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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc3 Installation Instructions</title>
5 <author title="Chief Architect">
6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Ghost">
13 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Editor">
16 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Editor">
19 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20 </author>
21 <author title="Editor">
22 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Editor">
25 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26 </author>
27 <author title="Editor">
28 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29 </author>
30 <author title="Editor">
31 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32 </author>
33 <author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35 </author>
36 <author title="Editor">
37 <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 </author>
39 <author title="Editor">
40 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
41 </author>
42 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
43 Linux 1.4_rc3. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
44 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
45 scratch.
46 </abstract>
47 <version>2.6</version>
48 <date>20 March 2003</date>
49 <chapter>
50 <title>About the Install</title>
51 <section>
52 <body>
53 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
54 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
55 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
56 kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
57 addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
58 Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
59 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
60 files. </p>
61 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
62 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
63 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
64 slow under those conditions.)</p>
65 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
66 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
67 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
68 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
69 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
70 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
71 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
72 and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
73 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
74 allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
75 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
76 go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
77 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
78 releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
79 this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
80 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
81
82
83 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
84 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</uri> .
85 </p>
86 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
87 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
88 carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
89 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
90 allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
91 found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
92 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
93 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
94 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
95 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
96 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
97 Gentoo 1.4_rc3 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_rc4 will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
98 </p>
99 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
100 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
101 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
102 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
103 </impo>
104 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
105 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
106 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
107 are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
108 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
109 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
110 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
111 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
112 <table>
113 <tr>
114 <th>stage tarball</th>
115 <th>requirements for installation</th>
116 </tr>
117 <tr>
118 <ti>1</ti>
119 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
120 </tr>
121 <tr>
122 <ti>2</ti>
123 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
124 </tr>
125 <tr>
126 <ti>3</ti>
127 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
128 </tr>
129 </table>
130 </body>
131 </section>
132 </chapter>
133 <chapter>
134 <title>Booting</title>
135 <section>
136 <body>
137 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
138 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
139 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c> and then hitting Enter. To see
140 a detailed description of available boot options, press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
141
142 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
143 booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
144 Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
145 &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
146 for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
147 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
148 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
149 Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type passwd and
150 follow the prompts.
151 </p>
152 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
153 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
154 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
155 </p>
156 </body>
157 </section>
158 </chapter>
159 <chapter>
160 <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
161 <section>
162 <body>
163 <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
164 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
165 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
166 /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
167 type:
168 </p>
169 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
170 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
171 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
172 </pre>
173 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
174 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
175 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
176 </p>
177 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
178 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
179 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
180 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
181 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
182 </pre>
183 <note>
184 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
185 </note>
186 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
187 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
188 </p>
189 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
190 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
191 # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
192 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
193 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
194 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
195 </pre>
196 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
197 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
198 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
199 <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
200 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
201 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
202 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
203 # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
204 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
205 </pre>
206 </body>
207 </section>
208 </chapter>
209 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
210 <chapter>
211 <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
212 <section>
213 <body>
214 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
215 </p>
216 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
217 portion of the install. </warn>
218 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
219 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
220 # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
221 # <i>modprobe ds</i>
222 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
223 </pre>
224 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
225 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
226 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
227 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
228 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
229 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
230 as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
231 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
232 remove it). </p>
233 </body>
234 </section>
235 </chapter>
236 -->
237 <chapter>
238 <title>Configuring Networking</title>
239 <section>
240 <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
241 <body>
242 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
243 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
244 network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
245 among others.</p>
246
247 <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
248 list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
249 </p>
250 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
251 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
252 inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
253 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
254 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
255 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
256 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
257 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
258 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
259 Interrupt:11
260 </pre>
261 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
262 and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
263 resolution is working correctly, etc.
