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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
7 <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author"><mail link="jerry@gentoo.org">Jerry Alexandratos</mail></author>
10 <author title="Ghost"><mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail></author>
11 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
12 <author title="Editor"><mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail></author>
13 <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
14 <author title="Editor"><mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail></author>
15
16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
17 Linux 1.4_rc1. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
18 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
19 scratch.</abstract>
20
21 <version>2.1</version>
22 <date>20 November 2002</date>
23
24 <chapter>
25 <title>About the Install</title>
26 <section>
27 <body>
28
29 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
30 as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
31 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE)
32 (built-in to the kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as
33 modules). In addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network
34 card that Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your
35 network and establish outbound <c>ssh</c> connections and download files. </p>
36
37 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
38 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully
39 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
40 slow under those conditions.) To begin the install process, first grab the
41 livecd ISO images from
42 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc1/</uri>. The three stages make our life
43 easy with Gentoo. The stage1 is for building the entire system from scratch. Stage2 is for building
44 some of the system from scratch, and stage3 saves a lot of time because it is already
45 optimized for you specific system. At the moment only the stage1 tarball is
46 stored on the livecd, but you will be able to download a stage2 or
47 stage3 tarball optimized for your system after booting the livecd. </p>
48
49 <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. We'll create partitions,
50 create our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball.
51 If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps
52 to get our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure
53 them (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and
54 have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
55 process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation:</p>
56
57 <table>
58 <tr><th>stage tarball</th><th>requirements for installation</th></tr>
59 <tr><ti>1</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti></tr>
60 <tr><ti>2</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti></tr>
61 <tr><ti>3</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti></tr>
62 </table>
63
64 </body>
65 </section>
66 </chapter>
67 <chapter>
68 <title>Booting</title>
69 <section>
70 <body>
71
72 <p>Start by booting the livecd. You'll be
73 greeted with a lot of text output
74 followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
75 Login as "root" (just hit &lt;enter&gt; for the password),
76 and then use the <c>passwd</c> command to change the root
77 password. (This root password is only for this installation session.
78 The reason for changing the password is that you will have to connect
79 to the net to complete the installation. Connecting to the internet with
80 the default root password is a <i>really</i> bad idea!)
81 You should have a root ("<c>#</c>") prompt on the current
82 console, and can also open new consoles by typing alt-f2, alt-f3, etc and then
83 hitting enter.</p>
84
85 <p>Next, you will be greeted with instructions for setting up your network,
86 and optional PCI autodetection. The PCI autodetection process will automatically
87 load the appropriate kernel modules for many popular PCI SCSI and ethernet
88 devices. After this, you should have a root ("<c>#</c>") prompt on the current
89 console, and can also open new consoles by typing Alt-F2, Alt-F3, etc and then
90 hitting enter.</p>
91
92 </body>
93 </section>
94 </chapter>
95
96 <chapter>
97 <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
98 <section>
99 <body>
100
101
102 <p>Hopefully you need only type <c>pci-setup</c> at the root prompt to
103 autodetect the hardware on your system and to load the appropriate
104 kernel modules.
105 </p>
106
107 <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
108 will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
109 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
110 /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
111 type: </p>
112
113 <pre caption = "PCI Modules Configuration">
114 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
115 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
116 </pre>
117
118 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
119 during the PCI autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
120 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:</p>
121
122 <pre caption = "Loading SCSI Modules">
123 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
124 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
125 </pre>
126
127 <p>
128 <c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks.
129 <note>
130 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs in build-in in the kernel.
