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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
5
6 <author title="Chief Architect">
7 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
8 </author>
9 <author title="Author">
10 Chris Houser
11 </author>
12 <author title="Author">
13 Jerry Alexandratos
14 </author>
15 <author title="Ghost, Reviewer">
16 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
19 John P. Davis
20 </author>
21 <author title="Editor">
22 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Editor">
25 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
26 </author>
27 <author title="Editor">
28 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
29 </author>
30 <author title="Editor">
31 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
32 </author>
33 <author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
35 </author>
36 <author title="Editor">
37 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
38 </author>
39 <author title="Editor">
40 Colin Morey
41 </author>
42 <author title="Editor">
43 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
44 </author>
45 <author title="Editor">
46 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
47 </author>
48 <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
49 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
50 </author>
51 <author title="Editor">
52 <mail link="avenj@gentoo.org">Jon Portnoy</mail>
53 </author>
54 <author title="Editor">
55 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
56 </author>
57 <author title="Editor">
58 <mail link="erwin@gentoo.org">Erwin</mail>
59 </author>
60 <author title="Reviewer">
61 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail>
62 </author>
63 <author title="Reviewer">
64 <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>
65 </author>
66 <author title="Reviewer">
67 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
68 </author>
69 <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
70 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
71 </author>
72
73 <abstract>
74 These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
75 Linux 1.4, release version (not _rc versions). The Gentoo Linux installation
76 process supports various installation approaches, depending upon how much of
77 the system you want to custom-build from scratch.
78 </abstract>
79
80 <license/>
81
82 <version>2.6.22</version>
83 <date>October 25, 2003</date>
84
85 <chapter>
86 <title>About the Install</title>
87 <section>
88 <title>Introduction</title>
89 <body>
90
91 <p>
92 Welcome to Gentoo Linux! Gentoo Linux can be installed in many different ways.
93 Those who are looking for a rapid install can use pre-built packages, while
94 those who want the ultimate in customizability can compile Gentoo Linux
95 entirely from the original source code. The method you choose is up to you.
96 </p>
97
98 <p>
99 One significant change in relation to the official 1.4 release is
100 our new 2-CD installation set, which can be ordered from <uri
101 link="http://store.gentoo.org">The Gentoo Linux Store</uri>, in
102 addition to being available on our <uri
103 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>.
104 We currently have 2-CD installation sets for x86 (486 and above),
105 i686 (Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Athlon/Duron and above), Pentium III,
106 Pentium 4 and Athlon XP. To see what 2-CD set is right for you, read
107 the detailed descriptions of each product in the <uri
108 link="http://store.gentoo.org">store</uri>. The store descriptions
109 contain fairly comprehensive CPU compatibility information.
110 </p>
111
112 <p>
113 You can find and download the ISOs for the LiveCDs from most of our
114 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
115 LiveCDs for the x86 architecture are located inside the
116 <path>releases/x86/1.4/livecd/</path> subdirectory.
117 </p>
118
119 </body>
120 </section>
121 <section>
122 <title>The Installation CDs</title>
123 <body>
124
125 <p>
126 So, about the 2 CD set -- here's what's on each CD. The first
127 CD ("CD 1") is called "Live CD Installation" and is a bootable CD-ROM,
128 meaning that you can put "CD 1" in your drive and run Gentoo Linux
129 directly from the CD. You can then use this CD-based version of
130 Gentoo to install Gentoo Linux 1.4 to your hard disk. In addition
131 to containing a bootable Gentoo Linux environment, CD 1
132 contains everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly, even
133 without a connection to the Internet. In addition, several
134 pre-compiled packages are also included on CD 1, such as the
135 ever-important XFree86 X server. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image
136 file for CD 1, its name will contain <path>-cd1</path>.
137 </p>
138
139 <p>
140 In contrast, the second CD ("CD 2") isn't bootable and contains
141 lots of pre-built packages for your system. Included on this CD are
142 optimized versions of packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice,
143 Mozilla, Evolution and others. CD 2 is <e>optional</e> and is
144 intended for those people who are interested in installing Gentoo
145 Linux very quickly. The packages included on CD 2 typically take
146 about 36 hours to compile from source on a typical modern
147 single-processor system. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image file for CD
148 2, its name will contain <path>-cd2</path>.
149 </p>
150
151 <note>
152 A complete Gentoo Linux 2-CD set contains the Gentoo Reference
153 Platform, which is a complete pre-built Gentoo Linux system including GNOME,
154 KDE, Mozilla and OpenOffice. The Gentoo Reference Platform ("GRP")
155 was created to allow rapid Gentoo Linux package installations
156 for those who need this capability. The "compile from
157 source" functionality, which is the cornerstone of Gentoo Linux,
158 will always be a fully-supported installation option as well. The
159 purpose of the GRP is to make Gentoo Linux more convenient for some
160 users, without impacting Gentoo's powerful "compile from source"
161 installation process in any way.
162 </note>
163
164 <p>
165 In addition to our 2-CD set, we also have a very small "basic"
166 Live CD that you can use to boot your system. Once your system has
167 booted, you can configure a connection to the Internet and then
168 install Gentoo over the network. The advantage of this "basic" CD is
169 that it is small and thus the ISO CD-ROM image file can be
170 downloaded quickly. If you're an advanced user who wants to install
171 the most up-to-date version of Gentoo Linux available and have a
172 fast network connection, then you may prefer this option. If you
173 have an ISO CD-ROM image file for our "basic" Live CD, its name will
174 contain <path>-basic</path>.
175 </p>
176
177 </body>
178 </section>
179 <section>
180 <title>Requirements</title>
181 <body>
182
183 <p>
184 To use any Gentoo Linux CD-based installation method, you will
185 need to have a 486+ processor and ideally at least 64 Megabytes of
186 RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully built with 64MB of RAM +
187 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully slow under
188 those conditions.)
189 </p>
190
191 </body>
192 </section>
193 <section>
194 <title>Choosing an Installation Method</title>
195 <body>
196
197 <p>
198 Once you boot one of our Live CDs, you have even more options.
199 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot;
200 tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system
201 you want to compile yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you
202 want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The
203 <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for building the entire system from a
204 bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The <e>stage3</e> tarball already
205 contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for
206 you. If you are interested in doing a "GRP" install, then the
207 stage3 tarball must be used.
208 </p>
209
210 <p>
211 <b>If you're not doing a GRP install, should you start from a stage1, stage2, or
212 stage3 tarball?</b>
213 </p>
214
215 <p>
216 Here is some information that should help you
217 make this decision.
218 </p>
219
220 <p>
221 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total
222 control over the optimization settings and optional build-time
223 functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes
224 stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing.
225 It is also a great installation method for those who would like to
226 know more about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
227 </p>
228
229 <p>
230 Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing
231 this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we
232 chose for your particular stage2 tarball.
233 </p>
234
235 <p>
236 And choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
237 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
238 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were
239 carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
240 stability). Since major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's
241 specifically optimized for various popular processors, starting
242 from a stage3 can offer the best of all worlds -- a fast install
243 and a system that is well-optimized.
244 </p>
245
246 <p>
247 <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider using a
248 stage3 tarball for installation, or a stage3 with GRP.</b>
249 </p>
250
251 <note>
252 <b>Advanced users:</b> If you use a stage3 install, you should not
253 change the default CHOST setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If you need
254 to make such a change, you should start with a stage1 tarball and build up
255 your system with the desired CHOST setting. The CHOST setting
256 typically looks something like this: <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>.
257 </note>
258
259 <impo>
260 If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
261 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
262 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (e.g. the KDE
263 team) the <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
264 </impo>
265
266 <note>
267 The installation instructions in the LiveCD may not be as up-to-date as our
268 Web documentation at
269 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri>.
270 Refer to our Web documentation for the most up-to-date installation
271 instructions.
272 </note>
273
274 </body>
275 </section>
276 <section>
277 <title>The Installation Process</title>
278 <body>
279
280 <p>
281 Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
282 CD(s) and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create
283 partitions, create our filesystems and extract either a stage1, stage2 or
284 stage3 tarball. If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take
285 the appropriate steps to get our system to stage3. Once our system is at
286 stage3, we can configure it (customize configuration files, install a boot
287 loader, etc.), boot it and have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. After
288 your basic Gentoo Linux system is running, you can optionally use "CD 2" of
289 our 2-CD set and install any number of pre-built packages such as KDE, GNOME,
290 OpenOffice, Mozilla, or others that you'd like on your system.
291 </p>
292
293 <p>
294 Depending on what stage of the build process you're starting from, here is
295 what is required for installation:
296 </p>
297
298 <table>
299 <tcolumn width="0.75in"/>
300 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
301 <tcolumn width="1.25in"/>
302 <tcolumn width="3.5in"/>
303 <tr>
304 <th>Stage Tarball</th>
305 <th>Internet Access Required</th>
306 <th>Media Required</th>
307 <th>Steps</th>
308 </tr>
309 <tr>
310 <ti>1</ti>
311 <ti>Yes</ti>
312 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
313 <ti>
314 Partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, final
315 config
316 </ti>
317 </tr>
318 <tr>
319 <ti>2</ti>
320 <ti>Yes</ti>
321 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
322 <ti>Partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, final config</ti>
323 </tr>
324 <tr>
325 <ti>3</ti>
326 <ti>No if using <e>CD 1</e>, Yes otherwise</ti>
327 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
328 <ti>
329 Partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync (not required if using <e>CD 1</e>),
330 final config
331 </ti>
332 </tr>
333 <tr>
334 <ti>3+GRP</ti>
335 <ti>No</ti>
336 <ti><e>CD 1</e>, <e>CD 2</e> optionally</ti>
337 <ti>
338 Partition/filesystem setup, final config, install CD 1 pre-built packages
339 (optional), reboot, install extra pre-built packages like KDE and GNOME
340 (if using "CD 2")
341 </ti>
342 </tr>
343 </table>
344
345 <note>
346 Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about ATA RAID on the bottom
347 of this document before proceeding.
348 </note>
349
350 </body>
351 </section>
352 </chapter>
353
354 <chapter>
355 <title>Booting</title>
356 <section>
357 <body>
358
359 <warn>
360 Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the available boot
361 options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong keyboard settings, unstarted
362 pcmcia services etc..
363 </warn>
364
365 <p>
366 Start by booting your Live CD of choice. You should see a fancy
367 boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you
368 can hit Enter to begin the boot process, or boot the LiveCD with
369 custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options
370 and then hitting Enter. For example: <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>.
