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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc3 Installation Instructions</title>
5 <author title="Chief Architect">
6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Ghost">
13 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Editor">
16 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Editor">
19 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20 </author>
21 <author title="Editor">
22 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Editor">
25 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26 </author>
27 <author title="Editor">
28 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29 </author>
30 <author title="Editor">
31 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32 </author>
33 <author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35 </author>
36 <author title="Editor">
37 <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 </author>
39 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
40 Linux 1.4_rc3. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
41 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
42 scratch.
43 </abstract>
44 <version>2.3.20</version>
45 <date>6 March 2003</date>
46 <chapter>
47 <title>About the Install</title>
48 <section>
49 <body>
50 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
51 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
52 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
53 kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
54 addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
55 Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
56 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
57 files. </p>
58 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
59 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
60 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
61 slow under those conditions.)</p>
62 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
63 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
64 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
65 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
66 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
67 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
68 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
69 and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
70 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
71 allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
72 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
73 go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
74 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
75 releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
76 this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
77 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
78
79
80 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
81 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</uri> .
82 </p>
83 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
84 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
85 carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
86 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
87 allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
88 found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
89 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
90 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
91 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
92 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
93 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
94 Gentoo 1.4_rc3 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_rc4 will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
95 </p>
96 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
97 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
98 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
99 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
100 </impo>
101 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
102 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
103 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
104 are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
105 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
106 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
107 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
108 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
109 <table>
110 <tr>
111 <th>stage tarball</th>
112 <th>requirements for installation</th>
113 </tr>
114 <tr>
115 <ti>1</ti>
116 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
117 </tr>
118 <tr>
119 <ti>2</ti>
120 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
121 </tr>
122 <tr>
123 <ti>3</ti>
124 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
125 </tr>
126 </table>
127 </body>
128 </section>
129 </chapter>
130 <chapter>
131 <title>Booting</title>
132 <section>
133 <body>
134 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
135 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
136 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c> and then hitting Enter. To see
137 a detailed description of available boot options, press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
138
139 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
140 booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
141 Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
142 &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
143 for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
144 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
145 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
146 Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type passwd and
147 follow the prompts.
148 </p>
149 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
150 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
151 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
152 </p>
153 </body>
154 </section>
155 </chapter>
156 <chapter>
157 <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
158 <section>
159 <body>
160 <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
161 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
162 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
163 /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
164 type:
165 </p>
166 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
167 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
168 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
169 </pre>
170 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
171 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
172 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
173 </p>
174 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
175 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
176 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
177 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
178 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
179 </pre>
180 <note>
181 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
182 </note>
183 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
184 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
185 </p>
186 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
187 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
188 # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
189 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
190 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
191 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
192 </pre>
193 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
194 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
195 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
196 <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
197 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
198 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
199 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
200 # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
201 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
202 </pre>
203 </body>
204 </section>
205 </chapter>
206 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
207 <chapter>
208 <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
209 <section>
210 <body>
211 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
212 </p>
213 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
214 portion of the install. </warn>
215 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
216 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
217 # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
218 # <i>modprobe ds</i>
219 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
220 </pre>
221 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
222 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
223 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
224 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
225 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
226 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
227 as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
228 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
229 remove it). </p>
230 </body>
231 </section>
232 </chapter>
233 -->
234 <chapter>
235 <title>Configuring Networking</title>
236 <section>
237 <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
238 <body>
239 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
240 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
241 network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
242 among others.</p>
243
244 <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
245 list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
246 </p>
247 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
248 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
249 inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
250 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
251 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
252 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
253 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
254 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
255 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
256 Interrupt:11
257 </pre>
258 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
259 and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
260 resolution is working correctly, etc.
261 </p>
262 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
263 # <c>ping www.gentoo.com </c>
264 </pre>
265 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
266 </body>
267 </section>
268 <section>
269 <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
270 <body>
271 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
272 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
273 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
274 device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
275 the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
276 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
277 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
278 # <c> adsl-start </c>
279 </pre>
280 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
281 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
282 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
283 </body>
284 </section>
285 <section>
286 <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
287 <body>
288 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
289 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
290 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
291 </pre>
292 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
293 </body>
294 </section>
295 <section>
296 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
297 <body>
298 <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
299 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
300 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
301 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
302 </pre>
303 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
304 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
305 </note>
306 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
307 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
308 </body>
309 </section>
310 <section>
311 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
312 <body>
313 <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
314 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
315 Type in the following commands, replacing
316 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
317 with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
318 with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
319 $GTWAY with your default gateway.