131 </note>
132 </p>
133
134 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you need to load the
135 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller. </p>
136
137 <pre caption = "Loading RAID Modules">
138 # <c>insmod ataraid</c>
139 # <c>insmod pdcraid</c>
140 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
141 # <c>insmod hptraid</c>
142 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
143 </pre>
144
145 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
146 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
147
148 <pre caption = "Setting DMA">
149 <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device. </comment>
150 # <c>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX </c>
151 <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
152 # <c>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX </c>
153 <comment>Enables Ultra-DMA </comment>
154 </pre>
155
156 </body>
157 </section>
158 </chapter>
159
160 <chapter>
161 <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
162 <section>
163 <body>
164
165 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to do some additional
166 trickery.</p>
167
168 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
169 portion of the install. </warn>
170
171 <pre caption = "Loading PCMCIA Modules">
172 # <i>insmod pcmcia_core</i>
173 # <i>insmod i82365</i>
174 # <i>insmod ds</i>
175 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
176 </pre>
177
178 <p>As cardmgr detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
179 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
180 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading cardmgr too, if that's
181 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
182 <i>cardmgr</i> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
183 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
184 as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
185 drop by. <i>cardmgr</i> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
186 remove it). </p>
187
188 </body>
189 </section>
190 </chapter>
191
192 <chapter>
193 <title>Configuring Networking</title>
194 <section>
195 <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
196 <body>
197
198 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has
199 made things easy for you by including <i>rp-pppoe</i>. Use the provided <i>adsl-setup </i>
200 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
201 device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
202 the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
203
204 <pre caption = "Configuring PPPoE">
205 # <i> adsl-setup </i>
206 # <i> adsl-start </i>
207 </pre>
208
209 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
210 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
211 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
212
213 </body>
214 </section>
215
216 <section>
217 <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
218 <body>
219
220 <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use
221 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
222 Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
223 Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
224 the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
225 The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
226 script. </p>
227
228 <pre caption = "Net-Setup Script">
229 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
230 </pre>
231
232 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. </p>
233
234 </body>
235 </section>
236
237 <section>
238 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
239 <body>
240
241 <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
242 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
243
244 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
245 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
246 </pre>
247
248 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
249 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
250 </note>
251
252 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
253 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
254
255 </body>
256 </section>
257
258 <section>
259 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
260 <body>
261
262 <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
263 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
264 Type in the following commands, replacing
265 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
266 with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
267 with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
268 $GTWAY with your default gateway. </p>
269
270 <pre caption = "Static IP Network Configuration">
271 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
272 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
273 </pre>
274
275 <p>Now it's time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
276 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
277
278 <p>Here's a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
279
280 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
281 domain mydomain.com
282 nameserver 10.0.0.1
283 nameserver 10.0.0.2
284 </pre>
285
286 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
287 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
288 </body>
289 </section>
290
291 <section>
292 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
293 <body>
294 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
295 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly. </p>
296 <pre>
297 # <c>export http_proxy="machine.company.com:1234" </c>
298 # <c>export ftp_proxy="$http_proxy" </c>
299 # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY="$http_proxy" </c>
300 </pre>
301
302 </body>
303 </section>
304
305 <section>
306 <title>Network Testing</title>
307 <body>
308 <p>Now that your network has been configured, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig -a</c> command should show
309 that your network card is working (look for <e>UP</e> and <e>RUNNING</e> in the output). </p>
310
311 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
312 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
313 inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
314 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
315 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
316 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
317 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
318 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
319 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
320 Interrupt:11
321 </pre>
322
323 </body>
324 </section>
325
326 <section>
327 <title>Networking is go!</title>
328 <body>
329 <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
330 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
331 </body>
332 </section>
333 </chapter>
334
335 <chapter>
336 <title>Partition Configuration</title>
337 <section>
338 <body>
339
340 <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
341 to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.</p>
342
343 <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
344 We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
345 partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
346 The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
347 your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
348 everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
349 your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. This prevents your kernel
350 from being made unavailable to GRUB (due to filesystem corruption) in the event
351 of a system crash, preventing the chicken-and-egg problem where GRUB can't read
352 your kernel (since your filesystem isn't consistent) but you can't bring your
353 filesystem back to a consistent state (since you can't boot!) </p>
354
355 <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have four filesystem options:
356 XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling) and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
357 filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
358 ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
359 providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
360 that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
361 ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
362 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
363 As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
364 XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
365 is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but be warned that it
366 is highly unstable at this time.
367 </p>
368
369 <p>
370 If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
371 for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
372 high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
373 mature and refined. Please be careful with XFS; this filesystem has a tendency to fry lots of data
374 if the system crashes or you lose power. Originally, it seemed like a promising filesystem but it
375 now appears that this tendency to lose data is a major achilles' heel.
