Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log

Revision 1.146 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Wed Aug 6 08:47:24 2003 UTC (15 years, 5 months ago) by avenj
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.145: +52 -55 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Necessary doc fixes

1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 <author title="Chief Architect">
6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author">Jerry Alexandratos</author>
10 <author title="Ghost">
11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
33 </author>
34 <author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
36 </author>
37 <author title="Editor">
38 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
39 </author>
40 <author title="Editor">
41 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
42 </author>
43 <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
44 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
45 </author>
46 <author title="Editor">
47 <mail link="avenj@gentoo.org">Jon Portnoy</mail>
48 </author>
49 <author title="Reviewer">
50 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail>
51 </author>
52 <author title="Reviewer">
53 <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>
54 </author>
55 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
56 Linux 1.4, release version (not _rc versions.) The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
57 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
58 scratch.
59 </abstract>
61 <license/>
63 <version>2.6.4</version>
64 <date>6th of August 2003</date>
65 <chapter>
66 <title>About the Install</title>
67 <section>
68 <body>
69 <p>First, if you are new to this, welcome to Gentoo Linux! Gentoo
70 Linux can be installed in many different ways. Those who are looking
71 for a rapid install can use pre-built packages, while those who want
72 the ultimate in customizability can compile Gentoo Linux entirely
73 from the original source code. The method you choose is up to
74 you.</p>
76 <p>One significant change in relation to the official 1.4 release is
77 our new 2-CD installation set, which can be ordered from <uri
78 link="http://store.gentoo.org">The Gentoo Linux Store</uri>, in
79 addition to being available on our mirrors. We currently have 2-CD
80 installation sets for x86 (486 and above), i686 (Pentium Pro,
81 Pentium II, Athlon/Duron and above), Pentium III, Pentium 4, and Athlon XP.
82 To see what 2-CD set is right for you, read the detailed
83 descriptions of each product in the <uri
84 link="http://store.gentoo.org">store</uri>. The store descriptions
85 contain fairly comprehensive CPU compatibility information.</p>
87 <p>So, about the 2 CD set -- here's what's on each CD. The first
88 CD ("CD 1") is called "Live CD Installation," and is a bootable CD-ROM,
89 meaning that you can put "CD 1" in your drive and run Gentoo Linux
90 directly from the CD. You can then use this CD-based version of
91 Gentoo to install Gentoo Linux 1.4 to your hard disk. In addition
92 to containing a bootable Gentoo Linux environment, every CD 1
93 contains everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly, even
94 without a connection to the Internet. In addition, several
95 pre-compiled packages are also included on CD 1, such as the
96 ever-important XFree86 X server. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image
97 file for CD 1, its name will end in "-cd1.iso".</p>
99 <p>In contrast, the second CD ("CD 2") isn't bootable, and contains
100 lots of pre-built packages for your system. Included on this CD are
101 optimized versions of packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice,
102 Mozilla, Evolution, and others. CD 2 is <i>optional</i> and is
103 intended for those people who are interested in installing Gentoo
104 Linux very quickly. The packages included on CD 2 typically take
105 about 36 hours to compile from source on a typical modern
106 single-processor system. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image file for CD
107 2, its name will end in "-cd2.iso". </p>
109 <note>A complete Gentoo Linux 2-CD set contains the Gentoo Reference
110 Platform, which is a complete pre-built Gentoo Linux system including GNOME,
111 KDE, Mozilla, and OpenOffice. The Gentoo Reference Platform ("GRP")
112 was created to allow rapid Gentoo Linux installs
113 packages for those who need this capability. The "compile from
114 source" functionality, which is the cornerstone of Gentoo Linux,
115 will always be a fully-supported installation option as well. The
116 purpose of the GRP is to make Gentoo Linux more convenient for some
117 users, without impacting Gentoo's powerful "compile from source"
118 installation process in any way.</note>
120 <p>In addition to our 2-CD set, we also have a very small "basic"
121 Live CD that you can use to boot your system. Once your system has
122 booted, you can configure a connection to the Internet and then
123 install Gentoo over the network. The advantage of this "basic" CD is
124 that it is small, and thus the ISO CD-ROM image file can be
125 downloaded quickly. If you're an advanced user who wants to install
126 the most up-to-date version of Gentoo Linux available, and have a
127 fast network connection, then you may prefer this option. If you
128 have an ISO CD-ROM image file for our "basic" Live CD, its name will
129 end in "-basic.iso".</p>
131 <p>To use any Gentoo Linux CD-based installation method, you will
132 need to have a 486+ processor and ideally at least 64 Megabytes of
133 RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully built with 64MB of RAM +
134 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully slow under
135 those conditions.)</p>
137 <p>Once you boot one of our Live CDs, you have even more options.
138 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot;
139 tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system
140 you want to compile yourself. The stage1 tarball is used when you
141 want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The
142 stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system from a
143 bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The stage3 tarball already
144 contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for
145 you. If you are interested in doing a "GRP" install, then the
146 stage3 tarball should be used.</p>
148 <p><b>If you're not doing a GRP install, should you start from a stage1, stage2, or
149 stage3 tarball?</b> Here is some information that should help you
150 make this decision.
151 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total
152 control over the optimization settings and optional build-time
153 functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes
154 stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing.
155 It is also a great installation method for those who want to more
156 about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.</p>
158 <p>
159 Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing
160 this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we
161 chose for your particular stage2 tarball. And choosing to go with a
162 stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also
163 means that your base system will have the optimization settings that
164 we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were
165 carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
166 stability.) Since major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's
167 specifically optimized for various popular processors, starting
168 from a stage3 can offer the best of all worlds -- a fast install
169 and a system that is well-optimized.
170 <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the
171 first time, consider using a stage3 tarball for
172 installation, or a stage3 with GRP.</b></p>
174 <note><b>Advanced users:</b> if you use a stage3 install, you should not
175 change the default CHOST setting in make.conf. If you need to make
176 such a change, you should start with a stage1 tarball and build up
177 your system with the desired CHOST setting. The CHOST setting
178 typically looks something like this:
179 <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>.</note>
181 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
182 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
183 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
184 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
185 </impo>
187 <note>Another note: the installation instructions in the LiveCD may not
188 be as up-to-date as our Web documentation at
189 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri>. Refer to
190 our Web documentation for the most up-to-date
191 installation instructions.
192 </note>
196 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will
197 download, burn CD(s),
198 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
199 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
200 are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
201 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
202 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc), boot it and have a
203 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. After your basic Gentoo Linux system
204 is running, you can optionally use "CD 2" of our 2-CD set and install any
205 number of pre-built packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice, Mozilla, or
206 others that you'd like on your system.
