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487<c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only 487<c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
488allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was 488allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
489too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was 489too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
490created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and 490created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
491counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended 491counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
492partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside 492partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
493them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit. 493them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
494</p> 494</p>
495 495
496<p> 496<p>
497All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1 497All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
498through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p> 498through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
499 499
500<p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions. 500<p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
501<c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions 501<c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
502<c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. So, in this example, you would never actually 502<c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
503<i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply 503<i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
504acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p> 504acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
505 505
506<p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition 506<p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
507type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the 507type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
508partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for 508partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
509partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, and '82' is the correct 509partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, and '82' is the correct
510partition type for Linux swap partitions. You set the partition type using the 510partition type for Linux swap partitions. You set the partition type using the
511<c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type 511<c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
512setting to auto-detect fileystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time. 512setting to auto-detect fileystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
513</p> 513</p>
514</body> 514</body>
515</section> 515</section>
516<section> 516<section>
517<title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title> 517<title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
518<body> 518<body>
519 519
520<p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disks and partitioning is 520<p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
521done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk 521done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
522partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the 522partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
523process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will 523process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
524look like this: </p> 524look like this: </p>
525 525
526<pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps"> 526<pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
527Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes 527Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
528240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders 528240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
529Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes 529Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
530 530
531 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System 531 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
532/dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux 532/dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
533/dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap 533/dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
534/dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux 534/dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
535 535
536Command (m for help): 536Command (m for help):
537</pre> 537</pre>
538 538
539<p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions. 539<p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
540The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small 540The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
541partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all 541partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
542the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you 542the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
543will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives 543will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
544us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal 544us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
545day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e> 545day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
546for safety. Again, the boot partition is <c>/dev/hda1</c>. If you are setting 546for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
547up a SCSI system, your boot partition will likely end up being 547likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
548<c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
549 548
550<p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The 549<p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
551kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition, 550kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
552relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB. 551relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
553Again, if you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up 552If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
554being <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p> 553being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
555 554
556<p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest 555<p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
557of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to 556of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
558store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system, 557store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
559this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p> 558this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
560 559
561 560
562<p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the 561<p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
563suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo 562suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
564Linux:</p> 563Linux:</p>
565 564
566<table> 565<table>
567 <tr> 566 <tr>
568 <th>Partition</th> 567 <th>Partition</th>
569 <th>Size</th> 568 <th>Size</th>

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