376 Here are our basic recommended filesystem
377 sizes and types: </p>
378
379 <table>
380 <tr>
381 <th>Partition</th>
382 <th>Size</th>
383 <th>Type</th>
384 <th>example device</th>
385 </tr>
386 <tr>
387 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
388 <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
389 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
390 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
391 </tr>
392 <tr>
393 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit)</ti>
394 <ti>&gt;=2*Amount of RAM in this system is recommended but no longer (as of kernel 2.4.10) required</ti>
395 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
396 <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
397 </tr>
398 <tr>
399 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
400 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
401 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
402 <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
403 </tr>
404 </table>
405
406 <p>Before creating your partitions, it is a <e>very</e> good idea to initialize the beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that you have no issues with mounting previously <i>fat32</i> partitions, like <path>/boot</path> for example. To do this you would do:</p>
407
408 <pre caption = "Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
409 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdaBOOT bs=1024 count=1024 </c>
410 <comment>BOOT is the partition that holds your <path>/boot</path>.</comment>
411 </pre>
412
413 <p>At this point, create your partitions using fdisk. Note that your partitions
414 should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS <e>or</e> ext2/3). </p>
415
416 <note><i>cfdisk</i> is included on the install CD, and it is *considerably* easier to use than
417 <i>fdisk</i>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it. </note>
418
419 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little
420 different.
421 You will have the partitions like this:
422 <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path>
423 X is the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1
424 array, then it will
425 be disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path>
426 </note>
427
428
429 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
430 the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p>
431
432 <pre caption= "Initializing Swap">
433 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
434 </pre>
435
436 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
437
438 <pre caption = "Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
439 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
440 </pre>
441
442 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
443
444 <pre caption = "Creating a XFS Filesystem">
445 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
446 </pre>
447
448 <note>
449 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
450 The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
451 the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
452 so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command
453 increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
454 </note>
455
456 <warn>
457 If you are installing an XFS partition over a previous ReiserFS partition, later attempts to mount may fail without
458 an explicit <c>mount -t xfs</c>. The solution is to zero out the partition before creating the XFS filesystem:
459 <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hd<comment>x</comment> bs=1k</c>.
460 </warn>
461 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
462
463 <pre caption = "Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
464 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
465 </pre>
466
467 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
468 <pre caption = "Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
469 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
470 </pre>
471
472 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
473
474 </body>
475 </section>
476 </chapter>
477
478 <chapter>
479 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
480 <section>
481 <body>
482
483 <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that
484 provides later: </p>
485
486 <pre caption = "Activating Swap">
487 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
488 </pre>
489
490 <p>Next, we'll create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mountpoints,
491 and we'll mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
492
493 <pre caption = "Creating Mount Points">
494 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
495 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
496 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
497 # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
498 </pre>
499
500 <p>If you are setting up Gentoo
501 Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
502 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively. </p>
503
504 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
505 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
506 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
507 We'll get to that in a bit.</impo>
508
509 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
510 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
511 </body>
512 </section>
513 </chapter>
514
515 <chapter>
516 <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
517 <section>
518 <body>
519
520 <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set
521 to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/cdroot/nocompress</path>.
