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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc3 Installation Instructions</title>
5 <author title="Chief Architect">
6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Ghost">
13 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Editor">
16 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Editor">
19 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20 </author>
21 <author title="Editor">
22 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Editor">
25 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26 </author>
27 <author title="Editor">
28 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29 </author>
30 <author title="Editor">
31 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32 </author>
33 <author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35 </author>
36 <author title="Editor">
37 <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 </author>
39 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
40 Linux 1.4_rc3. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
41 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
42 scratch.
43 </abstract>
44 <version>2.3.19</version>
45 <date>26 Feb 2003</date>
46 <chapter>
47 <title>About the Install</title>
48 <section>
49 <body>
50 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
51 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
52 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
53 kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
54 addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
55 Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
56 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
57 files. </p>
58 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
59 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
60 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
61 slow under those conditions.)</p>
62 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
63 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
64 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
65 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
66 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
67 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
68 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
69 and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
70 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
71 allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
72 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
73 go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
74 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
75 releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
76 this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
77 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
80 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
81 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</uri> .
82 </p>
83 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
84 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
85 carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
86 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
87 allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
88 found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
89 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labelled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
90 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
91 contain stage1, 2 and 3 tarballs Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
92 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
93 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
94 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
95 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
96 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
97 </impo>
98 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
99 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
100 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
101 are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
102 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
103 (customize configuration files, install a bootloader, etc) and boot it and have a
104 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
105 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
106 <table>
107 <tr>
108 <th>stage tarball</th>
109 <th>requirements for installation</th>
110 </tr>
111 <tr>
112 <ti>1</ti>
113 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
114 </tr>
115 <tr>
116 <ti>2</ti>
117 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
118 </tr>
119 <tr>
120 <ti>3</ti>
121 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
122 </tr>
123 </table>
124 </body>
125 </section>
126 </chapter>
127 <chapter>
128 <title>Booting</title>
129 <section>
130 <body>
131 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
132 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
133 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c> and then hitting Enter. To see
134 a detailed description of available boot options, press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
136 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
137 booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
138 Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
139 &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
140 for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
141 on the current console, and can also swith to other consoles by pressing
142 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
143 Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type passwd and
144 follow the prompts.
145 </p>
146 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
147 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
148 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
149 </p>
150 </body>
151 </section>
152 </chapter>
153 <chapter>
154 <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
155 <section>
156 <body>
157 <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
158 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
159 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
160 /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
161 type:
162 </p>
163 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
164 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
165 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
166 </pre>
167 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
168 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
169 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
170 </p>
171 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
172 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
173 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
174 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
175 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
176 </pre>
177 <note>
178 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
179 </note>
180 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
181 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
182 </p>
183 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
184 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
185 # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
186 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
187 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
188 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
189 </pre>
190 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
191 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
192 <pre caption="Setting DMA"><comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
193 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
194 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
195 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
196 # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
197 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
198 </pre>
199 </body>
200 </section>
201 </chapter>
203 <chapter>
204 <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
205 <section>
206 <body>
207 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
208 </p>
209 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
210 portion of the install. </warn>
211 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
212 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
213 # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
214 # <i>modprobe ds</i>
215 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
216 </pre>
217 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
218 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
219 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
220 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
221 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
222 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
223 as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
224 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
225 remove it). </p>
226 </body>
227 </section>
228 </chapter>
229 -->
230 <chapter>
231 <title>Configuring Networking</title>
232 <section>
233 <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
234 <body>
235 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
236 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
237 network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
238 among others.</p>
240 <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
241 list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
242 </p>
243 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
244 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
245 inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
246 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
248 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
249 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
250 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
251 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
252 Interrupt:11
253 </pre>
254 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
255 and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
256 resolution is working correctly, etc.
257 </p>
258 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
259 # <c>ping www.some_website.com </c>
260 </pre>
261 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
262 </body>
263 </section>
264 <section>
265 <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
266 <body>
267 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
268 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
269 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
270 device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
271 the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
272 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
273 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
274 # <c> adsl-start </c>
275 </pre>
276 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
277 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
278 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
279 </body>
280 </section>
281 <section>
282 <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
283 <body>
284 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
285 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
286 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
287 </pre>
288 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
289 </body>
290 </section>
291 <section>
292 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
293 <body>
294 <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
295 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
296 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
297 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
298 </pre>
299 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
300 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
301 </note>
302 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
303 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
304 </body>
305 </section>
306 <section>
307 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
308 <body>
309 <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
310 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
311 Type in the following commands, replacing
312 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
313 with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
314 with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
315 $GTWAY with your default gateway.
