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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc2 Installation Instructions</title>
5 <author title="Chief Architect">
6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="jerry@gentoo.org">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Ghost">
13 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Editor">
16 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Editor">
19 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20 </author>
21 <author title="Editor">
22 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Editor">
25 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26 </author>
27 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
28 Linux 1.4_rc2. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
29 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
30 scratch.
31 </abstract>
32 <version>2.3.4</version>
33 <date>4 January 2003</date>
34 <chapter>
35 <title>About the Install</title>
36 <section>
37 <body>
38 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
39 as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
40 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
41 kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
42 addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
43 Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
44 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and download
45 files. </p>
46 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
47 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully
48 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
49 slow under those conditions.)</p>
50 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
51 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
52 The stage1 tarball is used when one wants to bootstrap and build the entire
53 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
54 from scratch, except for the bootstrap part which is already performed for you.
55 And the stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
56 been optimized for your system.</p>
57 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you'll want to decide
58 which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
59 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</uri>.
60 In this directory, you'll see several subdirectories such as <c>athlon</c>
61 for each of our various architecture-specific builds. Here's a low-down on
62 each arch directory and what it contains:</p>
63 <table>
64 <tr>
65 <th>Architecture</th>
66 <th>Description</th>
67 </tr>
68 <tr>
69 <ti>x86</ti>
70 <ti>Stage 1 tarballs and &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; liveCD -- will work on anything.</ti>
71 </tr>
72 <tr>
73 <ti>i586</ti>
74 <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i586+ CPUs</ti>
75 </tr>
76 <tr>
77 <ti>i686</ti>
78 <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i686+ CPUs</ti>
79 </tr>
80 <tr>
81 <ti>athlon</ti>
82 <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon CPUs</ti>
83 </tr>
84 <tr>
85 <ti>athlon-xp</ti>
86 <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon XP CPUs</ti>
87 </tr>
88 <tr>
89 <ti>athlon-mp</ti>
90 <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for AMD Athlon MP CPUs</ti>
91 </tr>
92 <tr>
93 <ti>pentium3</ti>
94 <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for Intel Pentium III and Pentium 4 CPUs</ti>
95 </tr>
96 </table>
97 <p>Inside each of these directories,
98 you'll find a <path>livecd/</path> directory that contains LiveCDs. While these LiveCDs
99 will boot on any architecture, the install-related tarballs are optimized for a particular
100 CPU type and will not work on all systems, except for the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; LiveCD in the <path>x86</path>
101 directory which can be used to install on anything.
102 </p>
103 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
104 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
105 carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size and lives
106 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
107 allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
108 found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
109 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labelled &quot;livecd-grp.&quot;
110 These CDs (found in their respective <path>arch/livecd</path> directories)
111 contain stage1, 2 and 3 tarballs, and also contain a set of GRP packages
112 optimized for a specific architecture. Using these LiveCDs, it will be possible
113 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly. The
114 downside is that these ISO images are large -- around 600MB -- so they can take
115 a while to download.</p>
116 <info>If for some reason your install gets interrupted at some point, you can
117 reboot and restart. For example, if you have partitioned, installed the stageX
118 tarball, and are ready to chroot, you can restart the install if necessary.
119 Just re-boot with the LiveCD, then mount your drives/partitions to
120 <path>/mnt</path> as normal. Basically, you can do this at about any point
121 during the install, just not before partitioning for obvious reasons. </info>
122 <warn>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
123 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
124 needs to be moved upstream to the package maintainers (ie KDE) the
125 <e>developers</e> will take care of that. </warn>
126 <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. First, we'll download, burn
127 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we'll create partitions, create
128 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
129 are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
130 our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure them
131 (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and have a
132 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
133 process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation: </p>
134 <table>
135 <tr>
136 <th>stage tarball</th>
137 <th>requirements for installation</th>
138 </tr>
139 <tr>
140 <ti>1</ti>
141 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
142 </tr>
143 <tr>
144 <ti>2</ti>
145 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti>
146 </tr>
147 <tr>
148 <ti>3</ti>
149 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
150 </tr>
151 </table>
152 </body>
153 </section>
154 </chapter>
155 <chapter>
156 <title>Booting</title>
157 <section>
158 <body>
159 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. If detected properly, you should see a fancy boot screen
160 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
161 hit F2 for help, or pass kernel boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c>, etc.