522 On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3
523 tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it
524 (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest)
525 from one of the Gentoo mirror sites: </p>
526
527 <pre caption = "Downloading Required Stages">
528 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
529 # <c>env TMPDIR="/mnt/gentoo" lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc1/x86/</c>
530 </pre>
531 </body>
532 </section>
533 </chapter>
534
535 <chapter>
536 <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
537 <section>
538 <body>
539
540 <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation. </p>
541
542 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will cause certain files to contain incorrect permissions.</impo>
543
544 <p>If you are using the "from scratch, build everything" install method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
545 If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save time at the
546 expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stage3 image now also includes complete linux sources and a Portage tree snapshot, eliminating the need to do an <c>emerge sync</c> later, but it is highly recommended to do so anyway. </p>
547
548 <pre caption = "Unpacking the Stages">
549 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
550 # <c>tar -xvjpf /path/to/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
551 # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
552 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
553 </pre>
554
555 <pre caption = "Entering the chroot Environment">
556 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
557 # <c>env-update</c>
558 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
559 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
560 </pre>
561
562 <p>After you execute these commands, you'll be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux environment. </p>
563
564 </body>
565 </section>
566 </chapter>
567
568 <chapter>
569 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using Rsync</title>
570 <section>
571 <body>
572 <p>Now, you'll need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
573 you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
574
575 <pre caption = "Updating Using Rsync">
576 # <c>emerge sync</c>
577 </pre>
578
579 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
580 it's about 90Mb in size without tarballs.</p>
581 </body>
582 </section>
583 </chapter>
584
585 <chapter>
586 <title>Progressing from stage1 to stage2</title>
587 <section>
588 <body>
589
590 <p>If you are a stage2 or stage3 tarball, then we've already bootstrapped
591 for you. There is no reason for you to bootstrap again, unless you decided to
592 do an <c>emerge sync</c> and want to ensure that you have an up-to-the-minute
593 current Gentoo Linux system. Most people using stage2 or stage3 tarballs will
594 <i>not</i> want to bootstrap again, since it can take over two hours even on
595 very fast machines.</p>
596
597 <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, people using stage1 to
598 install will need to bootstrap their Gentoo Linux system as follows. First
599 edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
600 <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
601 like to be built into packages; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
602 or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
603 More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
604 </p>
605
606
607 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
608 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
609 (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) Your best friend
610 is <path>man gcc</path> to figure out what additional <c>CFLAGS</c> and
611 <code>CXXFLAGS</code> are available. Search for 'Optimization'.
612 </p>
613
614 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
615 firewall.</p>
616
617 <pre caption = "Setting make.conf Options">
618 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
619 </pre>
620
621 <note>
622 People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
623 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
624 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
625 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
626 <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
627 interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
628 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE="-foo"</c>
629 in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
630 </note>
631
632 <p>Now, it's time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes about two hours on
633 my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped for compiling the rest ofthe system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
634 These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process. </p>
635
636 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping">
637 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
638 # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
639 </pre>
640
641 <p>The "bootstrap" process will now begin.</p>
642 <note>
643
644 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
645 using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
646 change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
647 starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
648 </note>
649
650 <pre caption = "Changing Portage's Storage Path">
651 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</c>
652 </pre>
653
654 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
655 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
656 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
657 Have a nice nap. Once this process completes, your system will be in a "stage2" state. </p>
658
659 </body>
660 </section>
661 </chapter>
662
663 <chapter>
664 <title>Timezone</title>
665 <section>
666 <body>
667
668 <impo>It is extremely important that this step is completed, no matter which stage tarball you use. Major clock drift will be experienced if you do not set localtime correctly, let alone subtle issues when emerging packages later.</impo>
669
670 <p>At this point, you should have a stage2 system that's ready for final configuration. We'll start this process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building the kernel we ensure that users get reasonable <c>uname -a</c> output.</p>
671
672 <p>Look for your timezone (or GMT if you using Greenwich Mean Time) in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:</p>
673
674 <pre caption = "Creating a symbolic link for timezome">
675 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
676 </pre>
677
678 <p>You might also want to check <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to make sure your timezone settings
679 are correct.</p>
680 </body>
681 </section>
682 </chapter>
683
684 <chapter>
685 <title>Progressing from stage2 to stage3</title>
686 <section>
687 <body>
688 <p>Once your build image has been bootstrapped and you're at stage2 (again, if you are using a stage3 tarball than these steps are not required)
689 it's time to build or install the rest of the base
690 system.</p>
691
692 <note>
693 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
694 </note>
695
696 <pre caption = "Installing the Rest of the System">
697 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=""</c>
698 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
699 <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
700 # <c>emerge system</c>
701 </pre>
702
703 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=""</c> line ensures that any new scripts
704 installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
705 <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
706 management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
707
708 <p>It's going to take a while
709 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
710 thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
711 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests "Star
712 Wars - Super Bombad Racing" for the PS2. When <c>emerge system</c> completes,
713 you'll have a stage3 Gentoo Linux system.</p>
714
715 </body>
716 </section>
717 </chapter>
718 <chapter>
719
720 <title>Final steps: kernel and system logger</title>
721 <section>
722 <body>
723
724 <note>
725 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
726 </note>
727
728 <p>You now need to merge Linux source ebuilds. Here are the ones we currently
729 offer:</p>
730
731 <table>
732 <tr><th>ebuild</th><th>description</th></tr>
733 <tr><ti><path>gentoo-sources</path></ti><ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel based on -ac.</ti></tr>
734 <tr><ti><path>xfs-sources</path></ti><ti>A snapshot of the SGI XFS CVS Linux source tree; this is the kernel to run if you want bleeding edge(cvs) xfs support.</ti></tr>
735 <tr><ti><path>openmosix-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti></tr>
736 <tr><ti><path>usermode-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. ("Linux inside Linux" technology)</ti></tr>
737 <tr><ti><path>vanilla-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti></tr>
738 </table>
739
740 <warn>Please note that <i>gentoo-sources</i> is heavily patched and may not be stable. Using <i>vanilla-sources</i> might be a better idea if you encounter numerous problems. If you are using
741 <i>gentoo-sources</i> beware of <i>grsecurity</i>, especially with <i>X</i>. It is best to disable <i>grsecurity</i>unless you are absolutely
742 sure that you need it.
