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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 <author title="Chief Architect">
6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author">Jerry Alexandratos</author>
10 <author title="Ghost, Reviewer">
11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
33 </author>
34 <author title="Editor">Colin Morey</author>
35 <author title="Editor">
36 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
37 </author>
38 <author title="Editor">
39 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
40 </author>
41 <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
42 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
43 </author>
44 <author title="Editor">
45 <mail link="avenj@gentoo.org">Jon Portnoy</mail>
46 </author>
47 <author title="Editor">
48 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
49 </author>
50 <author title="Reviewer">
51 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail>
52 </author>
53 <author title="Reviewer">
54 <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>
55 </author>
56 <author title="Reviewer">
57 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
58 </author>
59 <author title="Reviewer">
60 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
61 </author>
63 <abstract>
64 These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
65 Linux 1.4, release version (not _rc versions). The Gentoo Linux installation
66 process supports various installation approaches, depending upon how much of
67 the system you want to custom-build from scratch.
68 </abstract>
70 <license/>
72 <version>2.6.6</version>
73 <date>25th of August 2003</date>
75 <chapter>
76 <title>About the Install</title>
77 <section>
78 <body>
80 <p>
81 First, if you are new to this, welcome to Gentoo Linux! Gentoo
82 Linux can be installed in many different ways. Those who are looking
83 for a rapid install can use pre-built packages, while those who want
84 the ultimate in customizability can compile Gentoo Linux entirely
85 from the original source code. The method you choose is up to
86 you.
87 </p>
89 <p>
90 One significant change in relation to the official 1.4 release is
91 our new 2-CD installation set, which can be ordered from <uri
92 link="http://store.gentoo.org">The Gentoo Linux Store</uri>, in
93 addition to being available on our mirrors. We currently have 2-CD
94 installation sets for x86 (486 and above), i686 (Pentium Pro,
95 Pentium II, Athlon/Duron and above), Pentium III, Pentium 4 and Athlon XP.
96 To see what 2-CD set is right for you, read the detailed
97 descriptions of each product in the <uri
98 link="http://store.gentoo.org">store</uri>. The store descriptions
99 contain fairly comprehensive CPU compatibility information.
100 </p>
102 <p>So, about the 2 CD set -- here's what's on each CD. The first
103 CD ("CD 1") is called "Live CD Installation" and is a bootable CD-ROM,
104 meaning that you can put "CD 1" in your drive and run Gentoo Linux
105 directly from the CD. You can then use this CD-based version of
106 Gentoo to install Gentoo Linux 1.4 to your hard disk. In addition
107 to containing a bootable Gentoo Linux environment, CD 1
108 contains everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly, even
109 without a connection to the Internet. In addition, several
110 pre-compiled packages are also included on CD 1, such as the
111 ever-important XFree86 X server. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image
112 file for CD 1, its name will end in "<path>-cd1.iso</path>".
113 </p>
115 <p>
116 In contrast, the second CD ("CD 2") isn't bootable and contains
117 lots of pre-built packages for your system. Included on this CD are
118 optimized versions of packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice,
119 Mozilla, Evolution and others. CD 2 is <e>optional</e> and is
120 intended for those people who are interested in installing Gentoo
121 Linux very quickly. The packages included on CD 2 typically take
122 about 36 hours to compile from source on a typical modern
123 single-processor system. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image file for CD
124 2, its name will end in "<path>-cd2.iso</path>".
125 </p>
127 <note>
128 A complete Gentoo Linux 2-CD set contains the Gentoo Reference
129 Platform, which is a complete pre-built Gentoo Linux system including GNOME,
130 KDE, Mozilla and OpenOffice. The Gentoo Reference Platform ("GRP")
131 was created to allow rapid Gentoo Linux package installations
132 for those who need this capability. The "compile from
133 source" functionality, which is the cornerstone of Gentoo Linux,
134 will always be a fully-supported installation option as well. The
135 purpose of the GRP is to make Gentoo Linux more convenient for some
136 users, without impacting Gentoo's powerful "compile from source"
137 installation process in any way.
138 </note>
140 <p>
141 In addition to our 2-CD set, we also have a very small "basic"
142 Live CD that you can use to boot your system. Once your system has
143 booted, you can configure a connection to the Internet and then
144 install Gentoo over the network. The advantage of this "basic" CD is
145 that it is small and thus the ISO CD-ROM image file can be
146 downloaded quickly. If you're an advanced user who wants to install
147 the most up-to-date version of Gentoo Linux available and have a
148 fast network connection, then you may prefer this option. If you
149 have an ISO CD-ROM image file for our "basic" Live CD, its name will
150 end in "<path>-basic.iso</path>".