371 If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with more than one
372 processor ("SMP"), then you should type <c>smp</c> instead of
373 <c>gentoo</c> at the prompt. This will allow the LiveCD to see all
374 the processors in your system, not just the first one.
375 </p>
376
377 <p>
378 Consult the following table for a partial list of available kernels and
379 options or press F2 and F3 to view the help screens.
380 </p>
381
382 <table>
383 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
384 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
385 <tr>
386 <th>Available kernels</th>
387 <th>Description</th>
388 </tr>
389 <tr>
390 <ti>gentoo</ti>
391 <ti>Standard gentoo kernel (default)</ti>
392 </tr>
393 <tr>
394 <ti>nofb</ti>
395 <ti>Framebuffer mode disabled</ti>
396 </tr>
397 <tr>
398 <ti>smp</ti>
399 <ti>Loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti>
400 </tr>
401 <tr>
402 <ti>acpi</ti>
403 <ti>Enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti>
404 </tr>
405 <tr>
406 <ti>memtest</ti>
407 <ti>Boots the memory testing program</ti>
408 </tr>
409 </table>
410
411 <table>
412 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
413 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
414 <tr>
415 <th>Available boot options</th>
416 <th>Description</th>
417 </tr>
418 <tr>
419 <ti>doataraid</ti>
420 <ti>Loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti>
421 </tr>
422 <tr>
423 <ti>dofirewire</ti>
424 <ti>Modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc.)</ti>
425 </tr>
426 <tr>
427 <ti>dokeymap</ti>
428 <ti>Enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti>
429 </tr>
430 <tr>
431 <ti>dopcmcia</ti>
432 <ti>Starts pcmcia service</ti>
433 </tr>
434 <tr>
435 <ti>doscsi</ti>
436 <ti>Scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti>
437 </tr>
438 <tr>
439 <ti>noapm</ti>
440 <ti>Disables apm module load</ti>
441 </tr>
442 <tr>
443 <ti>nodetect</ti>
444 <ti>Causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti>
445 </tr>
446 <tr>
447 <ti>nodhcp</ti>
448 <ti>Dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti>
449 </tr>
450 <tr>
451 <ti>nohotplug</ti>
452 <ti>Disables loading hotplug service</ti>
453 </tr>
454 <tr>
455 <ti>noraid</ti>
456 <ti>Disables loading of evms modules</ti>
457 </tr>
458 <tr>
459 <ti>nousb</ti>
460 <ti>Disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti>
461 </tr>
462 <tr>
463 <ti>ide=nodma</ti>
464 <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti>
465 </tr>
466 <tr>
467 <ti>cdcache</ti>
468 <ti>
469 Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram. This uses 40mb of RAM, but
470 allows you to umount <path>/mnt/cdrom</path> and mount another cdrom.
471 </ti>
472 </tr>
473 </table>
474
475 <p>
476 Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with an even fancier boot
477 screen and progress bar.
478 </p>
479
480 <warn>
481 If your screen turns blank instead of giving you a fancy boot screen, try
482 booting with the <e>nofb</e> kernel. It is highly likely that our kernel
483 doesn't support your graphical adapter for framebuffer (grafical mode
484 without X server).
485 </warn>
486
487 <p>
488 Once the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in
489 to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "<e>root</e>", the "super user". You should
490 have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
491 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
492 you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
493 </p>
494
495 <note>
496 <b>Advanced users:</b> When the Live CD boots, the Live CD root password is
497 set to a random string for security purposes. If you plan to start
498 <c>sshd</c> to allow remote logins to your Live CD, you should set the Live
499 CD root password now by typing <c>passwd</c> and following the prompts.
500 Otherwise, you will not know the proper password for logging into the Live
501 CD over the network.
502 </note>
503
504 <p>
505 You've probably also noticed that above your # prompt is a bunch of
506 help text that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking
507 and telling you where you can find the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages
508 on your CD.
509 </p>
510
511 </body>
512 </section>
513 </chapter>
514
515 <chapter>
516 <title>Optional hardware configuration</title>
517 <section>
518 <body>
519
520 <p>
521 When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware
522 devices and loads the appropiate kernel modules to support your
523 hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job.
524 However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules
525 you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you
526 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
527 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
528 /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
529 type:
530 </p>
531
532 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
533 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
534 # <i>modprobe pcnet32</i>
535 </pre>
536
537 <p>
538 Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't
539 detected during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to
540 load the appropriate modules from <path>/lib/modules</path>, again using
541 <c>modprobe</c>:
542 </p>
543
544 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
545 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
546 # <i>modprobe aic7xxx</i>
547 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
548 # <i>modprobe sd_mod</i>
549 </pre>
550
551 <note>
552 Support for SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
553 </note>
554
555 <note>
556 <b>Advanced users:</b> The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA
557 on your disks so that disk transfers are as fast as possible, but if it did not,
558 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives as follows:
559 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
560 <comment>(Replace hdX with your disk device)</comment>
561 <comment>(Enables DMA:)</comment>
562 # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX</i>
563 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options:)</comment>
564 # <i>hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX</i>
565 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up:)</comment>
566 # <i>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX</i>
567 </pre>
568 </note>
569
570
571 </body>
572 </section>
573 </chapter>
574 <chapter>
575 <title>Optional Networking configuration</title>
576 <section>
577 <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
578 <body>
579
580 <p>
581 If your system is plugged into an Ethernet network, it is very
582 likely that your networking configuration has already been
583 set up automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of
584 the many included network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>,
585 <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>links</c>, among
586 others.
587 </p>
588
589 <p>
590 If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command
591 should list some internet interfaces besides lo, such as eth0:
592 </p>
593
594 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
595 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
596 inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
597 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
598 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
599 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
600 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
601 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
602 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
603 Interrupt:11 Base address:0xe800
604 </pre>
605
606 <p>
607 You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in
608 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>) and a Web site of choice, just to make sure
609 that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working
610 correctly, etc..
611 </p>
612
613 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
614 # <i>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com</i>
615 </pre>
616
617 <p>
618 Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this
619 section.
620 </p>
621
622 </body>
623 </section>
624 <section>
625 <title>PPPoE configuration</title>
626 <body>
627
628 <p>
629 Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version)
630 has made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided
631 <c>adsl-setup</c> script to configure your connection. You will be prompted
632 for the ethernet device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username
633 and password, the IPs of your DNS servers and if you need a basic firewall
634 or not.
635 </p>
636
637 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
638 # <i> adsl-setup </i>
639 # <i> adsl-start </i>
640 </pre>
641
642 <p>
643 If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed your username
644 and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
645 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and make sure you are using the right
646 ethernet device.
647 </p>
648
649 </body>
650 </section>
651 <section>
652 <title>Automatic Network Configuration </title>
653 <body>
654
655 <p>
656 The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured
657 automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script:
658 </p>
659
660 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
661 # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
662 </pre>
663
664 <p>
665 Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is
666 covered next.
667 </p>
668
669 </body>
670 </section>
671 <section>
672 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
673 <body>
674
675 <p>
676 Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
677 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below.
678 </p>
679
680 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
681 # <i>dhcpcd eth0</i>
682 </pre>
683
684 <note>
685 Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that, add a
686 <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
687 </note>
688
689 <p>
690 If you receive <e>dhcpConfig</e> warnings, don't panic; the errors are most
691 likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.
692 </p>
693
694 </body>
695 </section>
696 <section>
697 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
698 <body>
699
700 <p>
701 We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download sources for
702 the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed
703 information is explained in the next table.
704 </p>
705
706 <table>
707 <tcolumn width="1.25in"/>
708 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
709 <tcolumn width="1.25in"/>
710 <tr>
711 <th>Information</th>
712 <th>Description</th>
713 <th>Example value</th>
714 </tr>
715 <tr>
716 <ti>IP address</ti>
717 <ti>The IP address you want to assign to your network card</ti>
718 <ti>192.168.1.2</ti>
719 </tr>
720 <tr>
721 <ti>Broadcast address</ti>
722 <ti>
723 The IP address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the
724 network
725 </ti>
726 <ti>192.168.1.255</ti>
727 </tr>
728 <tr>
729 <ti>Network mask</ti>
730 <ti>
731 The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the
732 address is for network-identification and host-identification
733 </ti>
734 <ti>255.255.255.0</ti>
735 </tr>
736 <tr>
737 <ti>Gateway</ti>
738 <ti>
739 The IP address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not
740 meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the
741 internet connection)
742 </ti>
743 <ti>192.168.1.1</ti>
744 </tr>
745 </table>
746
747 <p>
748 Type in the following commands, replacing <c>$IFACE</c> with your network
749 interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), <c>$IPNUM</c> with your IP address,
750 <c>$BCAST</c> with your broadcast address and <c>$NMASK</c> with your network
751 mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace <c>$GTWAY</c> with your default
752 gateway.
753 </p>
754
755 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
756 # <i>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</i>
757 # <i>route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1 $IFACE</i>
758 </pre>
759
760 <p>
761 Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file so that name
762 resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address)
763 will work. You can use <c>nano -w /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create
764 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use
765 editor.
766 </p>
767
768 <p>
769 Here is a template to follow for creating your <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
770 file:
771 </p>
772
773 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
774 domain mydomain.com
775 nameserver 10.0.0.1
776 nameserver 10.0.0.2
777 </pre>
778
779 <p>
780 Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
781 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.
782 </p>
783
784 </body>
785 </section>
786 <section>
787 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
788 <body>
789
790 <p>
791 If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy
792 before you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy
793 accordingly.
794 </p>
795
796 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
797 <comment>(If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:)</comment>
798 # <i>export http_proxy="http://machine.company.com:1234"</i>
799 <comment>(If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:)</comment>
800 # <i>export ftp_proxy="ftp://machine.company.com"</i>
801 <comment>(If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:)</comment>
802 # <i>export RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://machine.company.com"</i>
803 </pre>
804
805 <note>
806 If your proxy requires authentification, use a construct like
807 <c>http://username:password@machine.company.com</c> (note the added
808 &quot;username:password@&quot;).
809 </note>
810
811 </body>
812 </section>
813 <section>
814 <title>Networking is go!</title>
815 <body>
816
817 <p>
818 Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the
819 included <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>links</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c>
820 commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.
821 </p>
822
823 </body>
824 </section>
825 </chapter>
826
827 <chapter>
828 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
829 <section>
830 <body>
831
832 <p>
833 Now you need to set your system's date and time. You can do this using the
834 <c>date</c> command.