207 </p>
208 <p>Depending on what stage of the build
209 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
210 <table>
211 <tr>
212 <th>stage tarball</th>
213 <th>Internet access required</th>
214 <th>Media required</th>
215 <th>steps</th>
216 </tr>
217 <tr>
218 <ti>1</ti>
219 <ti>Yes</ti>
220 <ti>"basic" or "CD 1"</ti>
221 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, final config</ti>
222 </tr>
223 <tr>
224 <ti>2</ti>
225 <ti>Yes</ti>
226 <ti>"basic" or "CD 1"</ti>
227 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, final config</ti>
228 </tr>
229 <tr>
230 <ti>3</ti>
231 <ti>No if using "CD 1", Yes otherwise</ti>
232 <ti>"basic" or "CD 1"</ti>
233 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync (not required if
234 using "CD 1"), final config</ti>
235 </tr>
236 <tr>
237 <ti>3+GRP</ti>
238 <ti>No</ti>
239 <ti>"CD 1", optionally "CD 2"</ti>
240 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, final config, install CD 1
241 pre-built packages (optional), reboot,
242 install extra pre-built packages like KDE and GNOME (if using
243 "CD 2").</ti>
244 </tr>
245 </table>
246 <note>Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about
247 ATA RAID on the bottom of this document before proceeding.
248 </note>
249 </body>
250 </section>
251 </chapter>
252 <chapter>
253 <title>Booting</title>
254 <section>
255 <body>
256 <warn>Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the
257 available boot options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong
258 keyboard settings, unstarted pcmcia services etc.</warn>
260 <p>Start by booting your Live CD of choice. You should see a fancy
261 boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you
262 can hit Enter to begin the boot process, or boot the LiveCD with
263 custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options
264 and then hitting Enter. For example <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>.
265 If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with more than one
266 processor ("SMP",) then you should type <c>smp</c> instead of
267 <c>gentoo</c> at the prompt. This will allow the LiveCD to see all
268 the processors in your system, not just the first one.</p>
270 <p>
271 Consult the following table for a partial list of available kernels and
272 options or press F2 and F3 to view the help screens.</p>
274 <table>
275 <tr>
276 <th>Available kernels</th>
277 <th>description</th>
278 </tr>
280 <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>standard gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
281 <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
282 <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
283 <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
284 <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
286 </table>
288 <p>
289 <table>
290 <tr>
291 <th>Available boot options</th>
292 <th>description</th>
293 </tr>
295 <tr><ti>doataraid</ti>
296 <ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
298 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti>
299 <ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)</ti></tr>
301 <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti>
302 <ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
304 <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti>
305 <ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
307 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti>
308 <ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
310 <tr><ti>noapm</ti>
311 <ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
313 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti>
314 <ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
316 <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti>
317 <ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
319 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti>
320 <ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
322 <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
323 <ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
325 <tr><ti>nousb</ti>
326 <ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
328 <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti>
329 <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
331 <tr><ti>cdcache</ti>
332 <ti>Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram, This uses 40mb of RAM , but allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another cdrom.</ti></tr>
334 </table></p>
337 <p>Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with an even fancier boot
338 screen and progress bar:</p>
340 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-boot.png" caption="The Gentoo
341 Linux Live CD booting" />
344 <p>Once the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in
345 to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as
346 &quot;<c>root</c>&quot;, the "super user." You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
347 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
348 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
349 Alt-F1. The console will look like this:</p>
351 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-con.png" caption="The Gentoo
352 Linux Live CD console" />
354 <note><b>Advanced users:</b> When the Live CD boots, the Live CD root password is
355 set to a random string for security purposes. If you plan to start
356 <c>sshd</c> to allow remote logins to your Live CD, you should set the Live
357 CD root password now by typing <c>passwd</c> and following the prompts.
358 Otherwise, you will not know the proper password for logging into the Live
359 CD over the network. </note>
361 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
362 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
363 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
364 </p>
365 </body>
366 </section>
367 </chapter>
368 <chapter>
369 <title>Optional hardware configuration</title>
370 <section>
371 <body>
372 <p>When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware
373 devices and loads the appropiate kernel modules to support your
374 hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job.
375 However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules
376 you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you
377 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
378 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
379 /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
380 type:
381 </p>
382 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
383 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
384 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
385 </pre>
386 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
387 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
388 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
389 </p>
390 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
391 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
392 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
393 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
394 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
395 </pre>
396 <note>
397 Support for SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
398 </note>
400 <note><b>Advanced users:</b> The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA
401 on your disks so that disk transfers are as fast as possible, but if it did not,
402 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives as follows:
403 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
404 <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
405 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
406 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
407 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
408 # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
409 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
410 </pre>
411 </note>
414 </body>
415 </section>
416 </chapter>
417 <chapter>
418 <title>Optional Networking configuration</title>
419 <section>
420 <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
421 <body>
422 <p>If your system is plugged into an Ethernet network, it is very
423 likely that your networking configuration has already been
424 set up automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
425 network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
426 among others.</p>
428 <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
429 list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
430 </p>
431 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
432 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
433 inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
434 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
436 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
437 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
438 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
439 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
440 Interrupt:11
441 </pre>
442 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
443 and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
444 resolution is working correctly, etc.
445 </p>
446 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
447 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
448 </pre>
449 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
450 </body>
451 </section>
452 <section>
453 <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
454 <body>
455 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
456 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
457 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
458 device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
459 the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
460 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
461 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
462 # <c> adsl-start </c>
463 </pre>
464 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
465 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
466 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
467 </body>
468 </section>
469 <section>
470 <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
471 <body>
472 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
473 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
474 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
475 </pre>
476 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
477 </body>
478 </section>
479 <section>
480 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
481 <body>
482 <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
483 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
484 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
485 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
486 </pre>
487 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
488 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
489 </note>
490 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
491 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
492 </body>
493 </section>
494 <section>
495 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
496 <body>
497 <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
498 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed information is explained in the next table.</p>
500 <table>
501 <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
502 <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti></ti></tr>
503 <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network.</ti><ti></ti></tr>
504 <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti></ti></tr>
505 <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti></ti></tr>
506 </table>
508 <p>Type in the following commands, replacing
509 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
510 with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
511 with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
512 $GTWAY with your default gateway.
513 </p>
514 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
515 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
516 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask metric 1 $IFACE</c>
517 </pre>
518 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
519 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather
520 than just by IP address) will work. You can use <c>nano -w
521 /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>.