316 </p>
317 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
318 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
319 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask metric 1</c>
320 </pre>
321 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
322 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
323 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
324 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
325 domain mydomain.com
326 nameserver
327 nameserver
328 </pre>
329 <p>Replace <c></c> and <c></c> with the IP addresses of your
330 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
331 </body>
332 </section>
333 <section>
334 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
335 <body>
336 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
337 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
338 </p>
339 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
340 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
341 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
342 # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
343 </pre>
344 </body>
345 </section>
346 <section>
347 <title>Networking is go!</title>
348 <body>
349 <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
350 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
351 </body>
352 </section>
353 </chapter>
354 <chapter>
355 <title>Partition Configuration</title>
356 <section>
357 <body>
358 <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it is time
359 to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
360 </p>
362 <p>Here is a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
363 We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
364 partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
365 The boot partition is designed to hold the boot loader information as well as
366 your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
367 everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
368 your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. A working kernel will enable you recover from most forms of
369 filesystem corruption, having your kernel in a non-mounted partition
370 will prevent filesystem corruption from affecting it.
371 </p>
372 <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have five filesystem options:
373 XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling), jfs, and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
374 filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
375 ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
376 providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
377 that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
378 ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
379 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
380 As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
381 XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
382 is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but
383 is generally not recommended due to its tendency to lose recently-modified
384 data if your system locks up or unexpectedly reboots (as a result of power failure, for instance)
385 Finally, jfs is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. Since it is obscure, we cannot comment either positively nor negatively on its stability.</p>
386 <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
387 for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
388 high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
389 mature and refined.
390 Here are our basic recommended filesystem
391 sizes and types:
392 </p>
393 <table>
394 <tr>
395 <th>Partition</th>
396 <th>Size</th>
397 <th>Type</th>
398 <th>example device</th>
399 </tr>
400 <tr>
401 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
402 <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
403 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
404 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
405 </tr>
406 <tr>
407 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
408 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
409 in your system.</ti>
410 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
411 <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
412 </tr>
413 <tr>
414 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
415 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
416 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
417 <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
418 </tr>
419 </table>
422 <p>At this point, create your partitions using <c>fdisk</c>. Note that your partitions
423 should be of type 82 for swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS, ext2/3 or other). </p>
424 <note><c>cfdisk</c> is included on the install CD, and it is <i>considerably</i> easier to use than
425 <c>fdisk</c>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it; by default, cfdisk will work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not the hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note>
426 <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to allow your system to detect the
427 new partition configuration.</note>
428 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
429 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
430 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
431 disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
432 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it is time to initialize
433 the filesystems that will be used to house your data.</p>
435 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
436 beginning of your hard disk using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
437 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
438 a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
439 will not be mis-indentified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
440 This can be done as follows:
441 </p>
442 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
443 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdxy bs=1K count=1</c>
444 <comment>Replace /dev/hdxy with the device you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;</comment>
445 </pre>
446 <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hdxy</path>.
447 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
448 If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
449 </warn>
450 <p>Now, initialize your swap partition as follows:</p>
451 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
452 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
453 </pre>
454 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
455 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
456 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
457 </pre>
458 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
459 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
460 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
461 </pre>
462 <note>
463 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
464 The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
465 the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
466 so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5.
467 The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
468 </note>
469 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
470 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
471 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
472 </pre>
473 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
474 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
475 </note>
476 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
477 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
478 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
479 </pre>
481 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> comamnd.</p>
482 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
483 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
484 </pre>
486 </body>
487 </section>
488 </chapter>
489 <chapter>
490 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
491 <section>
492 <body>
493 <p>Now, we will activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
494 provides later:
495 </p>
496 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
497 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
498 </pre>
499 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
500 and we will mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
501 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
502 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
503 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
504 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
505 # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
506 </pre>
507 <p>
508 If you are setting up Gentoo
509 Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
510 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
511 </p>
512 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
513 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
514 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
515 We will get to that in a bit.
516 </impo>
517 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
518 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
519 </body>
520 </section>
521 </chapter>
522 <chapter>
523 <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
524 <section>
525 <body>
526 <p>If you are using the 3stages LiveCD to install, you already have all of the stage
527 tarballs available on the CD.