835 </p>
836
837 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
838 # <i>date</i>
839 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
840 <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command:)</comment>
841 # <i>date 022709042003</i>
842 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
843 </pre>
844
845 </body>
846 </section>
847 </chapter>
848
849 <chapter>
850 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
851 <section>
852 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
853 <body>
854
855 <p>
856 In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo
857 Linux and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block
858 devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
859 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
860 and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
861 </p>
862
863 <p>
864 To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
865 probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
866 </p>
867
868 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
869 /dev/hda
870 </pre>
871
872 <p>
873 If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
874 </p>
875
876 <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
877 /dev/sda
878 </pre>
879
880 <p>
881 The block devices above represent an <e>abstract</e> interface to the disk.
882 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
883 worrying about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
884 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
885 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
886 </p>
887
888 </body>
889 </section>
890 <section>
891 <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
892 <body>
893
894 <p>
895 Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
896 <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc.), specifying a particular
897 block device as a command-line argument.
898 </p>
899
900 <p>
901 However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
902 device (one that represents the <e>entire</e> disk) like <path>/dev/hda</path>
903 or <path>/dev/sda</path> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never
904 done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller,
905 more manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created
906 using a tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the
907 partition table that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines
908 exactly how to split up the full disk.
909 </p>
910
911 <p>
912 We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
913 specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument:
914 </p>
915
916 <note>
917 Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
918 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> because it's
919 more powerful and well known in the Unix/Linux world.
920 </note>
921
922 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
923 # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
924 </pre>
925
926 <p>
927 or
928 </p>
929
930 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
931 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
932 </pre>
933
934 <impo>
935 Note that you should <e>not</e> save or make any changes to a disk's
936 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
937 contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
938 lost.
939 </impo>
940
941 <p>
942 Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
943 </p>
944
945 <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
946 Command (m for help):
947 </pre>
948
949 <p>
950 Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
951 </p>
952
953 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
954 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
955
956 Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
957 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
958
959 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
960 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
961 /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
962 /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
963 /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
964 /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
965 /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
966 /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
967 /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
968 /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
969
970 Command (m for help):
971 </pre>
972
973 <p>
974 This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
975 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
976 (listed as "Linux swap").
977 </p>
978
979 <p>
980 Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
981 devices on the left hand side, starting with <path>/dev/hda1</path> and going
982 up to <path>/dev/hda9</path>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning
983 software only allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary"
984 partitions). This was too limiting, so a workaround called <e>extended
985 partitioning</e> was created. An extended partition is very similar to a
986 primary partition and counts towards the primary partition limit of four.
987 However, extended partitions can hold any number of so-called <e>logical</e>
988 partitions inside them, providing an effective means of working around the
989 four partition limit.
990 </p>
991
992 <p>
993 All partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> and higher are logical partitions.
994 The numbers 1 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions.
995 </p>
996
997 <p>
998 So, In our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> through <path>/dev/hda3</path> are
999 primary partitions. <path>/dev/hda4</path> is an extended partition that
1000 contains logical partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
1001 <path>/dev/hda9</path>. You would never actually <e>use</e>
1002 <path>/dev/hda4</path> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
1003 acts as a container for partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
1004 <path>/dev/hda9</path>.
1005 </p>
1006
1007 <p>
1008 Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
1009 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
1010 partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
1011 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
1012 partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
1013 type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
1014 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
1015 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
1016 </p>
1017
1018 </body>
1019 </section>
1020 <section>
1021 <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
1022 <body>
1023
1024 <p>
1025 Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
1026 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
1027 partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
1028 process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
1029 look like this:
1030 </p>
1031
1032 <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
1033 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1034 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1035 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1036
1037 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1038 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1039 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1040 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
1041
1042 Command (m for help):
1043 </pre>
1044
1045 <p>
1046 In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
1047 The first one (<path>/dev/hda1</path>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
1048 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
1049 the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
1050 will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
1051 us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
1052 day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
1053 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
1054 likely end up being <path>/dev/sda1</path>.
1055 </p>
1056
1057 <p>
1058 It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
1059 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
1060 required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
1061 loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
1062 cylinder 1024.
1063 </p>
1064
1065 <p>
1066 The second partition (<path>/dev/hda2</path>) is used to for swap space. The
1067 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
1068 relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
1069 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
1070 being called <path>/dev/sda2</path>.
1071 </p>
1072
1073 <p>
1074 The third partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path>) is quite large and takes up the
1075 rest of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be
1076 used to store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI
1077 system, this partition would likely end up being <path>/dev/sda3</path>.
1078 </p>
1079
1080 <p>
1081 Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
1082 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
1083 Linux:
1084 </p>
1085
1086 <table>
1087 <tcolumn width="1.5in"/>
1088 <tcolumn width="2.5in"/>
1089 <tcolumn width="2.5in"/>
1090 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
1091 <tr>
1092 <th>Partition</th>
1093 <th>Size</th>
1094 <th>Type</th>
1095 <th>Example device</th>
1096 </tr>
1097 <tr>
1098 <ti>Boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
1099 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
1100 <ti>
1101 Ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o
1102 notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of
1103 the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is
1104 recommended.
1105 </ti>
1106 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
1107 </tr>
1108 <tr>
1109 <ti>Swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
1110 <ti>
1111 Generally, configure a swap area that is between one and two times the
1112 size of the physical RAM in your system
1113 </ti>
1114 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
1115 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
1116 </tr>
1117 <tr>
1118 <ti>Root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc.)</ti>
1119 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
1120 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
1121 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
1122 </tr>
1123 </table>
1124
1125 <p>
1126 OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
1127 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
1128 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
1129 current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
1130 to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
1131 existing data on your disk will be erased</b>.
1132 </p>
1133
1134 <impo>
1135 Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
1136 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
1137 is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
1138 <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
1139 from the wrong drive.
1140 </impo>
1141
1142 <p>
1143 Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
1144 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
1145 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/hda1</path>, you would type:
1146 </p>
1147
1148 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
1149 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
1150 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
1151 </pre>
1152
1153 <p>
1154 The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
1155 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
1156 saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
1157 type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
1158 deleted.
1159 </p>
1160
1161 <p>
1162 Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
1163 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
1164 <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
1165 with a partition table with nothing in it:
1166 </p>
1167
1168 <pre caption="An empty partition table">
1169 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1170 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1171 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1172
1173 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1174
1175 Command (m for help):
1176 </pre>
1177
1178 <p>
1179 Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
1180 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
1181 <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
1182 create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
1183 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
1184 partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:
1185 </p>
1186
1187 <note>
1188 Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
1189 require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefore, if you are using a journaled
1190 filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
1191 for the last cylinder.
1192 </note>
1193
1194 <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
1195 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
1196 Command action
1197 e extended
1198 p primary partition (1-4)
1199 <i>p</i>
1200 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
1201 First cylinder (1-3876, default 1): <comment>(Hit Enter)</comment>
1202 Using default value 1
1203 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): <i>+32M</i>
1204 </pre>
1205
1206 <p>
1207 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition
1208 printout:
1209 </p>
1210
1211 <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
1212 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1213
1214 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1215 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1216 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1217
1218 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1219 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1220 </pre>
1221
1222 <p>
1223 Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
1224 new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition.
1225 Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
1226 <path>/dev/hda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1227 hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create
1228 a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the
1229 partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just created and then
1230 type in <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing
1231 these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks
1232 similar to this:
1233 </p>
1234
1235 <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
1236 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1237
1238 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1239 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1240 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1241
1242 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1243 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1244 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1245 </pre>
1246
1247 <p>
1248 Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
1249 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
1250 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
1251 <path>/dev/hda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1252 hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a
1253 partition that takes up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After
1254 completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that
1255 looks similar to this:
1256 </p>
1257
1258 <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
1259 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1260
1261 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1262 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1263 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1264
1265 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1266 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1267 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1268 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
1269 </pre>
1270
1271 <p>
1272 Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
1273 our changes to disk. To tag <path>/dev/hda1</path> as a "bootable" partition,
1274 type <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number.
1275 If you type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <path>/dev/hda1</path> has a
1276 <c>*</c> in the "Boot" column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do
1277 this, type <c>w</c> and hit enter. Your disk partitions are now properly
1278 configured for a Gentoo Linux install.
1279 </p>
1280
1281 <note>
1282 If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
1283 allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.
1284 </note>
1285
1286 </body>
1287 </section>
1288 <section>
1289 <title>Creating filesystems</title>
1290 <body>
1291
1292 <p>
1293 Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
1294 the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store
1295 data. We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
1296 </p>
1297
1298 <p>
1299 Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
1300 its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics.
1301 Currently, we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS
1302 filesystems.
1303 </p>
1304
1305 <p>
1306 ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
1307 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
1308 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
1309 <e>journaled</e> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
1310 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
1311 Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
1312 filesystem happens to be in an <e>inconsistent</e> state.
1313 </p>
1314
1315 <p>
1316 ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
1317 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
1318 like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
1319 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
1320 Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
1321 design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
1322 very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
1323 files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
1324 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.
1325 </p>
1326
1327 <p>
1328 ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
1329 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
1330 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
1331 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
1332 now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
1333 filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
1334 use of many small files, very large files and directories containing tens of
1335 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
1336 non-boot partitions.
1337 </p>
1338
1339 <p>
1340 XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
1341 Gentoo Linux's <c>xfs-sources</c> kernel. It comes with a robust
1342 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
1343 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
1344 a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
1345 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
1346 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
1347 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
1348 </p>
1349
1350 <p>
1351 JFS is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
1352 become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
1353 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
1354 point.
1355 </p>
1356
1357 <p>
1358 If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
1359 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
1360 journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
1361 refined and recommended for general use.
1362 </p>
1363
1364 <p>
1365 Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
1366 all our partitions for use:
1367 </p>
1368
1369 <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
1370 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda1</i>
1371 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1372 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1373 </pre>
1374
1375 <p>
1376 We choose ext3 for our <path>/dev/hda1</path> boot partition because it is a
1377 robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
1378 <c>mkswap</c> for our <path>/dev/hda2</path> swap partition -- the choice is
1379 obvious here. And for our main root filesystem on <path>/dev/hda3</path> we
1380 choose ReiserFS, since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent
1381 performance. Now, go ahead and initialize your partitions.