522 <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use editor.</p>
523 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
524 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
525 domain mydomain.com
526 nameserver
527 nameserver
528 </pre>
529 <p>Replace <c></c> and <c></c> with the IP addresses of your
530 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
531 </body>
532 </section>
533 <section>
534 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
535 <body>
536 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy before
537 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
538 </p>
539 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
540 <codenote>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</codenote>
541 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
542 <codenote>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</codenote>
543 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
544 <codenote>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</codenote>
545 # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
546 </pre>
547 </body>
548 </section>
549 <section>
550 <title>Networking is go!</title>
551 <body>
552 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
553 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
554 </body>
555 </section>
556 </chapter>
557 <chapter>
558 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
559 <section>
560 <body>
561 <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
562 You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
563 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
564 # <c>date</c>
565 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
566 <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
567 # <c>date 022709042003</c>
568 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
569 </pre>
570 </body>
571 </section>
572 </chapter>
573 <chapter>
574 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
575 <section>
576 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
577 <body>
578 <p>
579 In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
580 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
581 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
582 install.
583 </p>
584 <p>
585 To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
586 probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
587 </p>
588 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
589 /dev/hda
590 </pre>
592 <p>
593 If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
594 </p>
596 <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
597 /dev/sda
598 </pre>
600 <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
601 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
602 worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
603 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
604 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
605 </body>
606 </section>
607 <section>
608 <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
609 <body>
610 <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
611 <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
612 block device as a command-line argument. </p>
614 <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
615 device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
616 <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
617 practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
618 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
619 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
620 that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
621 up the full disk. </p>
623 <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
624 specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
626 <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
627 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> because it's
628 more powerful and well known in the Unix/Linux world.</note>
630 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
631 # fdisk /dev/hda
632 </pre>
633 <p>
634 or
635 </p>
636 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
637 # fdisk /dev/sda
638 </pre>
640 <impo>
641 <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
642 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
643 contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
644 lost.</b>
645 </impo>
647 <p>
648 Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
649 </p>
651 <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
652 Command (m for help):
653 </pre>
656 <p>
657 Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
658 </p>
660 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
661 Command (m for help): p
663 Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
664 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
666 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
667 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
668 /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
669 /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
670 /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
671 /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
672 /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
673 /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
674 /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
675 /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
677 Command (m for help):
678 </pre>
680 <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
681 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
682 (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
684 <p>
685 Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
686 devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
687 <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
688 allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
689 too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
690 created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
691 counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
692 partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
693 them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
694 </p>
696 <p>
697 All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
698 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
700 <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
701 <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
702 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
703 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
704 acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
706 <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
707 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
708 partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
709 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
710 partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
711 type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
712 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
713 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
714 </p>
715 </body>
716 </section>
717 <section>
718 <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
719 <body>
721 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
722 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
723 partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
724 process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
725 look like this: </p>
727 <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
728 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
729 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
730 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
732 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
733 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
734 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
735 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
737 Command (m for help):
738 </pre>
740 <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
741 The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
742 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
743 the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
744 will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
745 us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
746 day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
747 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
748 likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
750 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
751 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
752 required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
753 loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
754 cylinder 1024.
755 </p>
757 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
758 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
759 relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
760 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
761 being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
763 <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
764 of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
765 store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
766 this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
769 <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
770 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
771 Linux:</p>
773 <table>
774 <tr>
775 <th>Partition</th>
776 <th>Size</th>
777 <th>Type</th>
778 <th>example device</th>
779 </tr>
780 <tr>
781 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
782 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
783 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
784 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
785 </tr>
786 <tr>
787 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
788 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one and two times the size of the physical RAM
789 in your system.</ti>
790 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
791 <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
792 </tr>
793 <tr>
794 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
795 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
796 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
797 <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
798 </tr>
799 </table>
801 <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
802 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
803 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
804 current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
805 to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
806 existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
808 <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
809 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
810 is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
811 <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
812 from the wrong drive.</impo>
814 <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
815 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
816 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
818 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
819 Command (m for help): d
820 Partition number (1-4): 1
821 </pre>
823 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
824 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
825 saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
826 type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
827 deleted.</p>
828 <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
829 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
830 <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
831 with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
833 <pre caption="An empty partition table">
834 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
835 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
836 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
838 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
840 Command (m for help):
841 </pre>
843 <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
844 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
845 <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
846 create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
847 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
848 partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
850 <note>
851 Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
852 require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefore, if you are using a journaled
853 filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
854 for the last cylinder.
855 </note>
857 <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
858 Command (m for help): n
859 Command action
860 e extended
861 p primary partition (1-4)
862 p
863 Partition number (1-4): 1
864 First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
865 Using default value 1
866 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +32M
867 </pre>
869 <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
871 <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
872 Command (m for help): p
874 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
875 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
876 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
878 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
879 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
880 </pre>
882 <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
883 new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
884 type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
885 When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
886 type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
887 <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just
888 created, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
889 type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
890 a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
892 <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
893 Command (m for help): p
895 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
896 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
897 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
899 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
900 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
901 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
902 </pre>
904 <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
905 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
906 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
907 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
908 When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
909 up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
910 typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
911 this:</p>
913 <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
914 Command (m for help): p
916 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
917 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
918 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
920 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
921 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
922 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
923 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
924 </pre>
926 <p>
927 Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
928 our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
929 <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
930 type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
931 column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
932 enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
933 install.
934 </p>
936 <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
937 allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
938 </body>
939 </section>
940 <section>
941 <title>Creating filesystems</title>
942 <body>
943 <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
944 the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
945 We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
946 </p>
948 <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
949 its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
950 we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
952 <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
953 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
954 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
955 <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
956 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
957 Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
958 filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
960 <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
961 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
962 like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
963 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
964 Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
965 design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
966 very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
967 files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
968 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
970 <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
971 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
972 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
973 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
974 now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
975 filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
976 use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
977 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
978 non-boot partitions.</p>
980 <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
981 Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
982 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
983 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
984 a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
985 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
986 when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
987 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
989 <p>JFS is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
990 become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
991 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
992 point.</p>
994 <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
995 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
996 journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
997 refined and recommended for general use.</p>
999 <!-- Corner case, confusing
1000 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
1001 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
1002 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
1003 a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
1004 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
1005 This can be done as follows:
1006 </p>
1007 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
1008 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
1009 <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
1010 </pre>
1011 <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
1012 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
1013 If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
1014 </warn>
1015 -->
1017 <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
1018 all our partitions for use:</p>
1020 <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
1021 # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
1022 # mkswap /dev/hda2
1023 # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
1024 </pre>
1026 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
1027 robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
1028 <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
1029 here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
1030 since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
1031 go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
1033 <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
1034 during the installation process:</p>
1036 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
1037 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
1038 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
1039 </pre>
1040 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
1041 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
1042 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1043 </pre>
1044 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
1045 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
1046 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
1047 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
1048 </pre>
1049 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
1050 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
1051 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
1052 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
1053 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
1054 </pre>
1055 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
1056 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
1057 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
1058 </pre>
1059 <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
1060 <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
1061 The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
1062 XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
1063 partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
1064 a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
1065 journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
1067 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
1068 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
1069 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
1070 </pre>
1071 </body>
1072 </section>
1073 </chapter>
1074 <chapter>
1075 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
1076 <section>
1077 <body>
1078 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
1079 provides later:
1080 </p>
1081 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
1082 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
1083 </pre>
1085 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
1086 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
1087 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
1088 Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
1089 Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1090 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1091 </p>
1093 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
1094 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
1095 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1096 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS, then the <c>-o notail</c>
1097 is not needed. It's always safe to specify the <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're
1098 not sure what to do.