320 </p>
321 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
322 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
323 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
324 </pre>
325 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
326 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
327 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
328 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
329 domain mydomain.com
330 nameserver 10.0.0.1
331 nameserver 10.0.0.2
332 </pre>
333 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
334 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
335 </body>
336 </section>
337 <section>
338 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
339 <body>
340 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
341 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
342 </p>
343 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
344 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
345 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
346 # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
347 </pre>
348 </body>
349 </section>
350 <section>
351 <title>Networking is go!</title>
352 <body>
353 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
354 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
355 </body>
356 </section>
357 </chapter>
358 <chapter>
359 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
360 <section>
361 <body>
362 <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
363 You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
364 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
365 # <c>date</c>
366 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
367 <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
368 # <c>date 022709042003</c>
369 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
370 </pre>
371 </body>
372 </section>
373 </chapter>
374 <chapter>
375 <title>Partition Configuration</title>
376 <section>
377 <body>
378 <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it is time
379 to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
380 </p>
381
382 <p>Here is a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
383 We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
384 partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
385 The boot partition is designed to hold the boot loader information as well as
386 your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
387 everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
388 your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. A working kernel will enable you to recover from most forms of
389 filesystem corruption. Having your kernel in a non-mounted partition
390 will prevent filesystem corruption from affecting it.
391 </p>
392 <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have five filesystem options:
393 XFS, ext2, ext3 (ext2 with journaling), jfs, and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
394 filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
395 ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
396 providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
397 that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
398 ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
399 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
400 As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
401 XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
402 is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but
403 is generally not recommended due to its tendency to lose recently-modified
404 data if your system locks up or unexpectedly reboots (as a result of power failure, for instance)
405 Finally, jfs is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. Since it is obscure, we cannot comment either positively nor negatively on its stability.</p>
406 <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
407 for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
408 high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
409 mature and refined.
410 Here are our basic recommended filesystem
411 sizes and types:
412 </p>
413 <table>
414 <tr>
415 <th>Partition</th>
416 <th>Size</th>
417 <th>Type</th>
418 <th>example device</th>
419 </tr>
420 <tr>
421 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
422 <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
423 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
424 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
425 </tr>
426 <tr>
427 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
428 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
429 in your system.</ti>
430 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
431 <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
432 </tr>
433 <tr>
434 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
435 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
436 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
437 <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
438 </tr>
439 </table>
440
441
442 <p>At this point, create your partitions using <c>fdisk</c>. Note that your partitions
443 should be of type 82 for swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS, ext2/3 or other). </p>
444 <note><c>cfdisk</c> is included on the install CD, and it is <i>considerably</i> easier to use than
445 <c>fdisk</c>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it; by default, cfdisk will work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not the hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note>
446 <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to allow your system to detect the
447 new partition configuration.</note>
448 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
449 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
450 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
451 disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
452 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it is time to initialize
453 the filesystems that will be used to house your data.</p>
454
455 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
456 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
457 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
458 a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
459 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
460 This can be done as follows:
461 </p>
462 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
463 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
464 <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
465 </pre>
466 <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
467 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
468 If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
469 </warn>
470 <p>Now, initialize your swap partition as follows:</p>
471 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
472 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
473 </pre>
474 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
475 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
476 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
477 </pre>
478 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
479 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
480 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
481 </pre>
482 <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
483 <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
484 The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
485 XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
486 partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
487 a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
488 journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
489 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
490 <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
491 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
492 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
493 </pre>
494 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
495 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
496 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
497 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
498 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
499 </pre>
500 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command.</p>
501 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
502 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
503 </pre>
504 </body>
505 </section>
506 </chapter>
507 <chapter>
508 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
509 <section>
510 <body>
511 <p>Now, we will activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
512 provides later:
513 </p>
514 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
515 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
516 </pre>
517 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
518 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. </p>
519 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
520 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
521 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
522 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
523 # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
524 </pre>
525 <p>
526 If you are setting up Gentoo
527 Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
528 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
529 </p>
530 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
531 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
532 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
533 We will get to that in a bit.
534 </impo>
535 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
536 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
537 </body>
538 </section>
539 </chapter>
540 <chapter>
541 <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
542 <section>
543 <body>
544 <p>If you are using the 3stages LiveCD to install, you already have all of the stage
545 tarballs available on the CD.