743 </warn>
744
745 <p>Choose one and then merge as follows:</p>
746
747 <pre caption = "Emerging Kernel Sources">
748 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
749 </pre>
750
751 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel. </p>
752
753 <pre caption = "Compiling the Linux Kernel">
754 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
755 # <c>make menuconfig</c>
756 # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
757 # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
758 <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
759 # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
760 </pre>
761
762 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
763 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
764 compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>"Code maturity
765 level options --> Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers"</i>
766 option to see several of these selections.
767 Under the "File systems" section, be sure to enable the <i>"Device File System"</i> (note that
768 you <e>don't</e> need to enable the "/dev/pts file system support" option). You'll also
769 need to enable the <i>"Virtual Memory Filesystem"</i>. Be sure to enable "ReiserFS" if you have
770 any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for "Ext3". If you're using XFS, enable the
771 "SGI XFS filesystem support"
772 option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
773 enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
774 want to enable the "USE DMA by default" option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
775 very poorly. Of course, remember to enable "IDE disk" support as well -- otherwise your
776 kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
777 </warn>
778
779 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
780 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
781 370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support, support for IDE RAID
782 controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))</p>
783
784 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
785 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
786 "PPP (point-to-point protocol) support", "PPP support for async serial ports",
787 "PPP support for sync tty ports". The two compression options won't harm but
788 are not definitely needed, neither does the "PPP over Ethernet" option,
789 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
790 </p>
791
792 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
793 kernel. Turn on "ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support" ---> "IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
794 devices" ---> "SCSI emulation support" (I usually make it a module), then
795 under "SCSI support" enable "SCSI support", "SCSI CD-ROM support" and
796 "SCSI generic support" (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
797 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e "ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod"
798 >> /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time. </p>
799
800 <note>
801 For those who prefer it,
802 it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
803 Such stability will come at a price:
804 you will lose many of the nifty features that
805 are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
806 filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
807 patched with Reiserfs and devfs support.
808 Gentoo linux bootscripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
809 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
810 It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
811 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
812 for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
813 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
814 </note>
815
816 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
817 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
818 of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
819 to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
820 newer alternatives.
821 If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
822 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines: </p>
823
824
825 <pre caption = "Emerging System Logger of Choice">
826 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
827 # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
828 <comment>or</comment>
829 # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
830 # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
831 <comment>or</comment>
832 # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
833 # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
834 <comment>or</comment>
835 # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
836 # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
837 </pre>
838
839 <warn>
840 In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
841 <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
842 See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
843 for a sample configuration file.
844 </warn>
845
846 <impo>
847 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
848 the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your
849 Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
850 metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
851 <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
852 in real time, as expected),
853 and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
854 again.