1099 </impo>
1101 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1102 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
1103 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1104 # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1105 </pre>
1107 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1108 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
1109 </body>
1110 </section>
1111 </chapter>
1112 <chapter>
1113 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1114 <section>
1115 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1116 <body>
1118 <p>
1119 Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1120 basis for the install if you haven't already.
1121 The stages on the Live CD are
1122 in <path>/mnt/cdrom/stages/</path>, and you can type <c>ls
1123 /mnt/cdrom/stages/</c>
1124 to see what's available on your CD.</p>
1126 <p><b>GRP users</b> should use the <path>stage3-xx-yy.tar.bz2</path> tarball.</p>
1128 <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1129 <i>not</i> on your CD (which will likely be the case if you're using our
1130 "basic" Live CD), this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1131 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1132 tarball you want to use (which most users will have), then proceed to the
1133 "Extracting the stage tarball" section.</p>
1135 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1136 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1137 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1138 # <c>lynx http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</c>
1139 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1140 Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1141 Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1142 Save the file and quit the browser
1144 <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1145 # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
1146 </pre>
1147 </body>
1148 </section>
1149 <section>
1150 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1151 <body>
1153 <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1154 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1155 tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1156 stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1157 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
1159 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1160 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
1162 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1163 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1164 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1165 <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1166 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/stages/".</comment>
1167 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
1168 </pre>
1170 <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
1171 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
1172 </body>
1173 </section>
1174 <section>
1175 <title>GRP package/snapshot steps</title>
1176 <body>
1177 <impo>The following instructions are for GRP users only.</impo>
1178 <p><b>GRP Users</b>: There is a Portage snapshot on the Live CD. You will
1179 need to use this snapshot so that you can skip the <c>emerge sync</c> step
1180 later in this document, since <c>emerge sync</c> requires a network
1181 connection. Untar this snapshot as follows:</p>
1182 <pre caption="Using Portage snapshot">
1183 <comment>Replace yyyymmdd with the datestamp in the filename.</comment>
1184 # <c>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-yyyymmdd.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</c>
1185 </pre>
1186 <p>This will extract a snapshot of the Portage tree to your fresh Gentoo
1187 install. Now you won't need to connect to the Internet and use <c>emerge
1188 sync</c> to download a Portage tree. Now, copy distfiles and packages
1189 from the Live CD into place:</p>
1191 <pre caption="Copying GRP files">
1192 # <c>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</c>
1193 # <c>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/ /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages/</c>
1194 </pre>
1196 <p>All relevant files are now in place for using GRP. You should now have
1197 everything copied over and unpacked that you'll need to install Gentoo Linux
1198 -- even without a network connection.</p>
1200 </body>
1201 </section>
1202 <section>
1203 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1204 <body>
1205 <p>
1206 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
1207 Gentoo Linux system.
1208 </p>
1210 <note>
1211 You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1212 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1213 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document, which will resolve
1214 the problem.
1215 </note>
1217 <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1218 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1219 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
1220 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
1221 # <c>env-update</c>
1222 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1223 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1224 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries).</comment>
1225 </pre>
1226 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
1227 We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
1228 </p>
1229 </body>
1230 </section>
1231 </chapter>
1232 <chapter>
1233 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1234 <section>
1235 <body>
1237 <!-- This is not yet implemented. Uncomment when it is!
1239 <p>In order to maximize the downloadspeed, you should now select rsync- and distfiles mirrors. To simplify this task, we have a tool called <c>mirrorselect</c>. Issue the following two commands:</p>
1241 <pre caption="Selecting a mirror">
1242 <comment>First we have mirrorselect select 5 close mirrors for us.</comment>
1243 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s5</i>
1244 <comment>Now we select an rsync-mirror ourselves:</comment>
1245 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r</i>
1246 </pre>
1248 -->
1252 <impo>If you doing a GRP install you can ignore the following section on
1253 <c>emerge sync</c>.</impo>
1255 <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage
1256 to download the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree from the
1257 Internet. If you extracted a Portage tree snapshot from "CD 1" earlier, you
1258 can safely skip this step. The Portage tree contains all the scripts
1259 (called ebuilds) used to build every package under Gentoo Linux. Currently,
1260 we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1261 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in
1262 <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1264 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1265 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1266 </pre>
1268 </body>
1269 </section>
1270 </chapter>
1271 <chapter>
1272 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1273 <section>
1274 <body>
1276 <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1277 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1278 Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1279 programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1280 this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1281 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1282 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1283 fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1284 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1285 of current USE flags can be found <uri
1286 link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1288 <p>If you are starting from a stage1 tarball, You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1289 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1290 (commented examples can be found further down in the file). If you are using
1291 a stage2 or stage3 tarball, these settings will already be configured
1292 optimally and should not require any modification.</p>
1294 <impo><b>Advanced users:</b> The <c>CFLAGS</c> and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings
1295 settings
1296 are used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1297 is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1298 to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1299 so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1300 performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1301 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
1302 </impo>
1304 <!-- needs qa
1305 <note><b>Advanced users:</b>If you are building from a stage1 and don't want
1306 to manually configure CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, you can use the <c>genflags</c>
1307 utility, which will try to guess accurate flags for your CPU architecture.
1308 Simply type <c>emerge -O genflags</c> and then execute
1309 <c>info2flags</c>. <c>info2flags</c> will suggest CHOST, CFLAGS, and
1310 CXXFLAGS settings, which you can then add to
1311 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.</note>
1312 -->
1314 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1315 firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1316 a simple visual editor.
1317 </p>
1318 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1319 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1320 </pre>
1321 <note>
1322 <b>Advanced users:</b> People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1323 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1324 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1325 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1326 <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1327 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1328 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1329 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1330 in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1331 </note>
1332 <warn>Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your <c>USE</c> variables until after stage1.</warn>
1333 </body>
1334 </section>
1335 </chapter>
1336 <chapter>
1337 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1338 <section>
1339 <body>
1340 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1341 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1342 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date
1343 system. Have fun! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1344 is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1345 </p>
1346 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1347 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1348 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1349 as follows:</p>
1350 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1351 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1352 # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1353 </pre>
1354 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.</p>
1355 <note><c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related files in one go for later compilation. <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more information.</note>
1356 <note>
1357 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1358 using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1359 change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1360 starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1361 </note>
1362 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1363 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1364 </pre>
1365 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1366 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c>
1367 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1368 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1369 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1370 </p>
1371 </body>
1372 </section>
1373 </chapter>
1374 <chapter>
1375 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1376 <section>
1377 <body>
1379 <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1380 this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3), then skip this section.