162 Once you hit Enter, you'll be
163 greeted with a lot of text output
164 followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
165 You will be automatically logged in as &quot;root&quot; and the root password will be
166 set to a random string for security purposes.
167 You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt on the current
168 console, and can also open new root consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4.
169 Get back to the one you started on by pressing (you guessed it) Alt-F1.
170 </p>
171 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
172 explaining how to do things like configure your network devices and where you can find
173 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
174 </p>
175 </body>
176 </section>
177 </chapter>
178 <chapter>
179 <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
180 <section>
181 <body>
182 <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
183 will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
184 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
185 /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
186 type:
187 </p>
188 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
189 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
190 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
191 </pre>
192 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
193 during the initial boot autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
194 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
195 </p>
196 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
197 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
198 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
199 </pre>
200 <p><c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks.
201 <note>
202 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
203 </note></p>
204 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you'll need to load the
205 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
206 </p>
207 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
208 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
209 # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
210 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
211 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
212 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
213 </pre>
214 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
215 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
216 <pre caption="Setting DMA"><comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
217 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
218 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 <comment>Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options</comment>
219 # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX <comment>Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up</comment></pre>
220 </body>
221 </section>
222 </chapter>
223 <chapter>
224 <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
225 <section>
226 <body>
227 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to do some additional
228 trickery.
229 </p>
230 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
231 portion of the install. </warn>
232 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
233 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
234 # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
235 # <i>modprobe ds</i>
236 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
237 </pre>
238 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
239 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
240 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that's
241 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
242 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
243 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
244 as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
245 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
246 remove it). </p>
247 </body>
248 </section>
249 </chapter>
250 <chapter>
251 <title>Configuring Networking</title>
252 <section>
253 <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
254 <body>
255 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has
256 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
257 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
258 device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
259 the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
260 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
261 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
262 # <c> adsl-start </c>
263 </pre>
264 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
265 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
266 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
267 </body>
268 </section>
269 <section>
270 <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
271 <body>
272 <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use
273 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
274 Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
275 Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
276 the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
277 The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
278 script. </p>
279 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
280 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
281 </pre>
282 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. </p>
283 </body>
284 </section>
285 <section>
286 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
287 <body>
288 <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
289 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
290 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
291 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
292 </pre>
293 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
294 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
295 </note>
296 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
297 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
298 </body>
299 </section>
300 <section>
301 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
302 <body>
303 <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
304 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
305 Type in the following commands, replacing
306 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
307 with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
308 with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
309 $GTWAY with your default gateway.
310 </p>
311 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
312 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
313 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
314 </pre>
315 <p>Now it's time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
316 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
317 <p>Here's a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
318 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
319 domain mydomain.com
320 nameserver 10.0.0.1
321 nameserver 10.0.0.2
322 </pre>
323 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
324 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
325 </body>
326 </section>
327 <section>
328 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
329 <body>
330 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
331 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
332 </p>
333 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
334 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
335 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$HTTP_PROXY&quot; </c>
336 # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$HTTP_PROXY&quot; </c>
337 </pre>
338 </body>
339 </section>
340 <section>
341 <title>Network Testing</title>
342 <body>
343 <p>Now that your network has been configured, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig -a</c> command should show
344 that your network card is working (look for <e>UP</e> and <e>RUNNING</e> in the output). </p>
345 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
346 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
347 inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
348 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
349 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
350 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
351 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
352 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
353 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
354 Interrupt:11
355 </pre>
356 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
357 and a website of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
358 resolution is working correctly, etc.
359 </p>
360 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
361 # <c>ping www.some_website.com </c>
362 </pre>
363 </body>
364 </section>
365 <section>
366 <title>Networking is go!</title>
367 <body>
368 <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
369 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
370 </body>
371 </section>
372 </chapter>
373 <chapter>
374 <title>Partition Configuration</title>
375 <section>
376 <body>
377 <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
378 to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
379 </p>
380 <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
381 We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
382 partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
383 The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
384 your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
385 everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
386 your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. This prevents your kernel
387 from being made unavailable to GRUB (due to filesystem corruption) in the event
388 of a system crash, preventing the chicken-and-egg problem where GRUB can't read
389 your kernel (since your filesystem isn't consistent) but you can't bring your
390 filesystem back to a consistent state (since you can't boot!)