855 </impo>
856
857 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you'd like to use. Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you don't know which one to choose, you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:</p>
858
859 <pre caption = "Choosing a CRON Daemon">
860 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
861 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
862 <comment>or</comment>
863 # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
864 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
865 <comment>or</comment>
866 # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
867 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
868 <comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
869 # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
870 </pre>
871
872 <p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux, see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>
873 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the <uri link="/doc/rc-scripts.html">rc-script guide</uri>. </p>
874 </body>
875 </section>
876 </chapter>
877
878 <chapter>
879 <title>Final steps: Install Additional Packages</title>
880 <section>
881 <body>
882
883 <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
884 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
885
886 <pre caption = "Installing rp-pppoe">
887 # <c>emerge rp-pppoe</c>
888 </pre>
889
890 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
891 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
892 for the first time. </note>
893
894
895 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
896 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
897 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> ebuild: </p>
898
899 <pre caption = "Emerging Filesystem Tools">
900 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
901 <comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
902 # <c> emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
903 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
904 # <c>emerge --usepkg sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
905 </pre>
906
907
908 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
909 real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package. </p>
910
911 <pre caption = "Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
912 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
913 </pre>
914
915 </body>
916 </section>
917 </chapter>
918
919 <chapter>
920 <title>Final steps: /etc/fstab</title>
921 <section>
922 <body>
923 <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
924 a few important system files and install the GRUB boot loader.
925 The first file we need to
926 configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
927 the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
928 Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.</p>
929
930 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace "BOOT",
931 "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
932 <pre caption = "Editing fstab">
933 <comment>
934 # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
935 #
936 # noatime turns of atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
937 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
938 # efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
939 # switch between notail and tail freely.
940
941 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
942
943 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
944 </comment>
945 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
946 /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
947 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
948 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
949 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
950 </pre>
951
952 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boottime. This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
953 corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
954 </warn>
955
956 </body>
957 </section>
958 <section>
959 <title>Final steps: Root Password</title>
960 <body>
961 <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
962
963 <pre caption = "Setting the root Password">
964 # <i>passwd</i>
965 </pre>
966
967 </body>
968 </section>
969
970 <section>
971 <title>Final steps: /etc/hostname</title>
972 <body>
973 <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>. </p>
974
975 <pre caption = "Configuring Hostname">
976 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com > /etc/hostname</c>
977 </pre>
978
979 </body>
980 </section>
981
982 <section>
983 <title>Final steps: /etc/hosts</title>
984 <body>
985 <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames. It's used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
986 of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here's a template for this file: </p>
987
988 <pre caption = "Hosts Template">
989 127.0.0.1 localhost
990 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
991 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
992 </pre>
993
994 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
995 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
996 </note>
997
998 </body>
999 </section>
1000
1001 <section>
1002 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1003 <body>
1004
1005
1006 <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1007 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1008 need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1009 loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1010 it as a module:
1011 </p>
1012
1013 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload">
1014 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card. Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your
1015 card. </comment>
1016 3c59x
1017 </pre>
1018
1019 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1020 first boot: </p>
1021
1022 <pre caption = "Boottime Network Configuration">
1023 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1024 # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1025 </pre>
1026
1027
1028 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1029 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1030
1031 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1032 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1033 # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1034 # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1035 </pre>
1036
1037
1038 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1039 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1040 then add </p>
1041
1042 <pre caption = "PCMCIA Options">
1043 depend() {
1044 need pcmcia
1045 }
1046 </pre>
1047
1048 <p>to the top of your <path>/etc/init.d/net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> file.
1049 This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded. </p>
1050
1051 </body>
1052 </section>
1053
1054 <section>
1055 <title>Final steps: configure basic settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1056 <body>
1057
1058 <pre caption="basic configuration">
1059 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1060 </pre>
1061
1062 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1063 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1064 liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1065 variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1066 possibilities). </p>
1067
1068 </body>
1069 </section>
1070
1071 <section>
1072 <title>Final steps: Configure GRUB</title>
1073 <body>
1074
1075 <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions.
1076 Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1077 Hard drives count from zero rather than "a", and partitions start at zero rather than one. Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted,
1078 not atapi-ide devices such as cdrom players, burners, and that the same
1079 construct can be used with scsi drives. (Normally they get higher numbers
1080 than ide drives except when the bios is configured to boot from scsi devices.)
1081
1082 Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1083 a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example,
1084 and no scsi harddrive
1085 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1086
1087 It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1088 offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1089 a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1090 grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1091 it's time to install GRUB.
1092 </p>
1093
1094 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1095
1096 <pre caption = "Installing GRUB">
1097 # <c>grub</c>
1098 </pre>
1099
1100 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1101 this time.
