title>Gentoo On Less-Common Hardware</title>
3110 <section>
3111 <title>Hardware ATA RAID</title>
3112 <body>
3113
3114 <p>
3115 Users who want to install Gentoo on Hardware ATA RAID must pay
3116 attention to the next steps in order for them to succesfully
3117 install Gentoo Linux:
3118 </p>
3119
3120 <ul>
3121 <li>Be sure to start the LiveCD with the <c>doataraid</c> kerneloption.</li>
3122 <li>If you've forgotten to select <c>doataraid</c> during bootup, or the modules mysteriously didn't load, load them as needed:
3123 <pre caption = "Loading RAID modules">
3124 # <i>modprobe ataraid</i>
3125 <comment>For Promise Raid Controllers:</comment>
3126 # <i>modprobe pdcraid</i>
3127 <comment>For Highpoint Raid Controllers:</comment>
3128 # <i>modprobe hptraid</i>
3129 </pre></li>
3130 <li>Some ATA RAID Controllers require you to reboot after partitioning; formatting will otherwise fail.</li>
3131 <li>Before chrooting, mount the devicetree into the new environment:
3132 <pre caption = "Mounting /dev into /mnt/gentoo/dev">
3133 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
3134 </pre></li>
3135 <li>During kernel configuration, select the required RAID options:
3136 <pre caption = "RAID in the Linux Kernel Configuration">
3137 <comment>For Highpoint RAID controllers:</comment>
3138 ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3139 [*] HPT36X/37X chipset support
3140 [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3141 [*] Highpoint 370 software RAID
3142 <comment>For Promise RAID controllers:</comment>
3143 ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3144 [*] PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67} support
3145 <comment>and/or</comment>
3146 [*] PROMISE PDC202{68|69|70|71|75|76|77} support
3147 [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3148 [*] Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
3149 </pre></li>
3150 <li>When using GRUB add <c>--stage2=/boot/grub/stage2</c> when running <c>grub</c> to the <c>setup</c> command:
3151 <pre caption = "Installing GRUB for Hardware RAID systems">
3152 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
3153 grub&gt; <i>setup --stage2=/boot/grub/stage2 (hd0)</i>
3154 grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
3155 </pre>
3156 Also, in the GRUB configuration be sure to point the <c>root</c>
3157 to the appropriate RAID device:
3158 <pre caption = "grub.conf for RAID">
3159 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
3160 root (hd0,0)
3161 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3162 </pre></li>
3163 <li>LILO users should set the <c>root</c> option to the appropriate RAID device:
3164 <pre caption = "lilo.conf for RAID">
3165 image=/boot/bzImage
3166 label=linux
3167 read-only
3168 root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3169 </pre></li>
3170 </ul>
3171
3172 <p>
3173 If you still have problems installing Gentoo Linux on your Hardware
3174 RAID, be sure to report them on <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>.
3175 </p>
3176
3177 <p>
3178 Thanks for using Gentoo Linux, and have fun with your new installation!
3179 </p>
3180
3181
3182 </body>
3183 </section>
3184 </chapter>
3185 </guide>

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