1382 </p>
1383
1384 <p>
1385 For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
1386 during the installation process:
1387 </p>
1388
1389 <p>
1390 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
1391 </p>
1392
1393 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
1394 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1395 </pre>
1396
1397 <p>
1398 You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:
1399 </p>
1400
1401 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
1402 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1403 </pre>
1404
1405 <p>
1406 If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
1407 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:
1408 </p>
1409
1410 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
1411 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i>
1412 </pre>
1413
1414 <note>
1415 You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
1416 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
1417 </note>
1418
1419 <p>
1420 To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:
1421 </p>
1422
1423 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
1424 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1425 </pre>
1426
1427 <p>
1428 To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:
1429 </p>
1430
1431 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
1432 # <i>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</i>
1433 </pre>
1434
1435 <note>
1436 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c>
1437 command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>. The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command
1438 will lower the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at
1439 least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition, so, for example, if
1440 you have a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5. The
1441 <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing
1442 performance.
1443 </note>
1444
1445 <p>
1446 To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:
1447 </p>
1448
1449 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
1450 # <i>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</i>
1451 </pre>
1452
1453 </body>
1454 </section>
1455 </chapter>
1456
1457 <chapter>
1458 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
1459 <section>
1460 <body>
1461
1462 <p>
1463 Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need
1464 the additional virtual memory that it provides later:
1465 </p>
1466
1467 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
1468 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
1469 </pre>
1470
1471 <p>
1472 Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount point,
1473 and we will mount our filesystems to the mount points. Once our boot and
1474 root filesystems are mounted, any files we copy or create inside
1475 <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
1476 Note that if you are setting up Gentoo Linux with separate
1477 <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1478 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1479 </p>
1480
1481 <impo>
1482 If your <path>/boot</path> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS,
1483 be sure to mount it with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly
1484 installed. Make sure that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new
1485 <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1486 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS,
1487 then the <c>-o notail</c> is not needed. It's always safe to specify the
1488 <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're not sure what to do.
1489 </impo>
1490
1491 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1492 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
1493 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1494 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1495 </pre>
1496
1497 <impo>
1498 If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1499 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2</c>
1500 </impo>
1501
1502 </body>
1503 </section>
1504 </chapter>
1505
1506 <chapter>
1507 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1508 <section>
1509 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1510 <body>
1511
1512 <p>
1513 Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1514 basis for the install if you haven't already. The stages on the Live CD are
1515 in <path>/mnt/cdrom/stages/</path> and you can type <c>ls
1516 /mnt/cdrom/stages/</c> to see what's available on your CD.
1517 </p>
1518
1519 <p>
1520 <b>GRP users</b> should use the <path>stage3-xx-yy.tar.bz2</path> tarball.
1521 </p>
1522
1523 <p>
1524 If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1525 <e>not</e> on your CD (which will likely be the case if you're using our
1526 "basic" Live CD), this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1527 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1528 tarball you want to use (which most users will have), then proceed to the
1529 "Extracting the stage tarball" section.
1530 </p>
1531
1532 <note>
1533 If you want to use a proxy (say proxy.server.tld:8080), add
1534 <c>-http-proxy proxy.server.tld:8080</c> to the <c>links</c> command
1535 mentioned below.
1536 </note>
1537
1538 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1539 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1540 <comment>Use links to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1541 # <i>links http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</i>
1542 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1543 Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1544 Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1545 Save the file and quit the browser
1546
1547 <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1548 # <i>wget </i><comment>(insert URL to the required stage tarball here)</comment>
1549 </pre>
1550
1551 </body>
1552 </section>
1553 <section>
1554 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1555 <body>
1556
1557 <p>
1558 Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1559 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1560 tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1561 stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1562 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:
1563 </p>
1564
1565 <impo>
1566 Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1567 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.
1568 </impo>
1569
1570 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1571 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1572 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1573 <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1574 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/stages/".</comment>
1575 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
1576 </pre>
1577
1578 <p>
1579 If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now
1580 delete it by typing <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.
1581 </p>
1582
1583 </body>
1584 </section>
1585
1586 <section>
1587 <title>GRP package/snapshot steps</title>
1588 <body>
1589
1590 <impo>
1591 The following instructions are for GRP users only. If you are not using
1592 GRP, continue with "Selecting Mirrors (Optional)".
1593 </impo>
1594
1595 <p>
1596 <b>GRP Users</b>: There is a Portage snapshot on the Live CD. You will
1597 need to use this snapshot so that you can skip the <c>emerge sync</c> step
1598 later in this document, since <c>emerge sync</c> requires a network
1599 connection. Untar this snapshot as follows:
1600 </p>
1601
1602 <pre caption="Using Portage snapshot">
1603 <comment>Replace yyyymmdd with the datestamp in the filename.</comment>
1604 # <i>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-yyyymmdd.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
1605 </pre>
1606
1607 <p>
1608 This will extract a snapshot of the Portage tree to your fresh Gentoo
1609 install. Now you won't need to connect to the Internet and use <c>emerge
1610 sync</c> to download a Portage tree. Now, copy distfiles and packages
1611 from the Live CD into place:
1612 </p>
1613
1614 <pre caption="Copying GRP files">
1615 # <i>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
1616 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages</i>
1617 </pre>
1618
1619 <p>
1620 All relevant files are now in place for using GRP. You should now have
1621 everything copied over and unpacked that you'll need to install Gentoo Linux
1622 -- even without a network connection.
1623 </p>
1624
1625 </body>
1626 </section>
1627 <section>
1628 <title>Selecting Mirrors (Optional)</title>
1629 <body>
1630
1631 <p>
1632 <c>mirrorselect</c> is a tool designed to automatically pick the fastest
1633 mirrors based on your location, or manually pick a mirror from a list.
1634 Unfortunately, <c>mirrorselect</c> does not work well behind all routers.
1635 </p>
1636
1637 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect">
1638 <comment>(To select a mirror automatically:)</comment>
1639 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1640 <comment>(To select a mirror interactively:)</comment>
1641 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1642 </pre>
1643
1644 <p>
1645 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails you should be able to
1646 continue with this guide since no changes are made. One of the reasons why
1647 <c>mirrorselect</c> can fail is simply because it isn't there.
1648 <c>mirrorselect</c> isn't available from all installation media.
1649 </p>
1650
1651 </body>
1652 </section>
1653 <section>
1654 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1655 <body>
1656
1657 <p>
1658 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to
1659 "enter" the new Gentoo Linux system:
1660 </p>
1661
1662 <note>
1663 You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1664 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1665 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document, which will resolve
1666 the problem.
1667 </note>
1668
1669 <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1670 # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
1671 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
1672 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
1673 # <i>env-update</i>
1674 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1675 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
1676 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries)</comment>
1677 </pre>
1678
1679 <p>
1680 After you execute these commands, you will be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux
1681 environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. We can perform the rest of the
1682 installation process inside the chroot.
1683 </p>
1684
1685 </body>
1686 </section>
1687 </chapter>
1688
1689 <chapter>
1690 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1691 <section>
1692 <body>
1693
1694 <impo>
1695 If you are doing a GRP install then you can ignore the following section on
1696 <c>emerge sync</c>.
1697 </impo>
1698
1699 <p>
1700 Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage
1701 to download the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree from the
1702 Internet. If you extracted a Portage tree snapshot from <e>CD 1</e> earlier,
1703 you can safely skip this step. The Portage tree contains all the scripts
1704 (called ebuilds) used to build every package under Gentoo Linux. Currently,
1705 we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1706 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in
1707 <path>/usr/portage</path>:
1708 </p>
1709
1710 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1711 # <i>emerge sync</i>
1712 </pre>
1713
1714 </body>
1715 </section>
1716 </chapter>
1717
1718 <chapter>
1719 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1720 <section>
1721 <body>
1722
1723 <p>
1724 Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1725 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1726 Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1727 programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1728 this file, you should set your USE flags, which specify optional
1729 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1730 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset USE variable) are
1731 fine. More information on USE flags can be found <uri
1732 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1733 of current USE flags can be found <uri
1734 link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
1735 </p>
1736
1737 <p>
1738 If you are starting from a stage1 tarball, You also should set appropriate
1739 CHOST, CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings for the kind of system that you are
1740 creating (commented examples can be found further down in the file). If you
1741 are using a stage2 or stage3 tarball, these settings will already be configured
1742 optimally and should not require any modification.
1743 </p>
1744
1745 <warn>
1746 <b>Advanced users:</b> If you are planning on installing an
1747 ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" Gentoo system, do not set ACCEPT_KEYWORDS until
1748 the bootstrap phase (stage1) is done.
1749 </warn>
1750
1751 <impo>
1752 <b>Advanced users:</b> The CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings are used to tell the
1753 C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that is generated on your system.
1754 It is common for users with Athlon XP processors to specify a
1755 "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings so that all
1756 packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and performance
1757 characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1758 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
1759 </impo>
1760
1761 <!-- needs qa
1762 <note>
1763 <b>Advanced users:</b>If you are building from a stage1 and don't want
1764 to manually configure CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, you can use the <c>genflags</c>
1765 utility, which will try to guess accurate flags for your CPU architecture.
1766 Simply type <c>emerge -O genflags</c> and then execute
1767 <c>info2flags</c>. <c>info2flags</c> will suggest CHOST, CFLAGS and
1768 CXXFLAGS settings, which you can then add to
1769 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
1770 </note>
1771 -->
1772
1773 <p>
1774 If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1775 firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1776 using <c>nano</c>, a simple visual editor:
1777 </p>
1778
1779 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1780 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
1781 </pre>
1782
1783 <note>
1784 <b>Advanced users:</b> People who need to substantially customize the build
1785 process should take a look at the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This
1786 file comprises gentoo defaults and should never be touched. If the defaults
1787 do not suffice, then new values should be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>,
1788 as entries in <path>make.conf</path> <e>override</e> the entries
1789 in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're interested in customizing USE
1790 settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1791 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate
1792 <c>USE="-foo"</c> in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c>
1793 USE setting enabled by default in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or
1794 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1795 </note>
1796
1797 <warn>
1798 Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your USE variables until after
1799 stage1.
1800 </warn>
1801
1802 </body>
1803 </section>
1804 </chapter>
1805
1806 <chapter>
1807 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1808 <section>
1809 <body>
1810
1811 <note>
1812 If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.
1813 </note>
1814
1815 <p>
1816 The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you
1817 have picked this tarball, you are most likely looking to have an
1818 uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun! Installing from a stage1
1819 takes a lot of time, but the result is a system that has been optimized
1820 from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1821 </p>
1822
1823 <p>
1824 Now, it is time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes
1825 about two hours on a 1200MHz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the GNU
1826 C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start
1827 the bootstrap as follows:
1828 </p>
1829
1830 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1831 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
1832 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
1833 </pre>
1834
1835 <p>
1836 The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
1837 </p>
1838
1839 <note>
1840 <c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up
1841 users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related
1842 files in one go for later compilation. See <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more
1843 information.