1102 Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1103 grub setup for RAID controllers</impo>
1104
1105 <p>You'll be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1106 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1107 right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1108 I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1109 the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1110 I want to type are:</p>
1111
1112 <pre caption = "GRUB Commands">
1113 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c>
1114 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c>
1115 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1116 </pre>
1117
1118 <p>Here's how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1119 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1120 <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )</c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1121 boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1122 ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1123 MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>). If I were using
1124 another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1125 could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1126 I'd specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1127 boot record has been
1128 successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1129 <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1130 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1131 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1132 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1133 available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1134 would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1135
1136 Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1137 to make the right choice.
1138 </note>
1139 Gentoo Linux is now
1140 installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1141 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here's how to do it.</p>
1142
1143 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1144 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1145 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1146
1147 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it: </p>
1148
1149 <pre caption = "Grub.conf for GRUB">
1150 default 0
1151 timeout 30
1152 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1153
1154 title=My example Gentoo Linux
1155 root (hd0,0)
1156 kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1157
1158 <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1159 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1160 root (hd0,0)
1161 kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/discX/partY
1162
1163 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1164 title=Windows NT Workstation
1165 root (hd0,5)
1166 chainloader +1
1167 </pre>
1168
1169 <note>
1170 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1171 </note>
1172
1173 <impo>
1174 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1175 actually work you need to add an "hdx=ide-scsi" fragment to the kernel
1176 line in grub.conf (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd burner).
1177 </impo>
1178
1179 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1180 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional, and shows you how to
1181 use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.</p>
1182
1183 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
1184 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1185 your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1186 loader.</note>
1187
1188 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1189 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1190 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1191 turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1192 adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1193 </p>
1194
1195 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1196 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1197 devfs is enabled by default.
1198 </note>
1199
1200 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you must make a GRUB boot
1201 disk. With hardware RAID
1202 if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. So we
1203 will make a GRUB
1204 boot disk, and when you reboot the first time we will install GRUB
1205 to the MBR. Make your
1206 bootdisk like this: </p>
1207
1208 <pre caption = "Creating a RAID Bootdisk">
1209 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1210 # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1211 # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1212 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1213 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1214
1215 # <c>grub</c>
1216
1217 grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1218 grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1219 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1220 </pre>
1221
1222
1223 </body>
1224 </section>
1225 </chapter>
1226
1227 <chapter>
1228 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1229 <section>
1230 <body>
1231 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to exit the chrooted shell,
1232 udpate necessary configuration files,
1233 safely unmount your partitions
1234 and reboot the system: </p>
1235
1236 <pre caption = "Rebooting the System">
1237 # <c>etc-update</c>
1238 # <c>exit</c>
1239 <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1240 # <c>cd / </c>
1241 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1242 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1243 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1244 # <c>reboot</c>
1245 </pre>
1246
1247 <note>
1248 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1249 the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1250 generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1251 </note>
1252
1253 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1254 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1255 then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1256 time. You are done, congratulations</impo>
1257
1258 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1259 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1260 (there's a "click to subscribe" link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1261 We also have a handy <uri link="/doc/desktop.html">Desktop configuration guide</uri> that will
1262 help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1263 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/portage-user.html">Portage user guide</uri>
1264 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1265 <uri link = "http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>.
1266 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!</p>
1267 </body>
1268 </section>
1269 </chapter>
1270
1271 <chapter>
1272 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1273 <body>
1274 <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.</p>
1275
1276 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system. This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring right now through our "gentoo-stats" program:</p>
1277 <ul>
1278 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1279 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx" or "3dnow")</li>
1280 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1281 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1282 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1283 </ul>
1284
1285 <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users (just as it is to the developers).</p>
1286
1287 <ul>
1288 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1289 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1290 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID" pairs.</li>
1291 </ul>
1292
1293 <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:</p>
1294
1295 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1296 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1297 # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1298 </pre>
1299
1300 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file to see additional configuration options.</p>
1301
1302 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:</p>
1303
1304 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1305 <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update > /dev/null</c>
1306 </pre>
1307
1308 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be viewed with your favortive pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>.</p>
1309
1310 </body>
1311 </chapter>
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316 </guide>

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