528 If this is the case, copy the tarball of your choice to <mnt>/mnt/gentoo</mnt>
529 </p>
531 <p>Alternatively, if you have the basic LiveCD, the stage1 tarball is still available on
532 the CD in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>. You will have to download the other stages though,
533 and the best place to which to download them is <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
534 </p>
536 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
537 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
538 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
539 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</c>
540 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
541 Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
542 Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
543 Save the file and quit the browser
545 <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
546 # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
547 </pre>
548 </body>
549 </section>
550 </chapter>
551 <chapter>
552 <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
553 <section>
554 <body>
555 <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
556 Then, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
557 Gentoo Linux system.
558 </p>
559 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
560 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
561 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install method,
562 you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
563 If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you will also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
564 These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
565 compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.)
566 </p>
567 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
568 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
569 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
570 # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
571 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
572 </pre>
573 <pre caption="Entering the chroot Environment">
574 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
575 # <c>env-update</c>
576 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
577 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
578 <comment>The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries. </comment>
579 </pre>
580 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment.
581 </p>
582 </body>
583 </section>
584 </chapter>
585 <chapter>
586 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
587 <section>
588 <body>
589 <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
590 you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
591 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
593 # <c>emerge sync</c>
594 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"</c>
595 # <c>export USE="-* bootstrap build"</c>
596 # <c>emerge portage</c>
597 # <c>unset USE</c>
598 </pre>
599 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
600 it is about 90Mb in size without tarballs.
601 </p>
602 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;-*&quot;</c> line ensures that any new scripts
603 installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
604 <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
605 management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
607 </body>
608 </section>
609 </chapter>
610 <chapter>
611 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
612 <section>
613 <body>
614 <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree,
615 it is time to customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use
616 on your Gentoo Linux system. First
617 edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
618 <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
619 like to be built into packages if available; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
620 or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
621 More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
622 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
623 A complete list of current USE flags can be found
624 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
625 </p>
626 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
627 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
628 (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
629 will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
630 is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
631 to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
632 so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
633 performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
634 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
636 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
637 firewall.
638 </p>
639 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
640 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
641 </pre>
642 <note>
643 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
644 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
645 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
646 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
647 <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
648 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
649 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
650 in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
651 </note>
652 </body>
653 </section>
654 </chapter>
655 <chapter>
656 <title>Setting your time zone and date</title>
657 <section>
658 <body>
659 <p>You need to set your time zone and date before you start installing your system.</p>
660 <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time) in
661 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:
662 </p>
663 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zome">
664 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
665 # <c>date</c>
666 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
667 <comment>(If your date is wrong set your date with this next command)</comment>
668 # <c>date 022709042003</c>
669 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
671 </pre>
673 </body>
674 </section>
675 </chapter>
676 <chapter>
677 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
678 <section>
679 <body>
680 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
681 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized system. Have fun, because optimization
682 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
683 is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
684 </p>
685 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
686 my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system.
687 During this time, the extracted build image will be prepared and the GNU compiler suite and Libraries will be built. </p>
688 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
689 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
690 # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
691 </pre>
692 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
693 </p>
694 <note>
695 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
696 using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
697 change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
698 starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
699 </note>
700 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
701 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
702 </pre>
703 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
704 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
705 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
706 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
707 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
708 </p>
709 </body>
710 </section>
711 </chapter>
712 <chapter>
713 <title>Starting from Stage2</title>
714 <section>
715 <body>
716 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
717 to do is install the rest of the system.
718 </p>
719 <note>
720 If you have not already edited /etc/make.conf to fit your specifications,
721 now would be a good time to do so.
722 </note>
723 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
724 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
725 <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
726 # <c>emerge system</c>
727 </pre>
728 <p>It is going to take a while
729 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
730 thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
731 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
732 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
733 </p>
734 <p>When this process completes, your system will be the equivalent of a stage3 system. You have
735 a couple of choices on how to continue
736 at this point. You can move onto the stage3 instructions and complete those. Doing that will
737 get your system right up to date with what is in the current Portage tree. This is not necessary,
738 but it is highly recommended.