391 </p>
392 <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have four filesystem options:
393 XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling) and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
394 filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
395 ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
396 providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
397 that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
398 ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
399 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
400 As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
401 XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
402 is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but
403 is generally not recommended due to its tendency to lose recently-modified
404 data if your system locks up or unexpectedly reboots (due to a power failure, for instance.)
405 </p>
406 <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
407 for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
408 high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
409 mature and refined.
410 Here are our basic recommended filesystem
411 sizes and types:
412 </p>
413 <table>
414 <tr>
415 <th>Partition</th>
416 <th>Size</th>
417 <th>Type</th>
418 <th>example device</th>
419 </tr>
420 <tr>
421 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
422 <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
423 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
424 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
425 </tr>
426 <tr>
427 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit)</ti>
428 <ti>&gt;=2*Amount of RAM in this system is recommended but no longer (as of kernel 2.4.10) required</ti>
429 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
430 <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
431 </tr>
432 <tr>
433 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
434 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
435 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
436 <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
437 </tr>
438 </table>
439 <p>Before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
440 beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
441 will not be mis-indentified by Linux's mounting code.
442 This can be done as follows:
443 </p>
444 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
445 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdxy bs=1K</c>
446 <comment>Replace /dev/hdxy with the device you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;</comment>
447 </pre>
448 <p>At this point, create your partitions using <c>fdisk</c>. Note that your partitions
449 should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS, ext2/3 or other). </p>
450 <note><c>cfdisk</c> is included on the install CD, and it is <i>considerably</i> easier to use than
451 <c>fdisk</c>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it; by default, cfdisk will work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not the hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note>
452 <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to allow your system to detect the
453 new partition configuration.</note>
454 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
455 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X is
456 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
457 disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
458 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
459 the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p>
460 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
461 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
462 </pre>
463 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
464 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
465 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
466 </pre>
467 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
468 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
469 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
470 </pre>
471 <note>
472 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
473 The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
474 the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
475 so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5.
476 The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
477 </note>
478 <warn>
479 If you are installing an XFS partition over a previous ReiserFS partition,
480 later attempts to mount may fail without an explicit <c>mount -t xfs</c>.
481 The solution is to zero out the partition before creating the XFS filesystem:
482 <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hd<comment>x</comment> bs=1k</c>.
483 </warn>
484 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
485 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
486 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
487 </pre>
488 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
489 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
490 </note>
491 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
492 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
493 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
494 </pre>
495 </body>
496 </section>
497 </chapter>
498 <chapter>
499 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
500 <section>
501 <body>
502 <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that
503 provides later:
504 </p>
505 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
506 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
507 </pre>
508 <p>Next, we'll create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mountpoints,
509 and we'll mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
510 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
511 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
512 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
513 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
514 # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
515 </pre>
516 <p>
517 If you are setting up Gentoo
518 Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
519 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
520 </p>
521 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
522 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
523 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
524 We'll get to that in a bit.
525 </impo>
526 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
527 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
528 </body>
529 </section>
530 </chapter>
531 <chapter>
532 <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
533 <section>
534 <body>
535 <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set
536 to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path>.
537 On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3
538 tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it
539 (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest)
540 from one of the Gentoo mirror sites. </p>
541 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
542 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
543 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball</comment>
544 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</c>
545 # <c>wget <comment>insert required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
546 </pre>
547 </body>
548 </section>
549 </chapter>
550 <chapter>
551 <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
552 <section>
553 <body>
554 <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
555 Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
556 Gentoo Linux system.
557 </p>
558 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
559 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
560 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install method,
561 you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
562 If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
563 These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
564 compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.)
565 </p>
566 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
567 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
568 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
569 # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
570 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
571 </pre>
572 <p>If you are going to use GRP, now would be a good time to execute the following commands:
573 </p>
574
575 <pre caption="Getting ready for GRP">
576 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/GRP</c>
577 # <c>mount -o bind /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/packages /mnt/gentoo/GRP</c>
578 </pre>
579
580 <pre caption="Entering the chroot Environment">
581 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
582 # <c>env-update</c>
583 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
584 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
585 </pre>
586 <p>After you execute these commands, you'll be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment.
587 </p>
588 </body>
589 </section>
590 </chapter>
591 <chapter>
592 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using Rsync</title>
593 <section>
594 <body>
595 <p>Now, you'll need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
596 you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
597 <pre caption="Updating Using Rsync">
598 # <c>emerge sync</c>
599 </pre>
600 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
601 it's about 90Mb in size without tarballs.