1381 </note>
1383 <warn>
1384 If you start from stage2, don't change the CHOST variable in
1385 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so results in strange and
1386 broad compilation failures. We are working on fixing this
1387 of course.
1388 </warn>
1390 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1391 to do is install the rest of the system.
1392 </p>
1393 <note>If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1394 that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1395 option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1396 safe to skip this suggestion.</note>
1398 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1399 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1400 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1401 # <c>emerge system</c>
1402 </pre>
1403 <p>It is going to take a while
1404 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1405 thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1406 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1407 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1408 </p>
1409 <p>
1410 Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1411 your time zone" section.
1412 </p>
1413 </body>
1414 </section>
1415 </chapter>
1416 <chapter>
1417 <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1418 <section>
1419 <body>
1420 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1421 with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section. GRP users should skip ahead to the next section.</note>
1423 <warn>
1424 Remember, if you start from stage3, don't change the CHOST variable in
1425 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so can result in compilation failures.
1426 </warn>
1428 <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system,
1429 so no building is required.</p>
1431 <note><b>Advanced users:</b>
1432 However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1433 for you, you can automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1434 by typing <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-* /etc/make.conf" emerge -u
1435 system</c> (this requires a network connection). Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1436 otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1437 Gentoo updates and fixes.
1438 In any case, feel free to skip these
1439 steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1440 </note>
1442 </body>
1443 </section>
1444 </chapter>
1445 <chapter>
1446 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1447 <section>
1448 <body>
1449 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1450 <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1451 in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1452 /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1453 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1454 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1455 </pre>
1456 </body>
1457 </section>
1458 </chapter>
1459 <chapter>
1460 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1461 <section>
1462 <body>
1463 <impo>
1464 To edit files, remember to use <c>nano -w "filename"</c>.
1465 </impo>
1466 <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1467 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1468 The first file we need to
1469 configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1470 the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1471 Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1472 </p>
1473 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1474 &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1475 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1476 <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1477 #
1478 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1479 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1480 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1481 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1483 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1485 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1486 </comment>
1487 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1488 /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1489 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1490 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1491 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1492 </pre>
1493 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1494 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1495 corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1496 </warn>
1497 </body>
1498 </section>
1499 </chapter>
1500 <chapter>
1501 <title>Installing the kernel and system logger</title>
1502 <section>
1503 <title>Kernel selections</title>
1504 <body>
1506 <p>There are two options for installing a kernel. You can either configure your own kernel or use the <c>genkernel</c>
1507 utility to configure and compile your kernel automatically.</p>
1510 <p>Whether configuring a kernel by hand or using <c>genkernel</c>,
1511 you'll need to merge the Linux kernel sources you'd like to use.
1512 Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1513 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1514 which kernel sources to choose, we advise using <c>gentoo-sources</c>.
1515 <!--or <c>vanilla-sources</c>.(2.4.21-vanilla has sound issues)--> If you want XFS support, you should choose
1516 <c>xfs-sources</c> or <c>gs-sources</c>. Gentoo's LiveCD uses
1517 <c>gs-sources</c> and <c>xfs-sources</c>. There is also a
1518 <c>gaming-sources</c> kernel optimized for game-playing
1519 responsiveness that works wonderfully for this purpose when the
1520 "Preemptible kernel" option is enabled.
1521 </p>
1524 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1525 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1526 # <c>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1527 </pre>
1529 <p>The
1530 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link will point to your
1531 newly-installed kernel source tree. Portage uses the
1532 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link for a special purpose. Any
1533 ebuilds you install that contain kernel modules will be configured
1534 to work with the kernel source tree pointed to by
1535 <path>/usr/src/linux</path>. <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is created
1536 when you emerge your first kernel source package, but after it
1537 exists, Portage does not modify this symbolic link.</p>
1538 </body>
1539 </section>
1540 <section>
1541 <title>Using genkernel to compile your kernel</title>
1542 <body>
1544 <p>Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to
1545 compile your kernel. There are two ways to do this. The first way is
1546 to use our new <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel
1547 for you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly
1548 identically to the way our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means
1549 that when you use <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system
1550 will generally detect all your hardware at boot-time, just like our Live
1551 CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel
1552 configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may not
1553 be comfortable compiling their own kernels.</p>
1555 <p>Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel
1556 ebuild:</p>
1558 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
1559 # <c>emerge -k genkernel</c>
1560 </pre>
1562 <p>Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>:</p>
1564 <note><b>Advanced users:</b> you can type <c>genkernel --config</c> instead,
1565 which will cause genkernel to allow you to tweak the default kernel configuration before
1566 building begins.</note>
1569 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
1570 <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.2 (included in the 1.4 GRP set), use the following:</comment>
1571 # <c>genkernel gentoo-sources</c>
1572 <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.4, available with an emerge sync, you don't need to specify a kernel:</comment>
1573 # <c>genkernel</c>
1574 Gentoo Linux genkernel, version 1.4
1575 Copyright 2003 Gentoo Technologies, Inc., Bob Johnson, Daniel Robbins
1576 Distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2
1578 Settings:
1579 compile optimization: 1 processor(s)
1580 source tree: /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1581 config: gentoo (customized)
1582 config loc: /etc/kernels/config-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1583 initrd config: (default) /etc/kernels/settings
1585 * Running "make oldconfig"... [ ok ]
1586 * Logging to /var/log/genkernel.log... [ ok ]
1587 * Starting 2.4.20-gaming-r3 build... [ ok ]
1588 * Running "make dep"... [ ok ]
1589 * Running "make bzImage"... [ ok ]
1590 * Running "make modules"... [ ok ]
1591 * Running "make modules_install"... [ ok ]
1592 * Moving bzImage to /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3... [ ok ]
1593 * Building busybox... [ ok ]
1594 * Creating initrd... [ ok ]
1596 * Build completed successfully!
1598 * Please specify /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3 and /boot/initrd-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1599 * when customizing your boot loader configuration files.
1601 #
1602 </pre>
1604 <p>Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and <i>initial root disk</i> (initrd) will
1605 be created. We will use the kernel and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. The
1606 initrd will be started immediately after booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD)
1607 before your "real" system starts up.</p>
1609 <p>Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live CD -- let's emerge hotplug.