264 </p>
265 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
266 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
267 </pre>
268 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
269 </body>
270 </section>
271 <section>
272 <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
273 <body>
274 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
275 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
276 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
277 device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
278 the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
279 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
280 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
281 # <c> adsl-start </c>
282 </pre>
283 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
284 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
285 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
286 </body>
287 </section>
288 <section>
289 <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
290 <body>
291 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
292 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
293 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
294 </pre>
295 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
296 </body>
297 </section>
298 <section>
299 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
300 <body>
301 <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
302 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
303 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
304 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
305 </pre>
306 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
307 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
308 </note>
309 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
310 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
311 </body>
312 </section>
313 <section>
314 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
315 <body>
316 <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
317 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
318 Type in the following commands, replacing
319 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
320 with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
321 with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
322 $GTWAY with your default gateway.
323 </p>
324 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
325 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
326 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
327 </pre>
328 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
329 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
330 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
331 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
332 domain mydomain.com
333 nameserver 10.0.0.1
334 nameserver 10.0.0.2
335 </pre>
336 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
337 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
338 </body>
339 </section>
340 <section>
341 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
342 <body>
343 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
344 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
345 </p>
346 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
347 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
348 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
349 # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
350 </pre>
351 </body>
352 </section>
353 <section>
354 <title>Networking is go!</title>
355 <body>
356 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
357 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
358 </body>
359 </section>
360 </chapter>
361 <chapter>
362 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
363 <section>
364 <body>
365 <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
366 You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
367 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
368 # <c>date</c>
369 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
370 <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
371 # <c>date 022709042003</c>
372 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
373 </pre>
374 </body>
375 </section>
376 </chapter>
377 <chapter>
378 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
379 <section>
380 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
381 <body>
382 <p>
383 In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
384 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
385 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
386 install.
387 </p>
388 <p>
389 To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
390 probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
391 </p>
392 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
393 /dev/hda
394 </pre>
395
396 <p>
397 If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
398 </p>
399
400 <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
401 /dev/sda
402 </pre>
403
404 <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
405 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
406 worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
407 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
408 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
409 </body>
410 </section>
411 <section>
412 <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
413 <body>
414 <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
415 <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
416 block device as a command-line argument. </p>
417
418 <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
419 device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
420 <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
421 practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
422 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
423 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
424 that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
425 up the full disk. </p>
426
427 <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
428 specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
429
430 <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
431 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c></note>
432
433 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
434 # fdisk /dev/hda
435 </pre>
436 <p>
437 or
438 </p>
439 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
440 # fdisk /dev/sda
441 </pre>
442
443 <impo>
444 <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
445 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
446 contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
447 lost.</b>
448 </impo>
449
450 <p>
451 Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
452 </p>
453
454 <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
455 Command (m for help):
456 </pre>
457
458
459 <p>
460 Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
461 </p>
462
463 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
464 Command (m for help): p
465
466 Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
467 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
468
469 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
470 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
471 /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
472 /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
473 /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
474 /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
475 /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
476 /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
477 /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
478 /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
479
480 Command (m for help):
481 </pre>
482
483 <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
484 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
485 (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
486
487 <p>
488 Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
489 devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
490 <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
491 allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
492 too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
493 created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
494 counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
495 partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
496 them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
497 </p>
498
499 <p>
500 All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
501 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
502
503 <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
504 <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
505 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
506 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
507 acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
508
509 <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
510 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
511 partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
512 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, and '82' is the correct
513 partition type for Linux swap partitions. You set the partition type using the
514 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
515 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
516 </p>
517 </body>
518 </section>
519 <section>
520 <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
521 <body>
522
523 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
524 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
525 partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
526 process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
527 look like this: </p>
528
529 <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
530 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
531 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
532 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
533
534 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
535 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
536 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
537 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
538
539 Command (m for help):
540 </pre>
541
542 <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
543 The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
544 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
545 the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
546 will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
547 us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
548 day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
549 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
550 likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
551
552 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
553 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
554 required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
555 loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
556 cylinder 1024.