1844 </note>
1845
1846 <note>
1847 Portage by default uses <path>/var/tmp</path> during package building,
1848 often using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would
1849 like to change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new
1850 PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e> starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1851 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1852 # <i>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</i>
1853 </pre>
1854 </note>
1855
1856 <p>
1857 <c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1858 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c> after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to
1859 say, this process takes a while. Once this process completes, your system
1860 will be equivalent to a "stage2" system, which means you can now move on to
1861 the stage2 instructions.
1862 </p>
1863
1864 </body>
1865 </section>
1866 </chapter>
1867
1868 <chapter>
1869 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1870 <section>
1871 <body>
1872
1873 <note>
1874 This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1875 this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3), then skip this section.
1876 </note>
1877
1878 <warn>
1879 If you start from stage2, don't change the CHOST variable in
1880 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so results in strange and
1881 broad compilation failures.
1882 </warn>
1883
1884 <p>
1885 The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you
1886 have to do is install the rest of the system:
1887 </p>
1888
1889 <note>
1890 If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1891 that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1892 option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1893 safe to skip this suggestion.
1894 </note>
1895
1896 <pre caption="Installing the rest of the system">
1897 # <i>emerge -p system</i>
1898 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1899 # <i>emerge system</i>
1900 </pre>
1901
1902 <p>
1903 It is going to take a while to finish building the entire base system.
1904 Your reward is that it will be thoroughly optimized for your system.
1905 The drawback is that you have to find a way to keep yourself occupied for
1906 some time to come. The author suggests "Star Wars - Super Bombad Racing"
1907 for the PS2.
1908 </p>
1909
1910 <p>
1911 Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1912 your time zone" section.
1913 </p>
1914
1915 </body>
1916 </section>
1917 </chapter>
1918
1919 <chapter>
1920 <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1921 <section>
1922 <body>
1923
1924 <note>
1925 This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3 and not for those who
1926 have started with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section. GRP users
1927 should skip ahead to the next section.
1928 </note>
1929
1930 <warn>
1931 Remember, if you start from stage3, don't change the CHOST variable in
1932 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so can result in compilation failures.
1933 </warn>
1934
1935 <p>
1936 The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system,
1937 so no building is required.
1938 </p>
1939
1940 <note>
1941 <b>Advanced users:</b> However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it
1942 may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern for you, you can
1943 automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date
1944 versions of all system packages by making a backup of
1945 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, then typing <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"
1946 emerge -u system</c> (this requires a network connection) and replacing
1947 the backup afterwards. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is
1948 very old; otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you
1949 to benefit from the very latest Gentoo updates and fixes. In any case, feel
1950 free to skip these steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1951 </note>
1952
1953 </body>
1954 </section>
1955 </chapter>
1956
1957 <chapter>
1958 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1959 <section>
1960 <body>
1961
1962 <p>
1963 Now you need to set your time zone.
1964 </p>
1965
1966 <p>
1967 Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1968 in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1969 <path>/etc/localtime</path> by typing:
1970 </p>
1971
1972 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1973 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</i>
1974 </pre>
1975
1976 </body>
1977 </section>
1978 </chapter>
1979
1980 <chapter>
1981 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1982 <section>
1983 <body>
1984
1985 <impo>
1986 To edit files, remember to use <c>nano -w "filename"</c>.
1987 </impo>
1988
1989 <p>
1990 Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is
1991 configure a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1992 The first file we need to configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember
1993 that you should use the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if
1994 you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it. Remember to specify
1995 <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1996 </p>
1997
1998 <warn>
1999 Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be
2000 sure to replace "BOOT", "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices (such
2001 as <c>hda1</c>, etc.) and "ext2" and "ext3" with the actual filesystems you
2002 are using:
2003 </warn>
2004
2005 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
2006 <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
2007 #
2008 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
2009 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
2010 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
2011 # switch between notail and tail freely.
2012
2013 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
2014
2015 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
2016 </comment>
2017 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
2018 /dev/ROOT / reiserfs noatime 0 1
2019 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
2020 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro,user 0 0
2021 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
2022 </pre>
2023
2024 <warn>
2025 Please notice that <path>/boot</path> is <e>not</e> mounted at boot time. This
2026 is to protect the data in <path>/boot</path> from corruption. If you need to
2027 access <path>/boot</path>, please mount it!
2028 </warn>
2029
2030 </body>
2031 </section>
2032 </chapter>
2033
2034 <chapter>
2035 <title>Installing the kernel and system logger</title>
2036 <section>
2037 <title>Kernel selections</title>
2038 <body>
2039
2040 <p>
2041 There are two options for installing a kernel. You can either configure your
2042 own kernel or use the <c>genkernel</c> utility to configure and compile your
2043 kernel automatically.
2044 </p>
2045
2046 <p>
2047 Whether configuring a kernel by hand or using <c>genkernel</c>,
2048 you'll need to merge the Linux kernel sources you'd like to use.
2049 Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
2050 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
2051 which kernel sources to choose, we advise using <c>gentoo-sources</c>.
2052 If you want XFS support, you should choose <c>xfs-sources</c> or
2053 <c>gs-sources</c>. Gentoo's LiveCD uses <c>gs-sources</c> and
2054 <c>xfs-sources</c>. There is also a <c>gaming-sources</c> kernel optimized
2055 for game-playing responsiveness that works wonderfully for this purpose when
2056 the "Preemptible kernel" option is enabled.
2057 </p>
2058
2059 <p>
2060 Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:
2061 </p>
2062
2063 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
2064 # <i>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</i>
2065 </pre>
2066
2067 <p>
2068 The <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link will point to your
2069 newly-installed kernel source tree. Portage uses the
2070 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link for a special purpose. Any ebuilds
2071 you install that contain kernel modules will be configured to work with the
2072 kernel source tree pointed to by <path>/usr/src/linux</path>.
2073 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is created when you emerge your first kernel
2074 source package, but after it exists, Portage does not modify this symbolic
2075 link.
2076 </p>
2077
2078 </body>
2079 </section>
2080 <section>
2081 <title>Using genkernel to compile your kernel</title>
2082 <body>
2083
2084 <p>
2085 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
2086 kernel. There are two ways to do this. The first way is to use our new
2087 <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for you.
2088 <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the way
2089 our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use <c>genkernel</c>
2090 to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all your hardware at
2091 boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any
2092 manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may
2093 not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
2094 </p>
2095
2096 <p>
2097 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
2098 </p>
2099
2100 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
2101 # <i>emerge -k genkernel</i>
2102 </pre>
2103
2104 <p>
2105 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>:
2106 </p>
2107
2108 <note>
2109 <b>Advanced users:</b> you can type <c>genkernel --config</c> instead,
2110 which will cause genkernel to allow you to tweak the default kernel
2111 configuration before building begins.
2112 </note>
2113
2114 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
2115 <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.2 (included in the 1.4-20030803 x86/i686 GRP set), use the following:</comment>
2116 # <i>genkernel gentoo-sources</i>
2117 <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.4 or newer, there's no need to specify a kernel:</comment>
2118 # <i>genkernel</i>
2119 Gentoo Linux genkernel, version 1.4
2120 Copyright 2003 Gentoo Technologies, Inc., Bob Johnson, Daniel Robbins
2121 Distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2
2122
2123 Settings:
2124 compile optimization: 1 processor(s)
2125 source tree: /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-gaming-r3
2126 config: gentoo (customized)
2127 config loc: /etc/kernels/config-2.4.20-gaming-r3
2128 initrd config: (default) /etc/kernels/settings
2129
2130 * Running "make oldconfig"... [ ok ]
2131 * Logging to /var/log/genkernel.log... [ ok ]
2132 * Starting 2.4.20-gaming-r3 build... [ ok ]
2133 * Running "make dep"... [ ok ]
2134 * Running "make bzImage"... [ ok ]
2135 * Running "make modules"... [ ok ]
2136 * Running "make modules_install"... [ ok ]
2137 * Moving bzImage to /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3... [ ok ]
2138 * Building busybox... [ ok ]
2139 * Creating initrd... [ ok ]
2140
2141 * Build completed successfully!
2142
2143 * Please specify /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3 and /boot/initrd-2.4.20-gaming-r3
2144 * when customizing your boot loader configuration files.
2145 </pre>
2146
2147 <p>
2148 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
2149 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
2150 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
2151 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
2152 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
2153 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
2154 your "real" system starts up.
2155 </p>
2156
2157 <p>
2158 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
2159 CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
2160 is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
2161 To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
2162 </p>
2163
2164 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
2165 # <i>emerge -k hotplug</i>
2166 # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
2167 </pre>
2168
2169 <p>
2170 Now that you've run and configured your system to use <c>genkernel</c>, you
2171 can skip the "manual kernel configuration" section below.
2172 </p>
2173
2174 </body>
2175 </section>
2176 <section>
2177 <title>Manual kernel configuration</title>
2178 <body>
2179
2180 <p>
2181 If you opted not to use genkernel to compile your kernel, this section
2182 will guide you through the process of configuring and compiling a kernel by
2183 hand. Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your
2184 current emerged kernel source package and is set automatically by Portage at
2185 emerge time. If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to
2186 set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink to the correct one before
2187 proceeding.
2188 </p>
2189
2190 <warn>
2191 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i>
2192 option. Being too aggressive with your security settings can cause certain
2193 programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
2194 </warn>
2195
2196 <note>
2197 If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
2198 your configuration on it, you should execute <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
2199 If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
2200 about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
2201 </note>
2202
2203 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
2204 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
2205 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
2206 </pre>
2207
2208 <warn>
2209 For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
2210 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <e>be enabled
2211 and not compiled as modules</e>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you
2212 have any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're
2213 using XFS, enable the &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's
2214 always a good idea to leave ext2 enabled whether you are using it or not.
2215 </warn>
2216
2217 <p>
2218 Below are some common options that you will need:
2219 </p>
2220
2221 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
2222 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
2223 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
2224 <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below)</comment>
2225 ...
2226
2227 File systems ---&gt;
2228 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
2229 <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs)</comment>
2230 ...
2231 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
2232 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3)</comment>
2233 ...
2234 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
2235 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2236 ...
2237 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
2238 <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS)</comment>
2239 ...
2240 [*] /proc file system support
2241 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2242 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
2243 [*] Automatically mount at boot
2244 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2245 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
2246 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is not needed unless you use a 2.6 kernel)</comment>
2247 ...
2248 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
2249 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2)</comment>
2250 ...