1610 While the initrd autodetects hardware that is needed to boot your system, hotplug autodetects everything else.
1611 To emerge and enable hotplug, type the following:</p>
1613 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
1614 # <c>emerge -k hotplug</c>
1615 # <c>rc-update add hotplug default</c>
1616 </pre>
1618 <p>Finally, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is on your system. Here is a list of
1619 kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:</p>
1621 <table>
1622 <tr>
1623 <th>ebuild</th>
1624 <th>purpose</th>
1625 <th>command</th>
1626 </tr>
1627 <tr>
1628 <ti>nvidia-kernel</ti>
1629 <ti>Accelerated NVIDIA graphics for XFree86</ti>
1630 <ti><c>emerge -k nvidia-kernel</c></ti>
1631 </tr>
1632 <tr>
1633 <ti>nforce-net</ti>
1634 <ti>On-board ethernet controller on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
1635 <ti><c>emerge nforce-net</c></ti>
1636 </tr>
1637 <tr>
1638 <ti>nforce-audio</ti>
1639 <ti>On-board audio on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
1640 <ti><c>emerge nforce-audio</c></ti>
1641 </tr>
1642 <tr>
1643 <ti>e100</ti>
1644 <ti>Intel e100 Fast Ethernet Adapters</ti>
1645 <ti><c>emerge e100</c></ti>
1646 </tr>
1647 <tr>
1648 <ti>e1000</ti>
1649 <ti>Intel e1000 Gigabit Ethernet Adapters</ti>
1650 <ti><c>emerge e1000</c></ti>
1651 </tr>
1652 <tr>
1653 <ti>emu10k1</ti>
1654 <ti>Creative Sound Blaster Live!/Audigy support</ti>
1655 <ti><c>emerge emu10k1</c></ti>
1656 </tr>
1657 <tr>
1658 <ti>ati-drivers</ti>
1659 <ti>Accelerated ATI Radeon 8500+/FireGL graphics for XFree86</ti>
1660 <ti><c>emerge ati-drivers</c></ti>
1661 </tr>
1662 <tr>
1663 <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
1664 <ti>Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128,
1665 Matrox, Voodoo and other cards for XFree86</ti>
1666 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
1667 </tr>
1668 </table>
1669 <p>The nvidia-kernel, ati-drivers and xfree-drm packages will require additional configuration to be enabled.
1670 All other ebuilds listed above should be auto-detected at boot-time by the hotplug package.</p>
1672 <p>Now that you've run and configured your system to use genkernel, you can skip the "manual kernel configuration"
1673 section below.</p>
1674 </body>
1675 </section>
1676 <section>
1677 <title>Manual kernel configuration</title>
1678 <body>
1680 <p>If you opted not to use genkernel to compile your kernel, this section
1681 will guide you through the process of configuring and compiling a kernel by
1682 hand. Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your
1683 current emerged kernel source package, and is set automatically by Portage at
1684 emerge time. If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to
1685 set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink to the correct one before
1686 proceeding. </p>
1688 <warn>
1689 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1690 security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1691 </warn>
1693 <note>
1694 If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
1695 your configuration on it, you should execute
1696 <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
1697 If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
1698 about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
1699 </note>
1700 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
1701 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1702 # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1703 </pre>
1704 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1705 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1706 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1707 any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1708 &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1709 enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1710 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1711 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1712 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1713 <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1714 ...
1716 File systems ---&gt;
1717 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1718 <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1719 ...
1720 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1721 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1722 ...
1723 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1724 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1725 ...
1726 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1727 <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1728 ...
1729 [*] /proc file system support
1730 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1731 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1732 [*] Automatically mount at boot
1733 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1734 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1735 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1736 ...
1737 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1738 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1739 ...
1740 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1741 <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1742 </pre>
1743 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1744 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1745 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1746 &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1747 are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1748 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1749 </p>
1750 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1751 kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1752 devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1753 under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1754 &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1755 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1756 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1757 </p>
1758 <p>If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card.</p>
1759 <note>
1760 For those who prefer it,
1761 it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1762 However, doing this comes at a price:
1763 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1764 are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1765 filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1766 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1767 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1768 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1769 It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1770 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1771 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1772 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1773 </note>
1775 <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
1776 # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1777 # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1778 </pre>
1779 </body>
1780 </section>
1781 <section>
1782 <title>Installing a system logger</title>
1783 <body>
1784 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1785 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1786 of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1787 to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1788 newer alternatives.
1789 If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1790 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four
1791 lines. </p>
1792 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1793 # <c>emerge -k app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1794 # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1795 <comment>or</comment>
1796 # <c>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1797 # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1798 <comment>or</comment>
1799 # <c>emerge -k app-admin/metalog</c>
1800 # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1801 <comment>or</comment>
1802 # <c>emerge -k app-admin/msyslog</c>
1803 # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1804 </pre>
1805 <impo>
1806 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1807 the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1808 is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1809 metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1810 <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1811 in real time, as expected),
1812 and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1813 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1814 in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1815 </impo>
1816 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
1817 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
1818 # <c>killall -USR1 metalog</c>
1819 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
1820 # <c>killall -USR2 metalog</c>
1821 </pre>
1822 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1823 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1824 you might as well grab vcron.
1825 </p>
1826 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1827 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/dcron</c>
1828 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1829 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1830 <comment>or</comment>
1831 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/fcron</c>
1832 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1833 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1834 <comment>or</comment>
1835 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/vcron</c>
1836 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1837 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1838 </pre>
1839 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1840 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1841 </p>
1842 </body>
1843 </section>
1844 </chapter>
1845 <chapter>
1846 <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
1847 <section>
1848 <body>
1849 <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1850 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1851 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1852 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1853 <comment>GRP users should type the following:</comment>
1854 # <c>USE="-X bindist" emerge -K rp-pppoe</c>
1855 </pre>
1857 <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1858 because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1859 X support later.
1860 </note>
1861 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1862 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1863 for the first time.
1864 </note>
1865 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1866 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1867 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1868 </p>
1869 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1870 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1871 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1872 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1873 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1874 # <c>emerge -k jfsutils</c>
1875 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1876 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1877 </pre>
1878 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1879 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1880 </p>
1881 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1882 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1883 </pre>
1884 <!-- fix the bug or fix the docs, don't send the user in circles
1885 (drobbins)
1886 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1887 to work.