557 </p>
558
559 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
560 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
561 relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
562 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
563 being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
564
565 <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
566 of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
567 store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
568 this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
569
570
571 <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
572 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
573 Linux:</p>
574
575 <table>
576 <tr>
577 <th>Partition</th>
578 <th>Size</th>
579 <th>Type</th>
580 <th>example device</th>
581 </tr>
582 <tr>
583 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
584 <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
585 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
586 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
587 </tr>
588 <tr>
589 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
590 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
591 in your system.</ti>
592 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
593 <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
594 </tr>
595 <tr>
596 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
597 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
598 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
599 <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
600 </tr>
601 </table>
602
603 <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
604 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
605 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
606 current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
607 to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
608 existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
609
610 <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
611 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
612 is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
613 <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
614 from the wrong drive.</impo>
615
616 <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
617 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
618 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
619
620 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
621 Command (m for help): d
622 Partition number (1-4): 1
623 </pre>
624
625 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
626 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
627 saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
628 type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
629 deleted.</p>
630 <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
631 find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
632 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
633 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
634 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
635 disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
636 -->
637 <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
638 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
639 <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
640 with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
641
642 <pre caption="An empty partition table">
643 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
644 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
645 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
646
647 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
648
649 Command (m for help):
650 </pre>
651
652 <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
653 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
654 <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
655 create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
656 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+100M</c> to create a
657 partition 100MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
658
659 <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
660 Command (m for help): n
661 Command action
662 e extended
663 p primary partition (1-4)
664 p
665 Partition number (1-4): 1
666 First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
667 Using default value 1
668 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +100M
669 </pre>
670
671 <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
672
673 <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
674 Command (m for help): p
675
676 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
677 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
678 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
679
680 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
681 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
682 </pre>
683
684 <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
685 new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
686 type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
687 When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
688 type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
689 <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
690 type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
691 a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
692
693 <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
694 Command (m for help): p
695
696 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
697 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
698 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
699
700 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
701 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
702 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
703 </pre>
704
705 <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
706 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
707 partition. Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
708 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
709 When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
710 up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
711 typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
712 this:</p>
713
714 <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
715 Command (m for help): p
716
717 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
718 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
719 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
720
721 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
722 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
723 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
724 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
725 </pre>
726
727 <p>
728 Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
729 our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
730 <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
731 type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
732 column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
733 enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
734 install.
735 </p>
736
737 <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
738 allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
739 </body>
740 </section>
741 <section>
742 <title>Creating filesystems</title>
743 <body>
744 <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
745 the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
746 We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
747 </p>
748
749 <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
750 its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
751 we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
752
753 <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
754 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
755 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
756 <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
757 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
758 Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
759 filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
760
761 <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
762 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
763 like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
764 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
765 Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
766 design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
767 very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
768 files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
769 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
770
771 <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
772 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
773 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
774 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
775 now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
776 filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
777 use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
778 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
779 non-boot partitions.</p>
780
781 <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
782 Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
783 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
784 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
785 a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
786 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
787 when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
788 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
789
790 <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
791 become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
792 comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
793 point.</p>
794
795 <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
796 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
797 journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
798 refined and recommended for general use.</p>
799
800 <!-- Corner case, confusing
801 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
802 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
803 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
804 a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
805 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
806 This can be done as follows:
807 </p>
808 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
809 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
810 <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
811 </pre>
812 <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
813 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
814 If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
815 </warn>
816 -->
817
818 <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
819 all our partitions for use:</p>
820
821 <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
822 # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
823 # mkswap /dev/hda2
824 # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
825 </pre>
826
827 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
828 robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
829 <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
830 here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
831 since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
832 go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
833
834 <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
835 during the installation process:</p>
836
837 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
838 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
839 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
840 </pre>
841 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
842 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
843 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
844 </pre>
845 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
846 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
847 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
848 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
849 </pre>
850 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
851 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
852 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
853 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
854 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
855 </pre>
856 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
857 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
858 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
859 </pre>
860 <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
861 <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
862 The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
863 XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
864 partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
865 a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
866 journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
867
868 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
869 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
870 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
871 </pre>
872 </body>
873 </section>
874 </chapter>
875 <chapter>
876 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
877 <section>
878 <body>
879 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
880 provides later:
881 </p>
882 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
883 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
884 </pre>
885
886 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
887 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
888 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
889 Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
890 Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
891 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
892 </p>
893
894 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
895 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
896 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
897 We will get to that in a bit.
898 </impo>
899
900 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
901 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
902 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
903 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
904 # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
905 </pre>
906
907 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
908 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
909 </body>
910 </section>
911 </chapter>
912 <chapter>
913 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
914 <section>
915 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
916 <body>
917
918 <p>
919 Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
920 basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
921
922 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
923 method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc3.tar.bz2</path> image.