739 </p>
740 </body>
741 </section>
742 </chapter>
743 <chapter>
744 <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
745 <section>
746 <body>
747 <p>The stage3 tarball is already configured for your system. There is not much to do for this stage,
748 but it is a very good idea to update your system to the newest available packages. </p>
750 <note>If you have not already edited <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to fit your specifications,
751 now would be a good time to do so. </note>
752 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
753 # <c>emerge sync</c>
754 # <c>emerge -up world</c>
755 <comment>lists [<i>packages</i>] to be installed</comment>
756 # <c>emerge -u world</c>
757 </pre>
758 </body>
759 </section>
760 </chapter>
761 <chapter>
762 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
763 <section>
764 <body>
765 <note>
766 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
767 </note>
768 <p>You now need to merge Linux kernel sources. Here are the ones we currently
769 offer:
770 </p>
771 <table>
772 <tr>
773 <th>ebuild</th>
774 <th>description</th>
775 </tr>
776 <tr>
777 <ti>
778 <path>gentoo-sources</path>
779 </ti>
780 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
781 </tr>
782 <tr>
783 <ti>
784 <path>xfs-sources</path>
785 </ti>
786 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
787 </tr>
788 <tr>
789 <ti>
790 <path>openmosix-sources</path>
791 </ti>
792 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
793 </tr>
794 <tr>
795 <ti>
796 <path>usermode-sources</path>
797 </ti>
798 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
799 </tr>
800 <tr>
801 <ti>
802 <path>vanilla-sources</path>
803 </ti>
804 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you would get from kernel.org</ti>
805 </tr>
806 </table>
807 <warn>
808 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
809 security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
810 </warn>
811 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
812 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
813 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
814 </pre>
815 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
816 </p>
817 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
818 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
819 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
820 to the correct one before proceeding.
821 </p>
822 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
823 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
824 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
825 <comment>Again, this updates your paths. If you get an error saying gcc is not found,
826 this is what you may have to do. </comment>
827 # <c>make menuconfig</c>
828 # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
829 # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
830 <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
831 # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
832 </pre>
833 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
834 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
835 compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>&quot;Code maturity
836 level options --&gt; Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;</i>
837 option to see several of these selections.
838 Under the &quot;File systems&quot; section, be sure to enable the <i>&quot;/dev&quot; file system support</i> (note that
839 you <e>do not</e> need to enable the &quot;/dev/pts file system support&quot; option). You will also
840 need to enable the <i>&quot;Virtual Memory Filesystem&quot;</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
841 any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
842 &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot;
843 option. It is always a good idea to leave ext2
844 enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
845 want to enable the &quot;USE DMA by default&quot; option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
846 very poorly. Of course, remember to enable &quot;IDE disk&quot; support as well -- otherwise your
847 kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
848 </warn>
849 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
850 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
851 370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
852 support for IDE RAID
853 controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
854 </p>
855 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
856 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
857 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
858 &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
859 are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
860 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
861 </p>
862 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
863 kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
864 devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
865 under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
866 &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
867 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
868 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
869 </p>
870 <note>
871 For those who prefer it,
872 it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
873 However, doing this comes at a price:
874 you will lose many of the nifty features that
875 are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
876 filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
877 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
878 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
879 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
880 It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
881 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
882 for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
883 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
884 </note>
885 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
886 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
887 of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
888 to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
889 newer alternatives.
890 If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
891 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
892 </p>
893 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
894 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
895 # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
896 <comment>or</comment>
897 # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
898 # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
899 <comment>or</comment>
900 # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
901 # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
902 <comment>or</comment>
903 # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
904 # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
905 </pre>
906 <warn>
907 In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
908 <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
909 See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
910 for a sample configuration file.
911 </warn>
912 <impo>
913 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
914 the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
915 is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
916 metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
917 <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
918 in real time, as expected),
919 and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
920 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
921 in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
922 </impo>
923 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
924 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
925 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
926 </p>
927 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
928 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
929 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
930 <comment>or</comment>
931 # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
932 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
933 <comment>or</comment>
934 # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
935 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
936 <comment>Do not forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
937 # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
938 </pre>
939 <!--<p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux,
940 see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>-->
941 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
942 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
943 </p>
944 </body>
945 </section>
946 </chapter>
947 <chapter>
948 <title>Installing miscellany necessary packages</title>
949 <section>
950 <body>
951 <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
952 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
953 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
954 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
955 </pre>
957 <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
958 because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
959 X support later.
960 </note>
961 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
962 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
963 for the first time.