546 If this is the case, copy the tarball of your choice to <mnt>/mnt/gentoo</mnt>
547 </p>
548
549 <p>Alternatively, if you have the basic LiveCD, the stage1 tarball is still available on
550 the CD in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>. You will have to download the other stages though,
551 and the best place to which to download them is <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
552 </p>
553
554 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
555 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
556 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
557 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</c>
558 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
559 Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
560 Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
561 Save the file and quit the browser
562
563 <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
564 # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
565 </pre>
566 </body>
567 </section>
568 </chapter>
569 <chapter>
570 <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarball</title>
571 <section>
572 <body>
573 <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice
574 to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. You only need to unpack the stage tarball
575 for the stage you want to start at. So, if you wanted to perform a
576 stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would unpack the stage3 tarball.
577 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
578 Gentoo Linux system.
579 </p>
580 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
581 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
582 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install method,
583 you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc3.tar.bz2</path> image.
584 If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you will also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
585 These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
586 compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.)
587 </p>
588 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
589 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
590 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
591 # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
592 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
593 </pre>
594 <pre caption="Entering the chroot Environment">
595 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
596 # <c>env-update</c>
597 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
598 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
599 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
600 </pre>
601 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment.</p>
602 </body>
603 </section>
604 </chapter>
605 <chapter>
606 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
607 <section>
608 <body>
609 <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
610 you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
611 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
612 # <c>emerge sync</c>
613 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"</c>
614 # <c>export USE="-* bootstrap build"</c>
615 # <c>emerge portage</c>
616 # <c>unset USE</c>
617 </pre>
618 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
619 it is about 90Mb in size without tarballs.
620 </p>
621 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=&quot;-*&quot;</c> line ensures that any new scripts
622 installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
623 <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
624 management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
625
626 </body>
627 </section>
628 </chapter>
629 <chapter>
630 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
631 <section>
632 <body>
633 <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree,
634 it is time to customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use
635 on your Gentoo Linux system. First
636 edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
637 <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
638 like to be built into packages if available; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
639 or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
640 More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
641 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
642 A complete list of current USE flags can be found
643 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
644 </p>
645 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
646 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
647 (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
648 will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
649 is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
650 to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
651 so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
652 performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
653 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
654
655 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
656 firewall.
657 </p>
658 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
659 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
660 <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
661 </pre>
662 <note>
663 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
664 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
665 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
666 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
667 <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
668 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
669 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
670 in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
671 </note>
672 </body>
673 </section>
674 </chapter>
675 <chapter>
676 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
677 <section>
678 <body>
679 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
680 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized system. Have fun, because optimization
681 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
682 is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
683 </p>
684 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
685 my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system.
686 During this time, the extracted build image will be prepared and the GNU compiler suite and Libraries will be built. </p>
687 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
688 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
689 # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
690 </pre>
691 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
692 </p>
693 <note>
694 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
695 using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
696 change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
697 starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
698 </note>
699 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
700 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
701 </pre>
702 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
703 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
704 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
705 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
706 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
707 </p>
708 </body>
709 </section>
710 </chapter>
711 <chapter>
712 <title>Starting from Stage2</title>
713 <section>
714 <body>
715 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
716 to do is install the rest of the system.
717 </p>
718 <note>
719 If you have not already edited /etc/make.conf to fit your specifications,
720 now would be a good time to do so.
721 </note>
722 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
723 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
724 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
725 # <c>emerge system</c>
726 </pre>
727 <p>It is going to take a while
728 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
729 thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
730 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
731 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
732 </p>
733 <p>When this process completes, your system will be the equivalent of a stage3 system. You have
734 a couple of choices on how to continue
735 at this point. You can move onto the stage3 instructions and complete those. Doing that will
736 get your system right up to date with what is in the current Portage tree. This is not necessary,
737 but it is highly recommended.