924 If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
925 have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
926 time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
927 optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
928 accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
929 to see what's available on your CD.</p>
930
931 <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
932 <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
933 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
934 tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
935 tarball" section.</p>
936
937 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
938 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
939 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
940 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</c>
941 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
942 Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
943 Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
944 Save the file and quit the browser
945
946 <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
947 # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
948 </pre>
949 </body>
950 </section>
951 <section>
952 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
953 <body>
954
955 <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
956 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
957 tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
958 stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
959 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
960
961 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
962 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
963
964 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
965 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
966 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
967 <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
968 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
969 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
970 </pre>
971
972 <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
973 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
974 </body>
975 </section>
976 <section>
977 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
978 <body>
979 <p>
980 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
981 Gentoo Linux system.
982 </p>
983
984 <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
985 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
986 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
987 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
988 # <c>env-update</c>
989 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
990 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
991 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
992 </pre>
993 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
994 We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
995 </p>
996 </body>
997 </section>
998 </chapter>
999 <chapter>
1000 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1001 <section>
1002 <body>
1003
1004 <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
1005 the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
1006 The Portage tree
1007 contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
1008 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1009 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1010
1011 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1012 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1013 </pre>
1014
1015 </body>
1016 </section>
1017 </chapter>
1018 <chapter>
1019 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1020 <section>
1021 <body>
1022
1023 <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1024 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1025 Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1026 programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1027 this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1028 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1029 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1030 fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1031 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1032 of current USE flags can be found <uri
1033 link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1034
1035 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1036 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1037 (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1038 will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1039 is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1040 to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1041 so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1042 performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1043 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1044
1045 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1046 firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1047 a simple visual editor.
1048 </p>
1049 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1050 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1051 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1052 </pre>
1053 <note>
1054 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1055 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1056 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1057 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1058 <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1059 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1060 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1061 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1062 in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1063 </note>
1064 </body>
1065 </section>
1066 </chapter>
1067 <chapter>
1068 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1069 <section>
1070 <body>
1071 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1072 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1073 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1074 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1075 is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1076 </p>
1077 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1078 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1079 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1080 as follows:</p>
1081 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1082 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1083 # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1084 </pre>
1085 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
1086 </p>
1087 <note>
1088 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1089 using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1090 change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1091 starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1092 </note>
1093 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1094 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1095 </pre>
1096 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1097 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
1098 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1099 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1100 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1101 </p>
1102 </body>
1103 </section>
1104 </chapter>
1105 <chapter>
1106 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1107 <section>
1108 <body>
1109
1110 <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1111 this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1112 </note>
1113
1114 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1115 to do is install the rest of the system.
1116 </p>
1117 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1118 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1119 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1120 # <c>emerge system</c>
1121 </pre>
1122 <p>It is going to take a while
1123 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1124 thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1125 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1126 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1127 </p>
1128 <p>When this process completes, your system will be the equivalent of a stage3 system. You have
1129 a couple of choices on how to continue
1130 at this point. You can move onto the stage3 instructions and complete those. Doing that will
1131 get your system right up to date with what is in the current Portage tree. This is not necessary,
1132 but it is highly recommended.
1133 </p>
1134 </body>
1135 </section>
1136 </chapter>
1137 <chapter>
1138 <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1139 <section>
1140 <body>
1141 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1142 with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1143 <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1144 However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1145 for you, you can update your stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1146 by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1147 otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1148 Gentoo updates and fixes.