2251 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
2252 <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS)</comment>
2253 </pre>
2254
2255 <p>
2256 If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
2257 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) : &quot;PPP
2258 (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial
2259 ports&quot;, &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression
2260 options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP
2261 over Ethernet&quot; option, that might only be used by <c>rp-pppoe</c> when
2262 configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
2263 </p>
2264
2265 <p>
2266 If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
2267 kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA
2268 and ATAPI Block devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot;
2269 (I usually make it a module), then under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable
2270 &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and &quot;SCSI
2271 generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
2272 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
2273 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</c> to have them automatically
2274 added at boot time.
2275 </p>
2276
2277 <p>
2278 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
2279 ethernet card.
2280 </p>
2281
2282 <note>
2283 For those who prefer it, it is possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2
2284 kernel. However, doing this comes at a price: you will lose many of the nifty
2285 features that are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
2286 filesystems, iptables and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
2287 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
2288 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the
2289 kernel, so 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled
2290 in (ie, not a module). It is <comment>vital</comment> that a
2291 <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel line in
2292 <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in
2293 <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
2294 for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
2295 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
2296 </note>
2297
2298 <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
2299 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</i>
2300 # <i>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
2301 </pre>
2302
2303 </body>
2304 </section>
2305 <section>
2306 <title>Installing additional hardware-specific ebuilds</title>
2307 <body>
2308
2309 <p>
2310 Finally, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is on
2311 your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
2312 </p>
2313
2314 <table>
2315 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
2316 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
2317 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
2318 <tr>
2319 <th>Ebuild</th>
2320 <th>Purpose</th>
2321 <th>Command</th>
2322 </tr>
2323 <tr>
2324 <ti>nvidia-kernel</ti>
2325 <ti>Accelerated NVIDIA graphics for XFree86</ti>
2326 <ti><c>emerge -k nvidia-kernel</c></ti>
2327 </tr>
2328 <tr>
2329 <ti>nforce-net</ti>
2330 <ti>On-board ethernet controller on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2331 <ti><c>emerge nforce-net</c></ti>
2332 </tr>
2333 <tr>
2334 <ti>nforce-audio</ti>
2335 <ti>On-board audio on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2336 <ti><c>emerge nforce-audio</c></ti>
2337 </tr>
2338 <tr>
2339 <ti>e100</ti>
2340 <ti>Intel e100 Fast Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2341 <ti><c>emerge e100</c></ti>
2342 </tr>
2343 <tr>
2344 <ti>e1000</ti>
2345 <ti>Intel e1000 Gigabit Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2346 <ti><c>emerge e1000</c></ti>
2347 </tr>
2348 <tr>
2349 <ti>emu10k1</ti>
2350 <ti>Creative Sound Blaster Live!/Audigy support</ti>
2351 <ti><c>emerge emu10k1</c></ti>
2352 </tr>
2353 <tr>
2354 <ti>ati-drivers</ti>
2355 <ti>Accelerated ATI Radeon 8500+/FireGL graphics for XFree86</ti>
2356 <ti><c>emerge ati-drivers</c></ti>
2357 </tr>
2358 <tr>
2359 <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
2360 <ti>
2361 Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
2362 other cards for XFree86
2363 </ti>
2364 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
2365 </tr>
2366 </table>
2367
2368 <p>
2369 The <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, <c>ati-drivers</c> and <c>xfree-drm</c> packages
2370 will require additional configuration to be enabled. All other ebuilds listed
2371 above should be auto-detected at boot-time by the <c>hotplug</c> package. If
2372 you are not using hotplug, be sure to add the appropriate modules to
2373 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path>.
2374 </p>
2375
2376 <p>
2377 More information on <c>xfree-drm</c> can be found in our <uri
2378 link="/doc/en/dri-howto.xml">Direct Rendering Guide</uri>.
2379 </p>
2380
2381
2382 </body>
2383 </section>
2384 <section>
2385 <title>Installing a system logger</title>
2386 <body>
2387
2388 <p>
2389 Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose
2390 a system logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is
2391 the traditional set of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and
2392 syslog-ng as well as metalog. If in doubt, you may want to try
2393 syslog-ng, since it is very flexible and feature-rich. To merge your logger of
2394 choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four command sets:
2395 </p>
2396
2397 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
2398 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/sysklogd</i>
2399 # <i>rc-update add sysklogd default</i>
2400 <comment>or</comment>
2401 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng</i>
2402 # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
2403 <comment>or</comment>
2404 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/metalog</i>
2405 # <i>rc-update add metalog default</i>
2406 <comment>or</comment>
2407 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/msyslog</i>
2408 # <i>rc-update add msyslog default</i>
2409 </pre>
2410
2411 <impo>
2412 If you chose <c>metalogd</c>, please read <uri link="faq.xml#doc_chap6_sect3">this FAQ</uri> on metalogd's buffering.
2413 </impo>
2414
2415 <p>
2416 Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
2417 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to
2418 choose, you might as well grab vcron.
2419 </p>
2420
2421 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
2422 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/dcron</i>
2423 # <i>rc-update add dcron default</i>
2424 # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2425 <comment>or</comment>
2426 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/fcron</i>
2427 # <i>rc-update add fcron default</i>
2428 # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2429 <comment>or</comment>
2430 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/vcron</i>
2431 # <i>rc-update add vcron default</i>
2432 <comment>You do not need to run <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i> if using vcron.</comment>
2433 </pre>
2434
2435 <p>
2436 For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
2437 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
2438 </p>
2439
2440 </body>
2441 </section>
2442 </chapter>
2443
2444 <chapter>
2445 <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
2446 <section>
2447 <body>
2448
2449 <p>
2450 If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
2451 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it:
2452 </p>
2453
2454 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
2455 # <i>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</i>
2456 <comment>(GRP users should type the following:)</comment>
2457 # <i>emerge -K rp-pppoe</i>
2458 </pre>
2459
2460 <note>
2461 The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface,
2462 which is a good thing, because X and its dependencies would also be emerged.
2463 You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with X support later. The GRP version
2464 of rp-pppoe has the optional X interface enabled. If you're not using GRP,
2465 compile from source as in the first example.
2466 </note>
2467 <!-- this pkg is a candidate for moving from .tbz2 to distfiles/ (source) -->
2468
2469
2470 <note>
2471 Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured. You will have to
2472 do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
2473 for the first time.
2474 </note>
2475
2476 <p>
2477 You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
2478 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
2479 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
2480 </p>
2481
2482 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
2483 # <i>emerge -k xfsprogs</i>
2484 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
2485 # <i>emerge -k reiserfsprogs</i>
2486 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
2487 # <i>emerge -k jfsutils</i>
2488 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
2489 # <i>emerge -k lvm-user</i>
2490 </pre>
2491
2492 <p>
2493 If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
2494 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i>
2495 package.
2496 </p>
2497
2498 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
2499 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</i>
2500 </pre>
2501
2502 <!-- fix the bug or fix the docs, don't send the user in circles
2503 (drobbins)
2504 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
2505 to work.
2506 </warn>
2507 -->
2508
2509 </body>
2510 </section>
2511 </chapter>
2512
2513 <chapter>
2514 <title>User Management</title>
2515 <section>
2516 <title>Setting a root password</title>
2517 <body>
2518
2519 <p>
2520 Before you forget, set the root password by typing:
2521 </p>
2522
2523 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
2524 # <i>passwd</i>
2525 </pre>
2526
2527 </body>
2528 </section>
2529 <section>
2530 <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
2531 <body>
2532
2533 <p>
2534 Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
2535 should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
2536 recommended to add a user for day-to-day use:
2537 </p>
2538
2539 <pre caption = "Adding a user">
2540 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
2541 # <i>passwd your_user</i>
2542 </pre>
2543
2544 <p>
2545 Substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.
2546 </p>
2547
2548 <p>
2549 Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
2550 use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
2551 a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.
2552 </p>
2553
2554 </body>
2555 </section>
2556 </chapter>
2557
2558 <chapter>
2559 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
2560 <section>
2561 <body>
2562
2563 <p>
2564 Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
2565 on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
2566 </p>
2567
2568 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
2569 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
2570 </pre>
2571
2572 <p>
2573 Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
2574 domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
2575 </p>
2576
2577 <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
2578 # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
2579 </pre>
2580
2581 <p>
2582 If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
2583 <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
2584 </p>
2585
2586 <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
2587 # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
2588 </pre>
2589
2590 </body>
2591 </section>
2592 </chapter>
2593
2594 <chapter>
2595 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
2596 <section>
2597 <body>
2598
2599 <p>
2600 This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
2601 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses of any hostnames that
2602 may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
2603 </p>
2604
2605 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
2606 127.0.0.1 localhost
2607 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN and your associated machine name</comment>
2608 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
2609 </pre>
2610
2611 <note>
2612 If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
2613 machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
2614 GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
2615 </note>
2616
2617 </body>
2618 </section>
2619 </chapter>
2620
2621 <chapter>
2622 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
2623 <section>
2624 <title>Loading the Kernel Modules</title>
2625 <body>
2626
2627 <p>
2628 Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of
2629 your system to <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> file (you can
2630 also add any options you need to the same line). When Gentoo Linux boots, these
2631 modules will be automatically loaded. Of particular importance is your
2632 ethernet card module, if you happened to compile it as a module:
2633 </p>
2634
2635 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
2636 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
2637 Check /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/kernel/drivers/net for your card. </comment>
2638 3c59x
2639 </pre>
2640
2641 </body>
2642 </section>
2643 <section>
2644 <title>Configuring the Network Interfaces</title>
2645 <body>
2646
2647 <p>
2648 Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured
2649 for your first boot.
2650 </p>
2651
2652 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
2653 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
2654 </pre>
2655
2656 <p>
2657 If you want eth0 to automatically receive its IP, set <c>iface_eth0</c>
2658 to <e>dhcp</e>. Otherwise fill in your IP, broadcast address and
2659 netmask. If you have several interfaces, do the same for <c>iface_eth1</c>,
2660 <c>iface_eth2</c> etc.