964 </note>
965 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
966 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
967 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
968 </p>
969 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
970 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
971 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
972 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
973 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
974 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
975 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
976 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
977 </pre>
978 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
979 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
980 </p>
981 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
982 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
983 </pre>
984 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
985 to work.
986 </warn>
987 </body>
988 </section>
989 </chapter>
990 <chapter>
991 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
992 <section>
993 <body>
994 <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
995 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
996 The first file we need to
997 configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
998 the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
999 Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1000 </p>
1001 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1002 &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1003 <pre caption="Editing fstab"><comment>
1004 # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1005 #
1006 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1007 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1008 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1009 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1011 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1013 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1014 </comment>
1015 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1016 /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1017 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1018 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1019 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1020 </pre>
1021 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1022 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1023 corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1024 </warn>
1025 </body>
1026 </section>
1027 </chapter>
1028 <chapter>
1029 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1030 <section>
1031 <body>
1032 <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1033 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1034 # <c>passwd</c>
1035 </pre>
1037 <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1038 the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1039 </p>
1040 </body>
1041 </section>
1042 </chapter>
1043 <chapter>
1044 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1045 <section>
1046 <body>
1047 <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1048 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1049 </p>
1050 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1051 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1052 </pre>
1053 </body>
1054 </section>
1055 </chapter>
1056 <chapter>
1057 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1058 <section>
1059 <body>
1060 <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1061 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1062 of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1063 </p>
1064 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1065 localhost
1066 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1067 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1068 </pre>
1069 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1070 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1071 </note>
1072 </body>
1073 </section>
1074 </chapter>
1075 <chapter>
1076 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1077 <section>
1078 <body>
1079 <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1080 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1081 need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1082 loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1083 it as a module:
1084 </p>
1085 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1086 Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1087 3c59x
1088 </pre>
1089 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1090 first boot: </p>
1091 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1092 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1093 # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1094 </pre>
1095 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1096 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1097 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1098 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1099 # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1100 # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1101 </pre>
1102 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1103 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1104 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1105 </p>
1106 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1107 depend() {
1108 need pcmcia
1109 }
1110 </pre>
1111 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1112 </p>
1113 </body>
1114 </section>
1115 </chapter>
1116 <chapter>
1117 <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1118 <section>
1119 <body>
1120 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1121 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1122 </pre>
1123 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1124 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1125 liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1126 variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1127 possibilities).
1128 </p>
1129 </body>
1130 </section>
1131 </chapter>
1132 <chapter>
1133 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1134 <section>
1135 <title>Notes</title>
1136 <body>
1137 <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1138 Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1139 LILO as their bootloaders.
1140 </p>
1141 <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1142 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1143 </p>
1144 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1145 with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1146 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1147 memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1148 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1149 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1150 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1152 </body>
1153 </section>
1154 <section>
1155 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1156 <body>
1157 <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1158 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1159 <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1160 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1161 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1162 cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1163 (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1164 to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1165 a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1166 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1168 It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1169 offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1170 a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1171 grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1172 it is time to install GRUB.
1173 </p>
1174 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1175 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1176 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1177 # <c>grub</c>
1178 </pre>
1179 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1180 this time.
1181 Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1182 grub setup for RAID controllers
1183 </impo>
1184 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1185 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1186 right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1187 I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1188 the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1189 I want to type are:
1190 </p>
1192 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1193 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1194 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1195 </pre>
1197 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1198 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1199 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1200 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1201 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1202 </pre>
1204 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1205 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1206 <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1207 </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1208 boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1209 ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1210 MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1211 If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1212 could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1213 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1214 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1215 </p>
1217 <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1218 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1219 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1220 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1221 available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1222 would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1224 Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1225 to make the right choice.
1226 </note>
1228 <p>
1229 Gentoo Linux is now
1230 installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1231 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1232 </p>
1233 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1234 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1235 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1236 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1237 </p>
1238 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1239 default 0
1240 timeout 30
1241 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1243 title=My example Gentoo Linux
1244 root (hd0,0)
1245 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1247 <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1248 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1249 root (hd0,0)
1250 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1252 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1253 title=Windows NT Workstation
1254 root (hd0,5)
1255 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1256 </pre>
1257 <note>
1258 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1259 </note>
1260 <impo>
1261 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1262 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1263 line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1264 </impo>
1265 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1266 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1267 and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1268 </p>
1269 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1270 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1271 your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1272 loader.