602 </p>
603 </body>
604 </section>
605 </chapter>
606 <chapter>
607 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
608 <section>
609 <body>
610 <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, people using stage1 to
611 install will need to bootstrap their Gentoo Linux system as follows. First
612 edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
613 <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
614 like to be built into packages; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
615 or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
616 More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
617 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
618 </p>
619 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
620 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
621 (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) Your best friend
622 is <path>man gcc</path> to figure out what additional <c>CFLAGS</c> and
623 <code>CXXFLAGS</code> are available. Search for 'Optimization'.
624 </p>
625 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
626 firewall.
627 </p>
628 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
629 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
630 </pre>
631 <note>
632 People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
633 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
634 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
635 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
636 <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
637 interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
638 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
639 in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
640 </note>
641 </body>
642 </section>
643 </chapter>
644 <chapter>
645 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
646 <section>
647 <body>
648 <p>The stage1 tarball is for ultimate tweakage. If you have picked this tarball,
649 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized system. Have fun, because optimization
650 is what Gentoo Linux is all about!
651 </p>
652 <p>Now, it's time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
653 my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped
654 for compiling the rest of the system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
655 These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process.
656 </p>
657 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
658 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
659 # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
660 </pre>
661 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
662 </p>
663 <note>
664 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
665 using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
666 change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
667 starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
668 </note>
669 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
670 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
671 </pre>
672 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
673 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
674 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
675 Have a nice nap. Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
676 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
677 </p>
678 </body>
679 </section>
680 </chapter>
681 <chapter>
682 <title>Starting from Stage2</title>
683 <section>
684 <body>
685 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
686 to do is install the rest of the system.
687 </p>
688 <note>
689 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
690 </note>
691 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
692 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;-*&quot;</c>
693 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
694 <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
695 # <c>emerge system</c>
696 </pre>
697 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;-*&quot;</c> line ensures that any new scripts
698 installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
699 <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
700 management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
701 <p>It's going to take a while
702 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
703 thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
704 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
705 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2. When this process completes, your system
706 will be the equivalent of a stage3 system, which means you can skip <i>Starting form Stage3</i>
707 and move on to building the rest of your system.
708 </p>
709 </body>
710 </section>
711 </chapter>
712 <chapter>
713 <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
714 <section>
715 <body>
716 <p>The stage3 tarball is already configured for your system. There is not much to do for this stage,
717 but it is a very good idea to update your system to the newest available packages. </p>
718 <note>If you have not already edited <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to fit your specifications,
719 now would be a good time to do so. </note>
720 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
721 # <c>emerge sync</c>
722 # <c>emerge -up world</c>
723 <comment>lists [<i>packages</i>] to be installed</comment>
724 # <c>emerge -u world</c>
725 </pre>
726 <p>Once you complete this step, your Gentoo installation is ready to move on to the next step.
727 </p>
728
729 </body>
730 </section>
731 </chapter>
732 <chapter>
733 <title>Using GRP</title>
734 <section>
735 <body>
736 <p>You can take advantage of pre-built GRP package sets to avoid compiling certain popular and large packages. Currently, we provide full builds of everything you need for <c>openoffice-bin</c>,
737 <c>GNOME</c>, <c>KDE</c> and <c>xfree</c>.
738 </p>
739 <p>First, you will need to <c>cd</c> to the location of the packages directory, for the
740 liveCD you will find it at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/packages</path>. In that directory you
741 will find the <c>grp-install.sh</c> script, an <i>All</i> directory that contains all of the binary
742 packages, and a list of available GRP packages. To install any/all of these
743 package sets you should do the following: </p>
744 <pre caption="Using GRP">
745 # <c>sh grp-install.sh &lt;list of package lists&gt;</c>
746 <comment>where &lt;list of package lists&gt; may be any of the *-list.txt files found in the same directory.</comment>
747 </pre>
748 <p><c>grp-install.sh</c> can be run multiple times without replacing existing installations. You can
749 do a <c>sh grp-install.sh</c> for a basic usage description if you are still a bit foggy.
750 </p>
751 </body>
752 </section>
753 </chapter>
754 <chapter>
755 <title>Final Steps: Timezone</title>
756 <section>
757 <body>
758 <p>At this point, you should have system that's ready for final configuration.
759 We'll start the configuration process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building
760 the kernel we ensure that users get reasonable <c>uname -a</c> output.