2661 </p>
2662
2663 <p>
2664 Now add the <c>net.eth0</c> initscript to the default runlevel <e>if</e>
2665 it isn't a PCMCIA network card:
2666 </p>
2667
2668 <pre caption="Automatically start the network interfaces during boot">
2669 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
2670 </pre>
2671
2672 <p>
2673 If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create
2674 additional <path>net.eth</path><comment>x</comment> or
2675 <path>net.tr</path><comment>x</comment> scripts respectively for each one
2676 (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...):
2677 </p>
2678
2679 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
2680 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
2681 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></i>
2682 </pre>
2683
2684 <p>
2685 Now for each created initscript, add it to the default runlevel (again
2686 only if it isn't a PCMCIA network card):
2687 </p>
2688
2689 <pre caption = "Adding net.ethx to the default runlevel">
2690 # <i>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</i>
2691 </pre>
2692
2693 </body>
2694 </section>
2695 <section>
2696 <title>Only for PCMCIA Users</title>
2697 <body>
2698
2699 <p>
2700 If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
2701 <path>/etc/conf.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for
2702 your setup, then run the following command:
2703 </p>
2704
2705 <pre caption = "Have PCMCIA services start automatically">
2706 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
2707 </pre>
2708
2709 <p>
2710 This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network
2711 is loaded. The appropriate <path>/etc/init.d/net.eth*</path> services
2712 will be started by the pcmcia service automatically.
2713 </p>
2714
2715 </body>
2716 </section>
2717 </chapter>
2718
2719 <chapter>
2720 <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
2721 <section>
2722 <body>
2723
2724 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
2725 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
2726 </pre>
2727
2728 <p>
2729 Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings. All users
2730 will want to make sure that CLOCK is set to his/her liking. International
2731 keyboard users will want to set the KEYMAP variable (browse
2732 <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various possibilities).
2733 </p>
2734
2735 </body>
2736 </section>
2737 </chapter>
2738
2739 <chapter>
2740 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
2741 <section>
2742 <title>Notes</title>
2743 <body>
2744
2745 <p>
2746 In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose
2747 from. Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between
2748 both GRUB and LILO as their bootloaders.
2749 </p>
2750
2751 <p>
2752 Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
2753 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
2754 </p>
2755
2756 <p>
2757 In addition, you will need to configure our bootloader differently depending
2758 upon whether you are using <c>genkernel</c> (with kernel and initrd) or a
2759 kernel you compiled by hand. Be sure to take note of the important
2760 differences.
2761 </p>
2762
2763 </body>
2764 </section>
2765 <section>
2766 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
2767 <body>
2768
2769 <p>
2770 The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how
2771 GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition
2772 <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the
2773 parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required. Hard drives count from zero
2774 rather than "a" and partitions start at zero rather than one. Be aware too
2775 that with the hd devices, only hard drives are counted, not atapi-ide devices
2776 such as cdrom players, burners and that the same construct can be used with
2777 scsi drives. (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the
2778 bios is configured to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a hard drive
2779 on <path>/dev/hda</path>, a cdrom player on <path>/dev/hdb</path>, a burner on
2780 <path>/dev/hdc</path>, a second hard drive on <path>/dev/hdd</path> and no
2781 SCSI hard drive, <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to
2782 <path>(hd1,6)</path>. It might sound tricky and tricky it is indeed, but as
2783 we will see, GRUB offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for
2784 those of you having a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a little
2785 lost in the GRUB numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that, it is
2786 time to install GRUB.
2787 </p>
2788
2789 <p>
2790 The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted
2791 shell prompt:
2792 </p>
2793
2794 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
2795 # <i>emerge -k grub</i>
2796 # <i>grub</i>
2797 </pre>
2798
2799 <p>
2800 You will be presented with the <e>grub&gt;</e> grub command-line prompt.
2801 Now, you need to type in the right commands to install the GRUB boot record
2802 onto your hard drive. In my example configuration, I want to install the GRUB
2803 boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that the first
2804 thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the
2805 commands I want to type are:
2806 </p>
2807
2808 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
2809 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2810 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here, it is the MBR)</comment>
2811 </pre>
2812
2813 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
2814 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR:</comment>
2815 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2816 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0,4)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here it is /dev/hda5)</comment>
2817 grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2818 </pre>
2819
2820 <p>
2821 Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells
2822 GRUB the location of your boot partition (in our example,
2823 <path>/dev/hda1</path> or <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the
2824 second <c>setup ( )</c> command tells GRUB where to install the boot record -
2825 it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root ( )</c>
2826 location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the MBR
2827 of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as
2828 <path>(hd0)</path>). If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up
2829 GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I could install GRUB to the boot record of
2830 a particular partition. In that case, I would specify a particular partition
2831 rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB boot record has been successfully
2832 installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
2833 </p>
2834
2835 <note>
2836 The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB,
2837 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
2838 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only hard drives),
2839 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, GRUB would print the
2840 available hard drives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
2841 would make GRUB print the list of partitions on the first hard drive.
2842 Checking the syntax of the GRUB location with completion should really help
2843 to make the right choice.
2844 </note>
2845
2846 <p>
2847 Gentoo Linux is now installed, but we need to create the
2848 <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that we get a nice GRUB boot menu
2849 when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
2850 </p>
2851
2852 <impo>
2853 To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
2854 <path>grub.conf</path> to <path>menu.lst</path>. You can do this by typing
2855 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst</c>.
2856 </impo>
2857
2858 <p>
2859 Now, create the <path>grub.conf</path> file (<c>nano -w
2860 /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>) and add the following to it:
2861 </p>
2862
2863 <pre caption="grub.conf for GRUB">
2864 default 0
2865 timeout 30
2866 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
2867
2868 <comment># If you compiled your own kernel, use something like this:</comment>
2869 title=My example Gentoo Linux
2870 root (hd0,0)
2871 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
2872
2873 <comment># If you're using genkernel, use something like this instead:</comment>
2874 title=My example Gentoo Linux (genkernel)
2875 root (hd0,0)
2876 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/kernel-KV root=/dev/hda3
2877 initrd (hd0,0)/boot/initrd-KV
2878
2879 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
2880 title=Windows XP
2881 root (hd0,5)
2882 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
2883 </pre>
2884
2885 <warn>
2886 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed.
2887 </warn>
2888
2889 <note>
2890 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
2891 </note>
2892
2893 <impo>
2894 If you set up SCSI emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
2895 actually work you need to add an <c>hdx=ide-scsi</c> fragment to the kernel
2896 line in <path>grub.conf</path> (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd
2897 burner).
2898 </impo>
2899
2900 <p>
2901 After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the
2902 first option will tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second
2903 part of the <path>grub.conf</path> file is optional and shows you how to use
2904 GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
2905 </p>
2906
2907 <note>
2908 Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
2909 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path>
2910 should point to your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT
2911 boot loader.
2912 </note>
2913
2914 <note>
2915 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for
2916 example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root
2917 partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the <path>grub.conf</path> file
2918 above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
2919 </note>
2920
2921 <p>
2922 If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply add them to
2923 the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
2924 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you
2925 can turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're
2926 doing) by adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c>
2927 command.
2928 </p>
2929
2930 <note>
2931 Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
2932 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs.
2933 Now devfs is enabled by default.
2934 </note>
2935
2936 </body>
2937 </section>
2938 <section>
2939 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
2940 <body>
2941
2942 <p>
2943 While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the
2944 best choice. LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux
2945 bootloaders. Here is how to install LILO if you would like to use it instead
2946 of GRUB.
2947 </p>
2948
2949 <p>
2950 The first step is to emerge LILO:
2951 </p>
2952
2953 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
2954 # <i>emerge -k lilo</i>
2955 </pre>
2956
2957 <p>
2958 Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file
2959 <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>:
2960 </p>
2961
2962 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
2963 boot=/dev/hda
2964 map=/boot/map
2965 install=/boot/boot.b
2966 prompt
2967 timeout=50
2968 lba32
2969 default=linux
2970
2971 <comment># Use something like the following 4 lines if you compiled your kernel yourself</comment>
2972 image=/boot/bzImage
2973 label=linux
2974 read-only
2975 root=/dev/hda3
2976
2977 <comment># If you used genkernel, use something like this:</comment>
2978 image=/boot/kernel-KV
2979 label=gk_linux
2980 root=/dev/hda3
2981 initrd=/boot/initrd-KV
2982 append="root=/dev/hda3 init=/linuxrc"
2983
2984
2985 <comment># For dual booting windows/other OS</comment>
2986 other=/dev/hda1
2987 label=dos
2988 </pre>
2989
2990 <warn>
2991 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed, and
2992 make sure that <c>default=</c> points to your label (<c>gk_linux</c> if
2993 you used genkernel).
2994 </warn>
2995
2996 <ul>
2997 <li>
2998 <c>boot=/dev/hda</c> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on
2999 the first IDE controller
3000 </li>
3001 <li>
3002 <c>map=/boot/map</c> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be
3003 modified
3004 </li>
3005 <li>
3006 <c>install=/boot/boot.b</c> tells LILO to install the specified file as the
3007 new boot sector. In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install
3008 line is missing, LILO will assume a default of <path>/boot/boot.b</path> as
3009 the file to be used.
3010 </li>
3011 <li>
3012 The existence of <c>prompt</c> tells LILO to display the classic <e>lilo:</e>
3013 prompt at bootup. While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line,
3014 if you do remove it, you can still get a prompt by holding down the [Shift]
3015 key while your machine starts to boot.
3016 </li>
3017 <li>
3018 <c>timeout=50</c> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input
3019 before proceeding with booting the default line entry. This is measured in
3020 tenths of a second, with 50 as the default.
3021 </li>
3022 <li>
3023 <c>lba32</c> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry
3024 here is linear. You should not change this line unless you are very aware of
3025 what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put your system in an unbootable
3026 state.
3027 </li>
3028 <li>
3029 <c>default=linux</c> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot
3030 from the options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label
3031 line below in each of the boot options.
3032 </li>
3033 <li>
3034 <c>image=/boot/bzImage</c> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this
3035 particular boot option
3036 </li>
3037 <li>
3038 <c>label=linux</c> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In
3039 this case, it is also the name referred to by the default line.
3040 </li>
3041 <li>
3042 <c>read-only</c> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below)
3043 is read-only and cannot be altered during the boot process.