1149 In any case, feel free to skip these
1150 steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1151 </p>
1152
1153 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1154 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"</c>
1155 # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1156 <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1157 # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1158 <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1159 # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1160 </pre>
1161 </body>
1162 </section>
1163 </chapter>
1164 <chapter>
1165 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1166 <section>
1167 <body>
1168 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1169 <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1170 in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1171 /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1172 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1173 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1174 </pre>
1175 </body>
1176 </section>
1177 </chapter>
1178 <chapter>
1179 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1180 <section>
1181 <body>
1182 <note>
1183 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1184 </note>
1185 <p>You now need to merge Linux kernel sources. Here are the ones we currently
1186 offer:
1187 </p>
1188 <table>
1189 <tr>
1190 <th>ebuild</th>
1191 <th>description</th>
1192 </tr>
1193 <tr>
1194 <ti>
1195 <path>gentoo-sources</path>
1196 </ti>
1197 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
1198 </tr>
1199 <tr>
1200 <ti>
1201 <path>xfs-sources</path>
1202 </ti>
1203 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
1204 </tr>
1205 <tr>
1206 <ti>
1207 <path>openmosix-sources</path>
1208 </ti>
1209 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
1210 </tr>
1211 <tr>
1212 <ti>
1213 <path>usermode-sources</path>
1214 </ti>
1215 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
1216 </tr>
1217 <tr>
1218 <ti>
1219 <path>vanilla-sources</path>
1220 </ti>
1221 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you would get from kernel.org</ti>
1222 </tr>
1223 </table>
1224 <warn>
1225 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1226 security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1227 </warn>
1228 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1229 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1230 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1231 </pre>
1232 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1233 </p>
1234 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1235 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1236 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1237 to the correct one before proceeding.
1238 </p>
1239 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
1240 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1241 # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1242 # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1243 # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1244 </pre>
1245 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1246 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1247 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1248 any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1249 &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1250 enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1251 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1252 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1253 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1254 <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1255 ...
1256
1257 File systems ---&gt;
1258 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1259 <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1260 ...
1261 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1262 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1263 ...
1264 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1265 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1266 ...
1267 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1268 <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1269 ...
1270 [*] /proc file system support
1271 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1272 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1273 [*] Automatically mount at boot
1274 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1275 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1276 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1277 ...
1278 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1279 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1280 ...
1281 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1282 <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1283 </pre>
1284 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1285 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1286 370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1287 support for IDE RAID
1288 controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1289 </p>
1290 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1291 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1292 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1293 &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1294 are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1295 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1296 </p>
1297 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1298 kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1299 devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1300 under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1301 &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1302 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1303 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1304 </p>
1305 <note>
1306 For those who prefer it,
1307 it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1308 However, doing this comes at a price:
1309 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1310 are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1311 filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1312 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1313 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1314 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1315 It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1316 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1317 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1318 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1319 </note>
1320 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1321 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1322 of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1323 to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1324 newer alternatives.
1325 If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1326 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1327 </p>
1328 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1329 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1330 # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1331 <comment>or</comment>
1332 # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1333 # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1334 <comment>or</comment>
1335 # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1336 # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1337 <comment>or</comment>
1338 # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1339 # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1340 </pre>
1341 <impo>
1342 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1343 the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1344 is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1345 metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1346 <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1347 in real time, as expected),
1348 and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1349 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1350 in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1351 </impo>
1352 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1353 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1354 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1355 </p>
1356 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1357 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1358 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1359 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1360 <comment>or</comment>
1361 # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1362 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1363 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1364 <comment>or</comment>
1365 # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1366 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1367 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1368 </pre>
1369 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1370 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1371 </p>
1372 </body>
1373 </section>
1374 </chapter>
1375 <chapter>
1376 <title>Installing miscellany necessary packages</title>
1377 <section>
1378 <body>
1379 <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1380 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1381 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1382 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1383 </pre>
1384
1385 <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1386 because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1387 X support later.
1388 </note>
1389 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1390 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1391 for the first time.