761 </p>
762 <p>Look for your timezone (or GMT if you using Greenwich Mean Time) in
763 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:
764 </p>
765 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for timezome">
766 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
767 </pre>
768 <p>You might also want to check <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to make sure your timezone settings
769 are correct.
770 </p>
771 </body>
772 </section>
773 </chapter>
774 <chapter>
775 <title>Final steps: kernel and system logger</title>
776 <section>
777 <body>
778 <note>
779 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
780 </note>
781 <p>You now need to merge Linux source ebuilds. Here are the ones we currently
782 offer:
783 </p>
784 <table>
785 <tr>
786 <th>ebuild</th>
787 <th>description</th>
788 </tr>
789 <tr>
790 <ti>
791 <path>gentoo-sources</path>
792 </ti>
793 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
794 </tr>
795 <tr>
796 <ti>
797 <path>xfs-sources</path>
798 </ti>
799 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
800 </tr>
801 <tr>
802 <ti>
803 <path>openmosix-sources</path>
804 </ti>
805 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
806 </tr>
807 <tr>
808 <ti>
809 <path>usermode-sources</path>
810 </ti>
811 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
812 </tr>
813 <tr>
814 <ti>
815 <path>vanilla-sources</path>
816 </ti>
817 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti>
818 </tr>
819 </table>
820 <warn>
821 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
822 security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
823 </warn>
824 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
825 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
826 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
827 </pre>
828 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel.
829 </p>
830 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
831 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
832 # <c>make menuconfig</c>
833 # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
834 # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
835 <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
836 # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
837 </pre>
838 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
839 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
840 compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>&quot;Code maturity
841 level options --&gt; Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;</i>
842 option to see several of these selections.
843 Under the &quot;File systems&quot; section, be sure to enable the <i>&quot;Device File System&quot;</i> (note that
844 you <e>don't</e> need to enable the &quot;/dev/pts file system support&quot; option). You'll also
845 need to enable the <i>&quot;Virtual Memory Filesystem&quot;</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
846 any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
847 &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot;
848 option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
849 enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
850 want to enable the &quot;USE DMA by default&quot; option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
851 very poorly. Of course, remember to enable &quot;IDE disk&quot; support as well -- otherwise your
852 kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
853 </warn>
854 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
855 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
856 370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
857 support for IDE RAID
858 controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
859 </p>
860 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
861 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
862 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
863 &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
864 are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
865 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
866 </p>
867 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
868 kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
869 devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
870 under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
871 &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
872 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
873 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
874 </p>
875 <note>
876 For those who prefer it,
877 it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
878 However, doing this comes at a price:
879 you will lose many of the nifty features that
880 are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
881 filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
882 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
883 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
884 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
885 It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
886 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
887 for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
888 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
889 </note>
890 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
891 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
892 of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
893 to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
894 newer alternatives.
895 If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
896 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
897 </p>
898 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
899 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
900 # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
901 <comment>or</comment>
902 # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
903 # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
904 <comment>or</comment>
905 # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
906 # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
907 <comment>or</comment>
908 # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
909 # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
910 </pre>
911 <warn>
912 In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
913 <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
914 See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
915 for a sample configuration file.
916 </warn>
917 <impo>
918 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
919 the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
920 is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
921 metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
922 <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
923 in real time, as expected),
924 and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
925 again.
926 </impo>
927 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you'd like to use.
928 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you don't know which one to choose,
929 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
930 </p>
931 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
932 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
933 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
934 <comment>or</comment>
935 # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
936 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
937 <comment>or</comment>
938 # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
939 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
940 <comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
941 # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
942 </pre>
943 <!--<p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux,
944 see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>-->
945 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
946 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
947 </p>
948 </body>
949 </section>
950 </chapter>
951 <chapter>
952 <title>Final steps: Install Additional Packages</title>
953 <section>
954 <body>
955 <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
956 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
957 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
958 # <c>emerge rp-pppoe</c>
959 </pre>
960 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
961 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
962 for the first time.
963 </note>
964 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
965 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
966 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> ebuild:
967 </p>
968 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
969 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
970 <comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
971 # <c> emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
972 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
973 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
974 </pre>
975 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
976 real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
977 </p>
978 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
979 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
980 </pre>
981 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
982 to work.