738 </p>
739 </body>
740 </section>
741 </chapter>
742 <chapter>
743 <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
744 <section>
745 <body>
746 <p>The stage3 tarball is already configured for your system. There is not much to do for this stage,
747 but it is a very good idea to update your system to the newest available packages. </p>
748
749 <note>If you have not already edited <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to fit your specifications,
750 now would be a good time to do so. </note>
751 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
752 # <c>emerge sync</c>
753 # <c>emerge -up world</c>
754 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
755 # <c>emerge -u world</c>
756 </pre>
757 </body>
758 </section>
759 </chapter>
760 <chapter>
761 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
762 <section>
763 <body>
764 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
765 <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
766 in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
767 /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
768 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
769 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
770 </pre>
771 </body>
772 </section>
773 </chapter>
774 <chapter>
775 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
776 <section>
777 <body>
778 <note>
779 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
780 </note>
781 <p>You now need to merge Linux kernel sources. Here are the ones we currently
782 offer:
783 </p>
784 <table>
785 <tr>
786 <th>ebuild</th>
787 <th>description</th>
788 </tr>
789 <tr>
790 <ti>
791 <path>gentoo-sources</path>
792 </ti>
793 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
794 </tr>
795 <tr>
796 <ti>
797 <path>xfs-sources</path>
798 </ti>
799 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
800 </tr>
801 <tr>
802 <ti>
803 <path>openmosix-sources</path>
804 </ti>
805 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
806 </tr>
807 <tr>
808 <ti>
809 <path>usermode-sources</path>
810 </ti>
811 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
812 </tr>
813 <tr>
814 <ti>
815 <path>vanilla-sources</path>
816 </ti>
817 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you would get from kernel.org</ti>
818 </tr>
819 </table>
820 <warn>
821 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
822 security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
823 </warn>
824 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
825 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
826 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
827 </pre>
828 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
829 </p>
830 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
831 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
832 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
833 to the correct one before proceeding.
834 </p>
835 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
836 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
837 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
838 <comment>Again, this updates your paths. If you get an error saying gcc is not found,
839 this is what you may have to do. </comment>
840 # <c>make menuconfig</c>
841 # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
842 # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
843 </pre>
844 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
845 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
846 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
847 any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
848 &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
849 enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
850 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
851 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
852 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
853 <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
854 ...
855
856 File systems ---&gt;
857 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
858 <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
859 ...
860 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
861 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
862 ...
863 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
864 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
865 ...
866 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
867 <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
868 ...
869 [*] /proc file system support
870 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
871 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
872 [*] Automatically mount at boot
873 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
874 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
875 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
876 ...
877 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
878 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
879 ...
880 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
881 <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
882 </pre>
883 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
884 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
885 370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
886 support for IDE RAID
887 controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
888 </p>
889 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
890 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
891 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
892 &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
893 are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
894 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
895 </p>
896 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
897 kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
898 devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
899 under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
900 &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
901 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
902 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
903 </p>
904 <note>
905 For those who prefer it,
906 it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
907 However, doing this comes at a price:
908 you will lose many of the nifty features that
909 are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
910 filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
911 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
912 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
913 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
914 It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
915 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
916 for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
917 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
918 </note>
919 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
920 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
921 of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
922 to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
923 newer alternatives.
924 If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
925 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
926 </p>
927 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
928 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
929 # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
930 <comment>or</comment>
931 # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
932 # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
933 <comment>or</comment>
934 # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
935 # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
936 <comment>or</comment>
937 # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
938 # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
939 </pre>
940 <warn>
941 In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
942 <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
943 See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
944 for a sample configuration file.
945 </warn>
946 <impo>
947 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
948 the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
949 is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
950 metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
951 <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
952 in real time, as expected),
953 and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
954 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
955 in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
956 </impo>
957 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
958 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
959 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
960 </p>
961 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
962 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
963 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
964 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
965 <comment>or</comment>
966 # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
967 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
968 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
969 <comment>or</comment>
970 # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
971 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
972 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
973 </pre>
974 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
975 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
976 </p>
977 </body>
978 </section>
979 </chapter>
980 <chapter>
981 <title>Installing miscellany necessary packages</title>
982 <section>
983 <body>
984 <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
985 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
986 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
987 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
988 </pre>
989
990 <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
991 because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
992 X support later.
993 </note>
994 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
995 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
996 for the first time.