1392 </note>
1393 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1394 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1395 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1396 </p>
1397 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1398 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1399 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1400 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1401 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1402 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1403 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1404 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1405 </pre>
1406 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1407 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1408 </p>
1409 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1410 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1411 </pre>
1412 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1413 to work.
1414 </warn>
1415 </body>
1416 </section>
1417 </chapter>
1418 <chapter>
1419 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1420 <section>
1421 <body>
1422 <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1423 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1424 The first file we need to
1425 configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1426 the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1427 Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1428 </p>
1429 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1430 &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1431 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1432 <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1433 #
1434 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1435 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1436 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1437 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1438
1439 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1440
1441 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1442 </comment>
1443 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1444 /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1445 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1446 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1447 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1448 </pre>
1449 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1450 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1451 corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1452 </warn>
1453 </body>
1454 </section>
1455 </chapter>
1456 <chapter>
1457 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1458 <section>
1459 <body>
1460 <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1461 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1462 # <c>passwd</c>
1463 </pre>
1464
1465 <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1466 the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1467 </p>
1468 </body>
1469 </section>
1470 </chapter>
1471 <chapter>
1472 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1473 <section>
1474 <body>
1475 <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1476 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1477 </p>
1478 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1479 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1480 </pre>
1481 </body>
1482 </section>
1483 </chapter>
1484 <chapter>
1485 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1486 <section>
1487 <body>
1488 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1489 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1490 of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1491 </p>
1492 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1493 127.0.0.1 localhost
1494 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1495 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1496 </pre>
1497 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1498 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1499 </note>
1500 </body>
1501 </section>
1502 </chapter>
1503 <chapter>
1504 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1505 <section>
1506 <body>
1507 <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1508 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1509 need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1510 loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1511 it as a module:
1512 </p>
1513 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1514 Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1515 3c59x
1516 </pre>
1517 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1518 first boot: </p>
1519 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1520 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1521 # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1522 </pre>
1523 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1524 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1525 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1526 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1527 # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1528 # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1529 </pre>
1530 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1531 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1532 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1533 </p>
1534 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1535 depend() {
1536 need pcmcia
1537 }
1538 </pre>
1539 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1540 </p>
1541 </body>
1542 </section>
1543 </chapter>
1544 <chapter>
1545 <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1546 <section>
1547 <body>
1548 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1549 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1550 </pre>
1551 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1552 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1553 liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1554 variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1555 possibilities).
1556 </p>
1557 </body>
1558 </section>
1559 </chapter>
1560 <chapter>
1561 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1562 <section>
1563 <title>Notes</title>
1564 <body>
1565 <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1566 Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1567 LILO as their bootloaders.
1568 </p>
1569 <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1570 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1571 </p>
1572 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1573 with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1574 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1575 memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1576 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1577 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1578 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1579
1580 </body>
1581 </section>
1582 <section>
1583 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1584 <body>
1585 <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1586 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1587 <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1588 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1589 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1590 cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1591 (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1592 to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1593 a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hard drive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1594 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1595
1596 It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1597 offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1598 a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1599 grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1600 it is time to install GRUB.
1601 </p>
1602 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1603 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1604 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1605 # <c>grub</c>
1606 </pre>
1607 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1608 this time.
1609 Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1610 grub setup for RAID controllers
1611 </impo>
1612 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1613 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1614 right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1615 I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1616 the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1617 I want to type are:
1618 </p>
1619
1620 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1621 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1622 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1623 </pre>
1624
1625 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1626 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1627 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1628 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1629 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1630 </pre>
1631
1632 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1633 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1634 <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1635 </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1636 boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1637 ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1638 MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1639 If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1640 could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1641 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1642 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1643 </p>
1644
1645 <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1646 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1647 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1648 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1649 available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1650 would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1651
1652 Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1653 to make the right choice.