983 </warn>
984 </body>
985 </section>
986 </chapter>
987 <chapter>
988 <title>Final steps: /etc/fstab</title>
989 <section>
990 <body>
991 <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
992 a few important system files and install the GRUB boot loader.
993 The first file we need to
994 configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
995 the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
996 Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
997 </p>
998 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
999 &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1000 <pre caption="Editing fstab"><comment>
1001 # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1002 #
1003 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1004 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1005 # efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1006 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1007
1008 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1009
1010 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1011 </comment>
1012 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1013 /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1014 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1015 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1016 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1017 </pre>
1018 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boottime.
1019 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1020 corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1021 </warn>
1022 </body>
1023 </section>
1024 </chapter>
1025 <chapter>
1026 <title>Final steps: Root Password</title>
1027 <section>
1028 <body>
1029 <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1030 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1031 # <c>passwd</c>
1032 </pre>
1033 </body>
1034 </section>
1035 </chapter>
1036 <chapter>
1037 <title>Final steps: /etc/hostname</title>
1038 <section>
1039 <body>
1040 <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1041 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1042 </p>
1043 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1044 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1045 </pre>
1046 </body>
1047 </section>
1048 </chapter>
1049 <chapter>
1050 <title>Final steps: /etc/hosts</title>
1051 <section>
1052 <body>
1053 <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1054 It's used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1055 of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here's a template for this file:
1056 </p>
1057 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1058 127.0.0.1 localhost
1059 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1060 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1061 </pre>
1062 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1063 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1064 </note>
1065 </body>
1066 </section>
1067 </chapter>
1068 <chapter>
1069 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1070 <section>
1071 <body>
1072 <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1073 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1074 need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1075 loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1076 it as a module:
1077 </p>
1078 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1079 Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1080 3c59x
1081 </pre>
1082 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1083 first boot: </p>
1084 <pre caption="Boottime Network Configuration">
1085 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1086 # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1087 </pre>
1088 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1089 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1090 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1091 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1092 # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1093 # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1094 </pre>
1095 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1096 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1097 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/ethx</path>:
1098 </p>
1099 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1100 depend() {
1101 need pcmcia
1102 }
1103 </pre>
1104 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1105 </p>
1106 </body>
1107 </section>
1108 </chapter>
1109 <chapter>
1110 <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1111 <section>
1112 <body>
1113 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1114 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1115 </pre>
1116 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1117 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1118 liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1119 variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1120 possibilities).
1121 </p>
1122 </body>
1123 </section>
1124 </chapter>
1125 <chapter>
1126 <title>Final steps: Configure GRUB</title>
1127 <section>
1128 <body>
1129 <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1130 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1131 <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1132 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1133 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1134 cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1135 (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1136 to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1137 a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1138 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1139
1140 It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1141 offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1142 a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1143 grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1144 it's time to install GRUB.
1145 </p>
1146 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1147 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1148 # <c>grub</c>
1149 </pre>
1150 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1151 this time.
1152 Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1153 grub setup for RAID controllers
1154 </impo>
1155 <p>You'll be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1156 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1157 right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1158 I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1159 the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1160 I want to type are:
1161 </p>
1162 <pre caption="GRUB Commands">
1163 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c>
1164 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c>
1165 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1166 </pre>
1167 <p>Here's how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1168 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1169 <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1170 </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1171 boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1172 ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1173 MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1174 If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1175 could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1176 I'd specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1177 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1178
1179 <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1180 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1181 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1182 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1183 available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1184 would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1185
1186 Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1187 to make the right choice.
1188 </note>
1189
1190 Gentoo Linux is now
1191 installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1192 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here's how to do it.
1193 </p>
1194 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1195 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1196 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1197 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1198 </p>
1199 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1200 default 0
1201 timeout 30
1202 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1203
1204 title=My example Gentoo Linux
1205 root (hd0,0)
1206 kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1207
1208 <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1209 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1210 root (hd0,0)
1211 kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/discX/partY
1212
1213 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1214 title=Windows NT Workstation
1215 root (hd0,5)
1216 chainloader +1
1217 </pre>
1218 <note>
1219 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1220 </note>
1221 <impo>
1222 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1223 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1224 line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1225 </impo>
1226 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1227 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1228 and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1229 </p>
1230 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1231 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1232 your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1233 loader.
1234 </note>
1235 <note>
1236 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1237 </note>
1238 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1239 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1240 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1241 turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1242 adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1243 </p>
1244 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1245 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1246 devfs is enabled by default.