997 </note>
998 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
999 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1000 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1001 </p>
1002 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1003 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1004 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1005 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1006 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1007 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1008 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1009 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1010 </pre>
1011 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1012 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1013 </p>
1014 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1015 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1016 </pre>
1017 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1018 to work.
1019 </warn>
1020 </body>
1021 </section>
1022 </chapter>
1023 <chapter>
1024 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1025 <section>
1026 <body>
1027 <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1028 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1029 The first file we need to
1030 configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1031 the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1032 Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1033 </p>
1034 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1035 &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1036 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1037 <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1038 #
1039 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1040 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1041 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1042 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1043
1044 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1045
1046 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1047 </comment>
1048 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1049 /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1050 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1051 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1052 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1053 </pre>
1054 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1055 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1056 corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1057 </warn>
1058 </body>
1059 </section>
1060 </chapter>
1061 <chapter>
1062 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1063 <section>
1064 <body>
1065 <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1066 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1067 # <c>passwd</c>
1068 </pre>
1069
1070 <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1071 the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1072 </p>
1073 </body>
1074 </section>
1075 </chapter>
1076 <chapter>
1077 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1078 <section>
1079 <body>
1080 <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1081 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1082 </p>
1083 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1084 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1085 </pre>
1086 </body>
1087 </section>
1088 </chapter>
1089 <chapter>
1090 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1091 <section>
1092 <body>
1093 <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1094 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1095 of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1096 </p>
1097 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1098 127.0.0.1 localhost
1099 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1100 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1101 </pre>
1102 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1103 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1104 </note>
1105 </body>
1106 </section>
1107 </chapter>
1108 <chapter>
1109 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1110 <section>
1111 <body>
1112 <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1113 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1114 need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1115 loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1116 it as a module:
1117 </p>
1118 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1119 Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1120 3c59x
1121 </pre>
1122 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1123 first boot: </p>
1124 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1125 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1126 # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1127 </pre>
1128 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1129 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1130 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1131 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1132 # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1133 # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1134 </pre>
1135 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1136 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1137 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1138 </p>
1139 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1140 depend() {
1141 need pcmcia
1142 }
1143 </pre>
1144 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1145 </p>
1146 </body>
1147 </section>
1148 </chapter>
1149 <chapter>
1150 <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1151 <section>
1152 <body>
1153 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1154 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1155 </pre>
1156 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1157 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1158 liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1159 variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1160 possibilities).
1161 </p>
1162 </body>
1163 </section>
1164 </chapter>
1165 <chapter>
1166 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1167 <section>
1168 <title>Notes</title>
1169 <body>
1170 <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1171 Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1172 LILO as their bootloaders.
1173 </p>
1174 <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1175 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1176 </p>
1177 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1178 with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1179 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1180 memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1181 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1182 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1183 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1184
1185 </body>
1186 </section>
1187 <section>
1188 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1189 <body>
1190 <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1191 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1192 <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1193 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1194 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1195 cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1196 (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1197 to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1198 a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1199 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1200
1201 It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1202 offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1203 a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1204 grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1205 it is time to install GRUB.
1206 </p>
1207 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1208 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1209 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1210 # <c>grub</c>
1211 </pre>
1212 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1213 this time.
1214 Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1215 grub setup for RAID controllers
1216 </impo>
1217 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1218 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1219 right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1220 I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1221 the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1222 I want to type are:
1223 </p>
1224
1225 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1226 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1227 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1228 </pre>
1229
1230 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1231 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1232 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1233 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1234 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1235 </pre>
1236
1237 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1238 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1239 <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1240 </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1241 boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1242 ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1243 MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1244 If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1245 could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1246 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1247 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1248 </p>
1249
1250 <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1251 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1252 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1253 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1254 available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1255 would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1256
1257 Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1258 to make the right choice.