3044 </li>
3045 <li>
3046 <c>root=/dev/hda3</c> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root
3047 partition
3048 </li>
3049 </ul>
3050
3051 <p>
3052 After you have edited your <path>lilo.conf</path> file, it is time to run LILO
3053 to load the information into the MBR:
3054 </p>
3055
3056 <pre caption="Running LILO">
3057 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
3058 </pre>
3059
3060 <p>
3061 LILO is configured and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
3062 </p>
3063
3064 </body>
3065 </section>
3066
3067 <section>
3068 <title>Using framebuffer</title>
3069 <body>
3070
3071 <p>
3072 People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c>
3073 to their bootloader configuration file. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the
3074 following table:
3075 </p>
3076
3077 <table>
3078 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
3079 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
3080 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
3081 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
3082 <tr>
3083 <ti></ti>
3084 <th>640x480</th>
3085 <th>800x600</th>
3086 <th>1024x768</th>
3087 <th>1280x1024</th>
3088 </tr>
3089 <tr>
3090 <th>8 bpp</th>
3091 <ti>769</ti>
3092 <ti>771</ti>
3093 <ti>773</ti>
3094 <ti>775</ti>
3095 </tr>
3096 <tr>
3097 <th>16 bpp</th>
3098 <ti>785</ti>
3099 <ti>788</ti>
3100 <ti>791</ti>
3101 <ti>794</ti>
3102 </tr>
3103 <tr>
3104 <th>32 bpp</th>
3105 <ti>786</ti>
3106 <ti>789</ti>
3107 <ti>792</ti>
3108 <ti>795</ti>
3109 </tr>
3110 </table>
3111
3112 <p>
3113 LILO-users will have to add <c>vga=xxx</c> on top of their configuration
3114 file.
3115 </p>
3116
3117 <p>
3118 GRUB-users will have to append <c>vga=xxx</c> to the <c>kernel
3119 (hd0,0)...</c> line.
3120 </p>
3121
3122 </body>
3123 </section>
3124 </chapter>
3125
3126 <chapter>
3127 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
3128 <section>
3129 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
3130 <body>
3131
3132 <impo>
3133 Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
3134 </impo>
3135
3136 <p>
3137 It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
3138 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
3139 blanket and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
3140 let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
3141 you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
3142 If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk and when you reboot
3143 the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
3144 like this:
3145 </p>
3146
3147 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
3148 # <i>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</i>
3149 # <i>cat stage1 stage2 &gt; /dev/fd0</i>
3150 </pre>
3151
3152 <p>
3153 Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you
3154 can now execute the necessary <c>root</c> and <c>setup</c> commands.
3155 </p>
3156
3157 </body>
3158 </section>
3159 <section>
3160 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
3161 <body>
3162
3163 <impo>
3164 Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
3165 </impo>
3166
3167 <p>
3168 If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
3169 </p>
3170
3171 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
3172 <comment>(This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB)</comment>
3173 # <i>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </i>
3174 </pre>
3175
3176 </body>
3177 </section>
3178 </chapter>
3179
3180 <chapter>
3181 <title>Using GRP</title>
3182 <section>
3183 <body>
3184
3185 <p>
3186 GRP users can, at this point, install binary packages:
3187 </p>
3188
3189 <pre caption="Installing from GRP">
3190 # <i>emerge -k xfree</i>
3191 </pre>
3192
3193 <p>
3194 CD 1 contains enough applications to install a working system with XFree86.
3195 Additionally, CD2 of the 2-CD GRP set contains other applications including
3196 KDE, GNOME, Mozilla and others. To install these packages, you will need to
3197 reboot into your new Gentoo system first (covered in the "Installation
3198 complete!" section near the end of this document). After you are running your
3199 basic Gentoo system from the hard drive, you can mount the second CD and copy
3200 files:
3201 </p>
3202
3203 <pre caption="Loading binary packages from CD2">
3204 # <i>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</i>
3205 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/* /usr/portage/packages/</i>
3206 </pre>
3207
3208 <p>
3209 Now various other applications can be installed the same way. For example:
3210 </p>
3211
3212 <pre caption="Installing KDE from GRP">
3213 # <i>emerge -k kde</i>
3214 </pre>
3215
3216 </body>
3217 </section>
3218 </chapter>
3219
3220 <chapter>
3221 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
3222 <section>
3223 <body>
3224
3225 <p>
3226 Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary
3227 configuration files, exit the chrooted shell, safely unmount your partitions
3228 and reboot the system:
3229 </p>
3230
3231 <warn>
3232 <c>etc-update</c> can provide you with a list of configuration files
3233 that have newer versions at your disposal. Verify that none of the
3234 configuration files have a big impact (such as <path>/etc/fstab</path>,
3235 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, ...). Merge the
3236 files that don't have such a big impact, remove the updates of the
3237 others or view the diff and manually update the configuration file.
3238 </warn>
3239
3240 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
3241 # <i>etc-update</i>
3242 # <i>exit</i>
3243 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <i>^D</i>)</comment>
3244 # <i>cd / </i>
3245 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
3246 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
3247 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo</i>
3248 # <i>reboot</i>
3249 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the bootable CD)</comment>
3250 </pre>
3251
3252 <note>
3253 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>modules-update</c> command to
3254 create the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this
3255 file directly, you should generally make changes to the files in
3256 <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
3257 </note>
3258
3259 <p>
3260 If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux
3261 evelopment, consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
3262 (more information on our <uri
3263 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
3264 We also have a handy <uri
3265 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration
3266 guide</uri> that will help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux
3267 system and a useful <uri
3268 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
3269 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the
3270 Gentoo Documentation <uri
3271 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any
3272 other questions involving installation or anything for that matter, please
3273 check the Gentoo Linux <uri
3274 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>. Enjoy and welcome to
3275 Gentoo Linux!
3276 </p>
3277
3278 </body>
3279 </section>
3280 </chapter>
3281
3282 <!--
3283 Gentoo Stats is down currently. Commenting out for the
3284 time being. I've also changed double-dash to dash-space-dash
3285 because otherwise commenting fails.
3286 <chapter>
3287 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
3288 <section>
3289 <body>
3290
3291 <p>
3292 The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give
3293 the developers a way to find out about their user base. It collects information
3294 about Gentoo Linux usage to help us in set priorities our development.
3295 Installing it is completely optional and it would be greatly appreciated if
3296 you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at
3297 <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
3298 </p>
3299
3300 <p>
3301 The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
3302 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID
3303 will not be used to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched
3304 against an IP address or other personal information. Every precaution has been
3305 taken to assure your privacy in the development of this system. The following
3306 are the things that we are monitoring right now through our "gentoo-stats"
3307 program:
3308 </p>
3309
3310 <ul>
3311 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
3312 <li>
3313 CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx"
3314 or "3dnow")
3315 </li>
3316 <li>
3317 Memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap
3318 space)
3319 </li>
3320 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
3321 <li>
3322 The Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the
3323 <path>/etc/make.profile</path> link is pointing to)
3324 </li>
3325 </ul>
3326
3327 <p>
3328 We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most
3329 Gentoo Linux users (just as it is to the developers).
3330 </p>
3331
3332 <ul>
3333 <li>
3334 Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
3335 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...
3336 </li>
3337 <li>
3338 Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default
3339 </li>
3340 <li>
3341 The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
3342 in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID"
3343 pairs.
3344 </li>
3345 </ul>
3346
3347 <p>
3348 The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
3349 </p>
3350
3351 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
3352 # <i>emerge gentoo-stats</i> <comment>(Installs gentoo-stats)</comment>
3353 # <i>gentoo-stats - -new</i> <comment>(Obtains a new system ID)</comment>
3354 </pre>
3355
3356 <p>
3357 The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
3358 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view
3359 this file to see additional configuration options.
3360 </p>
3361
3362 <p>
3363 After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule (gentoo-stats does
3364 not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
3365 </p>
3366
3367 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
3368 0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats - -update &gt; /dev/null
3369 </pre>
3370
3371 <p>
3372 The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
3373 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>.
3374 </p>
3375
3376 </body>
3377 </section>
3378 </chapter>
3379
3380 -->
3381
3382 <chapter>
3383 <title>Gentoo On Less-Common Hardware</title>
3384 <section>
3385 <title>Hardware ATA RAID</title>
3386 <body>
3387
3388 <p>
3389 Users who want to install Gentoo on Hardware ATA RAID must pay
3390 attention to the next steps in order for them to succesfully
3391 install Gentoo Linux:
3392 </p>
3393
3394 <ul>
3395 <li>Be sure to start the LiveCD with the <c>doataraid</c> kerneloption</li>
3396 <li>
3397 If you've forgotten to select <c>doataraid</c> during bootup, or the modules
3398 mysteriously didn't load, load them as needed:
3399 <pre caption = "Loading RAID modules">
3400 # <i>modprobe ataraid</i>
3401 <comment>(For Promise Raid Controllers:)</comment>
3402 # <i>modprobe pdcraid</i>
3403 <comment>(For Highpoint Raid Controllers:)</comment>
3404 # <i>modprobe hptraid</i>
3405 </pre>
3406 </li>
3407 <li>
3408 Some ATA RAID Controllers require you to reboot after partitioning;
3409 formatting will otherwise fail
3410 </li>
3411 <li>Before chrooting, mount the devicetree into the new environment:
3412 <pre caption = "Mounting /dev into /mnt/gentoo/dev">
3413 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
3414 </pre>
3415 </li>
3416 <li>During kernel configuration, select the required RAID options:
3417 <pre caption = "RAID in the Linux Kernel Configuration">
3418 <comment>For Highpoint RAID controllers:</comment>
3419 ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3420 [*] HPT36X/37X chipset support
3421 [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3422 [*] Highpoint 370 software RAID
3423 <comment>For Promise RAID controllers:</comment>
3424 ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3425 [*] PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67} support
3426 <comment>and/or</comment>
3427 [*] PROMISE PDC202{68|69|70|71|75|76|77} support
3428 [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3429 [*] Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
3430 </pre>
3431 </li>
3432 <li>
3433 When using GRUB add <c>--stage2=/boot/grub/stage2</c> when running
3434 <c>grub</c> to the <c>setup</c> command:
3435 <pre caption = "Installing GRUB for Hardware RAID systems">
3436 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
3437 grub&gt; <i>setup --stage2=/boot/grub/stage2 (hd0)</i>
3438 grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
3439 </pre>
3440 Also, in the GRUB configuration be sure to point the <c>root</c>
3441 to the appropriate RAID device:
3442 <pre caption = "grub.conf for RAID">
3443 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
3444 root (hd0,0)
3445 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3446 </pre>
3447 </li>
3448 <li>
3449 LILO users should set the <c>root</c> option to the appropriate RAID device:
3450 <pre caption = "lilo.conf for RAID">
3451 image=/boot/bzImage
3452 label=linux
3453 read-only
3454 root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3455 </pre>
3456 </li>
3457 </ul>
3458
3459 <p>
3460 If you still have problems installing Gentoo Linux on your Hardware
3461 RAID, be sure to report them on <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>.
3462 </p>
3463
3464 <p>
3465 Thanks for using Gentoo Linux, and have fun with your new installation!
3466 </p>
3467
3468
3469 </body>
3470 </section>
3471 </chapter>
3472 </guide>

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