1247 </note>
1248 </body>
1249 </section>
1250 </chapter>
1251 <chapter>
1252 <title>Final steps: Configure LILO</title>
1253 <section>
1254 <body>
1255 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1256 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here's how to install
1257 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1258 </p>
1259 <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1260 </p>
1261 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1262 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1263 </pre>
1264 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. I will give you a small <i>lilo.conf</i> to use, and I will explain
1265 the different parts of the file.
1266 </p>
1267 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1268 boot=/dev/hda
1269 map=/boot/map
1270 install=/boot/boot.b
1271 prompt
1272 timeout=50
1273 message=/boot/message
1274 lba32
1275 default=linux
1276
1277 image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1278 label=linux
1279 initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.20.img
1280 read-only
1281 root=/dev/hda5
1282
1283 #For dual booting windows/other OS
1284 other=/dev/hda1
1285 label=dos
1286
1287 </pre>
1288 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1289 <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1290 <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1291 In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1292 assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1293 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to show you whatever is referenced in the message line.
1294 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1295 get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1296 <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1297 with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1298 <li><i>message=/boot/message</i> refers to the screen that LILO displays to let you select the
1299 operating system or kernel to boot. </li>
1300 <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1301 not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1302 your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1303 <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1304 options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1305 <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1306 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1307 it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1308 <li><i>initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.20.img</i> refers to the initial ram disk image that is used at boot time
1309 to actually initialize and start the devices that makes booting the kernel possible. The initial
1310 ram disk is a collection of machine-specific drivers necessary to operate a SCSI card, hard drive, or any
1311 other device needed to load the kernel. You should never try to share initial ram disks between machines. </li>
1312 <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1313 altered during the boot process. </li>
1314 <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1315 <note>Thanks to <uri link="http://www.redhat.com">Redhat.com</uri> for this information.
1316 </note>
1317 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1318 into the MBR:
1319 </p>
1320 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1321 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1322 </pre>
1323 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1324 </p>
1325 </body>
1326 </section>
1327 </chapter>
1328 <chapter>
1329 <title>Final steps: Bootdisks</title>
1330 <section>
1331 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1332 <body>
1333 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1334 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1335 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1336 disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1337 if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1338 make a GRUB
1339 boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1340 to the MBR. Make your
1341 bootdisk like this:
1342 </p>
1343 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1344 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1345 # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1346 # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1347 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1348 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1349
1350 # <c>grub</c>
1351
1352 grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1353 grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1354 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1355 </pre>
1356 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1357 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1358 </body>
1359 </section>
1360 <section>
1361 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1362 <body>
1363 <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1364 </p>
1365 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1366 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1367 <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1368 </pre>
1369 </body>
1370 </section>
1371 </chapter>
1372 <chapter>
1373 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1374 <section>
1375 <body>
1376 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to exit the chrooted shell,
1377 udpate necessary configuration files,
1378 safely unmount your partitions
1379 and reboot the system:
1380 </p>
1381 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1382 # <c>etc-update</c>
1383 # <c>exit</c>
1384 <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1385 # <c>cd / </c>
1386 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1387 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1388 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1389 # <c>reboot</c>
1390 </pre>
1391 <note>
1392 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1393 the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1394 generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1395 </note>
1396 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1397 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1398 then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1399 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1400 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1401 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1402 (there's a &quot;click to subscribe&quot; link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1403 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1404 that will
1405 help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1406 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1407 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1408 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1409 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1410 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1411 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1412 </p>
1413 </body>
1414 </section>
1415 </chapter>
1416 <chapter>
1417 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1418 <section>
1419 <body>
1420 <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1421 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1422 us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1423 appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1424 </p>
1425 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1426 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1427 to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1428 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1429 development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1430 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1431 </p>
1432 <ul>
1433 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1434 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1435 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1436 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1437 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1438 </ul>
1439 <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1440 (just as it is to the developers).
1441 </p>
1442 <ul>
1443 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1444 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1445 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1446 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1447 in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1448 </ul>
1449 <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1450 </p>
1451 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1452 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1453 # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1454 </pre>
1455 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1456 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1457 to see additional configuration options.
1458 </p>
1459 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1460 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1461 </p>
1462 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1463 <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1464 </pre>
1465 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1466 viewed with your favortive pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1467 </body>
1468 </section>
1469 </chapter>
1470 </guide>

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