1259 </note>
1260
1261 <p>
1262 Gentoo Linux is now
1263 installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1264 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1265 </p>
1266 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1267 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1268 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1269 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1270 </p>
1271 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1272 default 0
1273 timeout 30
1274 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1275
1276 title=My example Gentoo Linux
1277 root (hd0,0)
1278 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1279
1280 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1281 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1282 root (hd0,0)
1283 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1284
1285 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1286 title=Windows XP
1287 root (hd0,5)
1288 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1289 </pre>
1290 <note>
1291 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1292 </note>
1293 <impo>
1294 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1295 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1296 line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1297 </impo>
1298 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1299 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1300 and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1301 </p>
1302 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1303 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1304 your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1305 loader.
1306 </note>
1307 <note>
1308 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1309 </note>
1310 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1311 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1312 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1313 turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1314 adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1315 </p>
1316 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1317 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1318 devfs is enabled by default.
1319 </note>
1320 </body>
1321 </section>
1322 <section>
1323 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1324 <body>
1325 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1326 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1327 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1328 </p>
1329 <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1330 </p>
1331 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1332 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1333 </pre>
1334 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1335 </p>
1336 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1337 boot=/dev/hda
1338 map=/boot/map
1339 install=/boot/boot.b
1340 prompt
1341 timeout=50
1342 lba32
1343 default=linux
1344
1345 image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1346 label=linux
1347 read-only
1348 root=/dev/hda3
1349
1350 #For dual booting windows/other OS
1351 other=/dev/hda1
1352 label=dos
1353 </pre>
1354 <ul>
1355 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1356 <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1357 <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1358 In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1359 assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1360 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1361 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1362 get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1363 <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1364 with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1365 <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1366 not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1367 your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1368 <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1369 options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1370 <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1371 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1372 it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1373 <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1374 altered during the boot process. </li>
1375 <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1376 </ul>
1377 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1378 into the MBR:
1379 </p>
1380 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1381 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1382 </pre>
1383 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1384 </p>
1385 </body>
1386 </section>
1387 </chapter>
1388 <chapter>
1389 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1390 <section>
1391 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1392 <body>
1393 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1394 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1395 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1396 disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1397 if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1398 make a GRUB
1399 boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1400 to the MBR. Make your
1401 bootdisks like this:
1402 </p>
1403 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1404 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1405 # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1406 # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1407 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1408 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1409 # <c>umount /mnt/floppy</c>
1410 # <c>grub</c>
1411
1412 grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1413 grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1414 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1415 </pre>
1416 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1417 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1418 </body>
1419 </section>
1420 <section>
1421 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1422 <body>
1423 <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1424 </p>
1425 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1426 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1427 <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1428 </pre>
1429 </body>
1430 </section>
1431 </chapter>
1432 <chapter>
1433 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1434 <section>
1435 <body>
1436 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1437
1438 safely unmount your partitions
1439 and reboot the system:
1440 </p>
1441 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1442 # <c>etc-update</c>
1443 # <c>exit</c>
1444 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1445 # <c>cd / </c>
1446 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1447 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1448 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1449 # <c>reboot</c>
1450 </pre>
1451 <note>
1452 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1453 the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1454 generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1455 </note>
1456 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1457 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1458 then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1459 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1460 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1461 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1462 (there is a &quot;click to subscribe&quot; link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1463 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1464 that will
1465 help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1466 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1467 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1468 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1469 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1470 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1471 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1472 </p>
1473 </body>
1474 </section>
1475 </chapter>
1476 <chapter>
1477 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1478 <section>
1479 <body>
1480 <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1481 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1482 us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1483 appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1484 </p>
1485 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1486 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1487 to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1488 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1489 development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1490 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1491 </p>
1492 <ul>
1493 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1494 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1495 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1496 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1497 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1498 </ul>
1499 <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1500 (just as it is to the developers).
1501 </p>
1502 <ul>
1503 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1504 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1505 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1506 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1507 in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1508 </ul>
1509 <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1510 </p>
1511 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1512 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1513 # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1514 </pre>
1515 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1516 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1517 to see additional configuration options.
1518 </p>
1519 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1520 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1521 </p>
1522 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1523 <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1524 </pre>
1525 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1526 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1527 </body>
1528 </section>
1529 </chapter>
1530 </guide>

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