1888 </warn>
1889 -->
1890 </body>
1891 </section>
1892 </chapter>
1893 <chapter>
1894 <title>User Management</title>
1895 <section>
1896 <title>Setting a root password</title>
1897 <body>
1898 <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1899 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1900 # <c>passwd</c>
1901 </pre>
1902 </body>
1903 </section>
1904 <section>
1905 <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
1906 <body>
1907 <p>Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
1908 should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
1909 recommended to add a user for day-to-day use.</p>
1910 <pre caption = "Adding a user">
1911 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
1912 # <i>passwd your_user</i></pre>
1913 <p>Substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.</p>
1914 <p>Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
1915 use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
1916 a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.</p>
1917 </body>
1918 </section>
1919 </chapter>
1920 <chapter>
1921 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1922 <section>
1923 <body>
1924 <p>
1925 Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
1926 on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
1927 </p>
1928 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1929 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
1930 </pre>
1931 <p>
1932 Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
1933 domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
1934 </p>
1935 <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
1936 # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
1937 </pre>
1938 <p>
1939 If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
1940 <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
1941 </p>
1942 <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
1943 # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
1944 </pre>
1945 </body>
1946 </section>
1947 </chapter>
1948 <chapter>
1949 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1950 <section>
1951 <body>
1952 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1953 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1954 of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1955 </p>
1956 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1957 localhost
1958 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1959 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1960 </pre>
1961 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
1962 machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
1963 GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1964 </note>
1965 </body>
1966 </section>
1967 </chapter>
1968 <chapter>
1969 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1970 <section>
1971 <body>
1972 <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1973 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1974 need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1975 loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1976 it as a module:
1977 </p>
1978 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1979 Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1980 3c59x
1981 </pre>
1982 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1983 first boot: </p>
1984 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1985 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1986 # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1987 </pre>
1988 <p>If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path>
1989 scripts respectively for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1990 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1991 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1992 # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1993 # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1994 </pre>
1995 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1996 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1997 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1998 </p>
1999 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
2000 depend() {
2001 need pcmcia
2002 }
2003 </pre>
2004 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
2005 </p>
2006 </body>
2007 </section>
2008 </chapter>
2009 <chapter>
2010 <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
2011 <section>
2012 <body>
2013 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
2014 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
2015 </pre>
2016 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
2017 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
2018 liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
2019 variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
2020 possibilities).
2021 </p>
2022 </body>
2023 </section>
2024 </chapter>
2025 <chapter>
2026 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
2027 <section>
2028 <title>Notes</title>
2029 <body>
2030 <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
2031 Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
2032 LILO as their bootloaders.
2033 </p>
2034 <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
2035 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
2036 </p>
2037 <p>In addition, you will need to configure our bootloader differently depending upon
2038 whether you are using <c>genkernel</c> (with kernel and initrd) or a kernel you
2039 compiled by hand. Be sure to take note of the important differences.</p>
2041 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
2042 with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
2043 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
2044 memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
2045 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
2046 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
2047 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
2048 </body>
2049 </section>
2050 <section>
2051 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
2052 <body>
2053 <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
2054 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
2055 <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
2056 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
2057 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only hard drives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
2058 cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
2059 (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
2060 to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a hard drive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
2061 a burner on /dev/hdc, a second hard drive on /dev/hdd and no SCSI hard drive,
2062 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
2064 It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, GRUB
2065 offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
2066 a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
2067 GRUB numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
2068 it is time to install GRUB.
2069 </p>
2070 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
2071 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
2072 # <c>emerge -k grub</c>
2073 # <c>grub</c>
2074 </pre>
2075 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
2076 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
2077 right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
2078 I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
2079 the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
2080 I want to type are:
2081 </p>
2083 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
2084 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
2085 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
2086 </pre>
2088 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
2089 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
2090 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
2091 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
2092 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
2093 </pre>
2095 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
2096 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
2097 <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
2098 </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
2099 boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
2100 ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
2101 MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
2102 If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
2103 could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
2104 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
2105 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
2106 </p>
2108 <note> The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB,
2109 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
2110 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only hard drives),
2111 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, GRUB would print the
2112 available hard drives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
2113 would make GRUB print the list of partitions on the first hard drive.
2115 Checking the syntax of the GRUB location with completion should really help
2116 to make the right choice.
2117 </note>
2119 <p>
2120 Gentoo Linux is now
2121 installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
2122 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
2123 </p>
2124 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
2125 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
2126 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst</c>. </impo>
2127 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
2128 </p>
2129 <pre caption="grub.conf for GRUB">
2130 default 0
2131 timeout 30
2132 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
2134 <comment>#if you compiled your own kernel, use something like this:</comment>
2135 title=My example Gentoo Linux
2136 root (hd0,0)
2137 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
2139 <comment>#if you're using genkernel, use something like this instead:</comment>
2140 title=My example Gentoo Linux (genkernel)
2141 root (hd0,0)
2142 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/kernel-KV root=/dev/hda3
2143 initrd (hd0,0)/boot/initrd-KV
2145 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
2146 title=Windows XP
2147 root (hd0,5)
2148 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
2149 </pre>
2150 <note>
2151 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
2152 </note>
2153 <impo>
2154 If you set up SCSI emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
2155 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
2156 line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
2157 </impo>
2158 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
2159 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
2160 and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
2161 </p>
2162 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
2163 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
2164 your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
2165 loader.
2166 </note>
2167 <note>
2168 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
2169 </note>
2170 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
2171 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
2172 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
2173 turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
2174 adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
2175 </p>
2176 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
2177 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs.
2178 Now devfs is enabled by default.
2179 </note>
2180 </body>
2181 </section>
2182 <section>
2183 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
2184 <body>
2185 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
2186 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
2187 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
2188 </p>
2189 <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
2190 </p>
2191 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
2192 # <c>emerge -k lilo</c>
2193 </pre>
2194 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
2195 </p>
2196 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
2197 boot=/dev/hda
2198 map=/boot/map
2199 install=/boot/boot.b
2200 prompt
2201 timeout=50
2202 lba32
2203 default=linux
2205 #use something like the following 4 lines if you compiled your kernel yourself
2206 image=/boot/bzImage
2207 label=linux
2208 read-only
2209 root=/dev/hda3
2211 #if you used genkernel, use something like this:
2212 image=/boot/kernel-KV
2213 label=gk_linux
2214 root=/dev/hda3
2215 initrd=/boot/initrd-KV
2216 append="root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc"
2219 #For dual booting windows/other OS
2220 other=/dev/hda1
2221 label=dos
2222 </pre>
2223 <ul>
2224 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
2225 <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
2226 <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
2227 In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
2228 assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
2229 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
2230 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
2231 get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
2232 <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
2233 with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
2234 <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
2235 not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
2236 your system in an unbootable state. </li>
2237 <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
2238 options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
2239 <li><i>image=/boot/bzImage</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
2240 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
2241 it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
2242 <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
2243 altered during the boot process. </li>
2244 <li><i>root=/dev/hda3</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
2245 </ul>
2246 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
2247 into the MBR:
2248 </p>
2249 <pre caption="Running LILO">
2250 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
2251 </pre>
2252 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
2253 </p>
2254 </body>
2255 </section>
2256 <section>
2257 <title>Using framebuffer</title>
2258 <body>
2259 <p>
2260 People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c> to their bootloader configuration file. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the following table:
2261 </p>
2262 <table>
2263 <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
2264 <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
2265 <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
2266 <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
2267 </table>
2268 <p>
2269 LILO-users will have to add <c>vga=xxx</c> on top of their configuration
2270 file.
2271 </p>
2272 <p>
2273 GRUB-users will have to append <c>vga=xxx</c> to the <c>kernel
2274 (hd0,0)...</c> line.