1654 </note>
1655
1656 <p>
1657 Gentoo Linux is now
1658 installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1659 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1660 </p>
1661 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1662 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1663 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1664 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1665 </p>
1666 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1667 default 0
1668 timeout 30
1669 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1670
1671 title=My example Gentoo Linux
1672 root (hd0,0)
1673 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1674
1675 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1676 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1677 root (hd0,0)
1678 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1679
1680 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1681 title=Windows XP
1682 root (hd0,5)
1683 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1684 </pre>
1685 <note>
1686 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1687 </note>
1688 <impo>
1689 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1690 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1691 line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1692 </impo>
1693 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1694 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1695 and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1696 </p>
1697 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1698 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1699 your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1700 loader.
1701 </note>
1702 <note>
1703 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1704 </note>
1705 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1706 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1707 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1708 turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1709 adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1710 </p>
1711 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1712 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1713 devfs is enabled by default.
1714 </note>
1715 </body>
1716 </section>
1717 <section>
1718 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1719 <body>
1720 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1721 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1722 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1723 </p>
1724 <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1725 </p>
1726 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1727 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1728 </pre>
1729 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1730 </p>
1731 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1732 boot=/dev/hda
1733 map=/boot/map
1734 install=/boot/boot.b
1735 prompt
1736 timeout=50
1737 lba32
1738 default=linux
1739
1740 image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1741 label=linux
1742 read-only
1743 root=/dev/hda3
1744
1745 #For dual booting windows/other OS
1746 other=/dev/hda1
1747 label=dos
1748 </pre>
1749 <ul>
1750 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1751 <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1752 <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1753 In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1754 assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1755 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1756 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1757 get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1758 <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1759 with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1760 <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1761 not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1762 your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1763 <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1764 options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1765 <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1766 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1767 it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1768 <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1769 altered during the boot process. </li>
1770 <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1771 </ul>
1772 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1773 into the MBR:
1774 </p>
1775 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1776 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1777 </pre>
1778 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1779 </p>
1780 </body>
1781 </section>
1782 </chapter>
1783 <chapter>
1784 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1785 <section>
1786 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1787 <body>
1788 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1789 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1790 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1791 disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1792 if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1793 make a GRUB
1794 boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1795 to the MBR. Make your
1796 bootdisks like this:
1797 </p>
1798 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1799 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1800 # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1801 # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1802 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1803 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1804 # <c>umount /mnt/floppy</c>
1805 # <c>grub</c>
1806
1807 grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1808 grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1809 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1810 </pre>
1811 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1812 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1813 </body>
1814 </section>
1815 <section>
1816 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1817 <body>
1818 <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1819 </p>
1820 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1821 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1822 <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1823 </pre>
1824 </body>
1825 </section>
1826 </chapter>
1827 <chapter>
1828 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1829 <section>
1830 <body>
1831 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1832
1833 safely unmount your partitions
1834 and reboot the system:
1835 </p>
1836 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1837 # <c>etc-update</c>
1838 # <c>exit</c>
1839 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1840 # <c>cd / </c>
1841 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1842 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1843 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1844 # <c>reboot</c>
1845 </pre>
1846 <note>
1847 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1848 the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1849 generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1850 </note>
1851 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1852 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1853 then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1854 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1855 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1856 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1857 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
1858 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1859 that will
1860 help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1861 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1862 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1863 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1864 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1865 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1866 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1867 </p>
1868 </body>
1869 </section>
1870 </chapter>
1871 <chapter>
1872 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1873 <section>
1874 <body>
1875 <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1876 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1877 us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1878 appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1879 </p>
1880 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1881 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1882 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
1883 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1884 development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1885 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1886 </p>
1887 <ul>
1888 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1889 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1890 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1891 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1892 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1893 </ul>
1894 <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1895 (just as it is to the developers).
1896 </p>
1897 <ul>
1898 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1899 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1900 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1901 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1902 in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1903 </ul>
1904 <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1905 </p>
1906 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1907 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1908 # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1909 </pre>
1910 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1911 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1912 to see additional configuration options.
1913 </p>
1914 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1915 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1916 </p>
1917 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1918 <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1919 </pre>
1920 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1921 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1922 </body>
1923 </section>
1924 </chapter>
1925 </guide>

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