1273 </note>
1274 <note>
1275 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1276 </note>
1277 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1278 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1279 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1280 turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1281 adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1282 </p>
1283 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1284 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1285 devfs is enabled by default.
1286 </note>
1287 </body>
1288 </section>
1289 <section>
1290 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1291 <body>
1292 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1293 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1294 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1295 </p>
1296 <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1297 </p>
1298 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1299 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1300 </pre>
1301 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file (lilo.conf)
1302 </p>
1303 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1304 boot=/dev/hda
1305 map=/boot/map
1306 install=/boot/boot.b
1307 prompt
1308 timeout=50
1309 message=/boot/message
1310 lba32
1311 default=linux
1313 image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1314 label=linux
1315 read-only
1316 root=/dev/hda5
1318 #For dual booting windows/other OS
1319 other=/dev/hda1
1320 label=dos
1322 </pre>
1323 <ul>
1324 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1325 <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1326 <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1327 In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1328 assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1329 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to show you whatever is referenced in the message line.
1330 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1331 get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1332 <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1333 with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1334 <li><i>message=/boot/message</i> refers to the screen that LILO displays to let you select the
1335 operating system or kernel to boot. </li>
1336 <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1337 not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1338 your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1339 <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1340 options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1341 <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1342 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1343 it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1344 <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1345 altered during the boot process. </li>
1346 <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1347 </ul>
1348 <note>Thanks to <uri link="http://www.redhat.com">Redhat.com</uri> for this information.
1349 </note>
1350 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1351 into the MBR:
1352 </p>
1353 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1354 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1355 </pre>
1356 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1357 </p>
1358 </body>
1359 </section>
1360 </chapter>
1361 <chapter>
1362 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1363 <section>
1364 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1365 <body>
1366 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1367 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1368 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1369 disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1370 if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1371 make a GRUB
1372 boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1373 to the MBR. Make your
1374 bootdisks like this:
1375 </p>
1376 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1377 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1378 # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1379 # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1380 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1381 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1382 # <c>umount /mnt/floppy</c>
1383 # <c>grub</c>
1385 grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1386 grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1387 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1388 </pre>
1389 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1390 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1391 </body>
1392 </section>
1393 <section>
1394 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1395 <body>
1396 <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1397 </p>
1398 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1399 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1400 <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1401 </pre>
1402 </body>
1403 </section>
1404 </chapter>
1405 <chapter>
1406 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1407 <section>
1408 <body>
1409 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1411 safely unmount your partitions
1412 and reboot the system:
1413 </p>
1414 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1415 # <c>etc-update</c>
1416 # <c>exit</c>
1417 <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1418 # <c>cd / </c>
1419 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1420 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1421 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/dev</c>
1422 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1423 # <c>reboot</c>
1424 </pre>
1425 <note>
1426 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1427 the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1428 generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1429 </note>
1430 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1431 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1432 then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1433 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1434 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1435 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1436 (there is a &quot;click to subscribe&quot; link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1437 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1438 that will
1439 help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1440 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1441 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1442 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1443 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1444 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1445 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1446 </p>
1447 </body>
1448 </section>
1449 </chapter>
1450 <chapter>
1451 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1452 <section>
1453 <body>
1454 <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1455 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1456 us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1457 appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1458 </p>
1459 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1460 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1461 to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1462 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1463 development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1464 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1465 </p>
1466 <ul>
1467 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1468 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1469 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1470 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1471 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1472 </ul>
1473 <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1474 (just as it is to the developers).
1475 </p>
1476 <ul>
1477 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1478 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1479 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1480 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1481 in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1482 </ul>
1483 <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1484 </p>
1485 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1486 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1487 # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1488 </pre>
1489 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1490 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1491 to see additional configuration options.
1492 </p>
1493 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1494 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1495 </p>
1496 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1497 <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1498 </pre>
1499 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1500 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1501 </body>
1502 </section>
1503 </chapter>
1504 </guide>

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