2275 </p>
2276 </body>
2277 </section>
2278 </chapter>
2279 <chapter>
2280 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
2281 <section>
2282 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
2283 <body>
2284 <impo>
2285 Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive
2286 before proceeding.
2287 </impo>
2288 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
2289 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
2290 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
2291 let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
2292 you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
2293 If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk, and when you reboot
2294 the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
2295 like this:
2296 </p>
2297 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
2298 # <c>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</c>
2299 # <c>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</c>
2300 </pre>
2301 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
2302 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
2303 </body>
2304 </section>
2305 <section>
2306 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
2307 <body>
2308 <impo>
2309 Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive
2310 before proceeding.
2311 </impo>
2313 <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
2314 </p>
2315 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
2316 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
2317 <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
2318 </pre>
2319 </body>
2320 </section>
2321 </chapter>
2323 <chapter>
2324 <title>Using GRP</title>
2325 <section>
2326 <body>
2328 <p>GRP users can, at this point, install binary packages:</p>
2330 <pre caption="Installing from GRP">
2331 # <c>USE="bindist" emerge -k xfree</c>
2332 <codenote>USE="bindist" must be set while installing GRP packages that use XFree86.</codenote>
2333 </pre>
2335 <p>CD 1 contains enough applications to install a working system with XFree86.
2336 Additionally, CD2 of the 2-CD GRP set contains other applications including KDE, GNOME, Mozilla, and others.
2337 To install these packages, you will need to reboot into your new Gentoo
2338 system first (covered in the "Installation complete!" section near the end of this document.) After you are running your basic Gentoo system from the hard
2339 drive, you can mount the second CD and copy files:</p>
2341 <pre caption="Loading binary packages from CD2">
2342 # <c>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</c>
2343 # <c>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/* /usr/portage/packages/</c>
2344 </pre>
2346 <p>Now various other applications can be installed the same way. For example:</p>
2348 <pre caption="Installing KDE from GRP">
2349 # <c>USE="bindist" emerge -k kde</c>
2350 </pre>
2352 </body>
2353 </section>
2354 </chapter>
2355 <chapter>
2356 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
2357 <section>
2358 <body>
2359 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
2361 safely unmount your partitions
2362 and reboot the system:
2363 </p>
2364 <warn>
2365 <c>etc-update</c> can provide you with a list of configuration files
2366 that have newer versions at your disposal. Verify that none of the
2367 configuration files have a big impact (such as <path>/etc/fstab</path>,
2368 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, ...). Merge the
2369 files that don't have such a big impact, remove the updates of the
2370 others or view the diff and manually update the configuration file.
2371 </warn>
2372 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
2373 # <c>etc-update</c>
2374 # <c>exit</c>
2375 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
2376 # <c>cd / </c>
2377 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
2378 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
2379 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
2380 # <c>reboot</c>
2381 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the bootable CD)</comment>
2382 </pre>
2383 <note>
2384 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
2385 the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
2386 generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
2387 </note>
2388 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
2389 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
2390 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
2391 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
2392 that will
2393 help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
2394 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
2395 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
2396 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
2397 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
2398 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
2399 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
2400 </p>
2401 </body>
2402 </section>
2403 </chapter>
2404 <chapter>
2405 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
2406 <section>
2407 <body>
2408 <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
2409 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
2410 us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
2411 appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
2412 </p>
2413 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
2414 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
2415 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
2416 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
2417 development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
2418 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
2419 </p>
2420 <ul>
2421 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
2422 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
2423 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
2424 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
2425 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
2426 </ul>
2427 <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
2428 (just as it is to the developers).
2429 </p>
2430 <ul>
2431 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
2432 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
2433 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
2434 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
2435 in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
2436 </ul>
2437 <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
2438 </p>
2439 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
2440 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
2441 # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
2442 </pre>
2443 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
2444 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
2445 to see additional configuration options.
2446 </p>
2447 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
2448 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
2449 </p>
2450 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
2451 <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
2452 </pre>
2453 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
2454 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
2455 </body>
2456 </section>
2457 </chapter>
2458 <chapter>
2459 <title>Gentoo On Less-Common Hardware</title>
2460 <section>
2461 <title>Hardware ATA RAID</title>
2462 <body>
2463 <p>
2464 Users who want to install Gentoo on Hardware ATA RAID must pay
2465 attention to the next steps in order for them to succesfully
2466 install Gentoo Linux:
2467 </p>
2468 <ul>
2469 <li>Be sure to start the LiveCD with the <c>doataraid</c>
2470 kerneloption.</li>
2471 <li>If you've forgotten to select <c>doataraid</c> during bootup,
2472 or the modules mysteriously didn't load, load them as needed:
2473 <pre caption = "Loading RAID modules">
2474 # <i>modprobe ataraid</i>
2475 <comment>For Promise Raid Controllers:</comment>
2476 # <i>modprobe pdcraid</i>
2477 <comment>For Highpoint Raid Controllers:</comment>
2478 # <i>modprobe hptraid</i>
2479 </pre>
2480 </li>
2481 <li>Some ATA RAID Controllers require you to reboot after
2482 partitioning; formatting will otherwise fail.</li>
2483 <li>Before chrooting, mount the devicetree into the new
2484 environment:
2485 <pre caption = "Mounting /dev into /mnt/gentoo/dev">
2486 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
2487 </pre>
2488 </li>
2489 <li>During kernel configuration, select the required RAID options:
2490 <pre caption = "RAID in the Linux Kernel Configuration">
2491 <comment>For Highpoint RAID controllers:</comment>
2492 ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
2493 [*] HPT36X/37X chipset support
2494 [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
2495 [*] Highpoint 370 software RAID
2496 <comment>For Promise RAID controllers:</comment>
2497 ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
2498 [*] PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67} support
2499 <comment>and/or</comment>
2500 [*] PROMISE PDC202{68|69|70|71|75|76|77} support
2501 [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
2502 [*] Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
2503 </pre></li>
2504 <li>When using GRUB add <c>--stage2=/boot/grub/stage2</c> when
2505 running <c>grub</c> to the <c>setup</c> command:
2506 <pre caption = "Installing GRUB for Hardware RAID systems">
2507 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
2508 grub&gt; <i>setup --stage2=/boot/grub/stage2 (hd0)</i>
2509 grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2510 </pre>
2511 Also, in the GRUB configuration be sure to point the <c>root</c>
2512 to the appropriate RAID device:
2513 <pre caption = "grub.conf for RAID">
2514 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
2515 root (hd0,0)
2516 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
2517 </pre></li>
2518 <li>LILO users should set the <c>root</c> option to the
2519 appropriate RAID device:
2520 <pre caption = "lilo.conf for RAID">
2521 image=/boot/bzImage
2522 label=linux
2523 read-only
2524 root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
2525 </pre></li>
2526 </ul>
2527 </body>
2528 </section>
2529 </chapter>
2530 </guide>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20