151 </p>
153 <p>
154 To use any Gentoo Linux CD-based installation method, you will
155 need to have a 486+ processor and ideally at least 64 Megabytes of
156 RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully built with 64MB of RAM +
157 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully slow under
158 those conditions.)
159 </p>
161 <p>
162 Once you boot one of our Live CDs, you have even more options.
163 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot;
164 tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system
165 you want to compile yourself. The stage1 tarball is used when you
166 want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The
167 stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system from a
168 bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The stage3 tarball already
169 contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for
170 you. If you are interested in doing a "GRP" install, then the
171 stage3 tarball should be used.
172 </p>
174 <p>
175 <b>If you're not doing a GRP install, should you start from a stage1, stage2, or
176 stage3 tarball?</b> Here is some information that should help you
177 make this decision.
178 </p>
180 <p>
181 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total
182 control over the optimization settings and optional build-time
183 functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes
184 stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing.
185 It is also a great installation method for those who would like to
186 know more about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
187 </p>
189 <p>
190 Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing
191 this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we
192 chose for your particular stage2 tarball.
193 </p>
195 <p>
196 And choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
197 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
198 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were
199 carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
200 stability). Since major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's
201 specifically optimized for various popular processors, starting
202 from a stage3 can offer the best of all worlds -- a fast install
203 and a system that is well-optimized.
204 </p>
206 <p>
207 <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider using a
208 stage3 tarball for installation, or a stage3 with GRP.</b>
209 </p>
211 <note>
212 <b>Advanced users:</b> If you use a stage3 install, you should not
213 change the default CHOST setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If you need
214 to make such a change, you should start with a stage1 tarball and build up
215 your system with the desired CHOST setting. The CHOST setting
216 typically looks something like this: <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>.
217 </note>
219 <impo>
220 If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
221 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
222 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (e.g. the KDE
223 team) the <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
224 </impo>
226 <note>
227 The installation instructions in the LiveCD may not be as up-to-date as our
228 Web documentation at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri>.
229 Refer to our Web documentation for the most up-to-date installation
230 instructions.
231 </note>
233 <p>
234 Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
235 CD(s) and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create
236 partitions, create our filesystems and extract either a stage1, stage2 or
237 stage3 tarball. If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take
238 the appropriate steps to get our system to stage3. Once our system is at
239 stage3, we can configure it (customize configuration files, install a boot
240 loader, etc.), boot it and have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. After
241 your basic Gentoo Linux system is running, you can optionally use "CD 2" of
242 our 2-CD set and install any number of pre-built packages such as KDE, GNOME,
243 OpenOffice, Mozilla, or others that you'd like on your system.
244 </p>
246 <p>
247 Depending on what stage of the build process you're starting from, here is
248 what is required for installation:
249 </p>
251 <table>
252 <tr>
253 <th>Stage Tarball</th>
254 <th>Internet Access Required</th>
255 <th>Media Required</th>
256 <th>Steps</th>
257 </tr>
258 <tr>
259 <ti>1</ti>
260 <ti>Yes</ti>
261 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
262 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, final config</ti>
263 </tr>
264 <tr>
265 <ti>2</ti>
266 <ti>Yes</ti>
267 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
268 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, final config</ti>
269 </tr>
270 <tr>
271 <ti>3</ti>
272 <ti>No if using <e>CD 1</e>, Yes otherwise</ti>
273 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
274 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync (not required if using <e>CD 1</e>), final config</ti>
275 </tr>
276 <tr>
277 <ti>3+GRP</ti>
278 <ti>No</ti>
279 <ti><e>CD 1</e>, <e>CD 2</e> optionally</ti>
280 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, final config, install CD 1 pre-built packages (optional), reboot, install extra pre-built packages like KDE and GNOME (if using "CD 2")</ti>
281 </tr>
282 </table>
284 <note>
285 Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about ATA RAID on the bottom
286 of this document before proceeding.
287 </note>
289 </body>
290 </section>
291 </chapter>
293 <chapter>
294 <title>Booting</title>
295 <section>
296 <body>
298 <warn>
299 Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the available boot
300 options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong keyboard settings, unstarted
301 pcmcia services etc..
302 </warn>
304 <p>
305 Start by booting your Live CD of choice. You should see a fancy
306 boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you
307 can hit Enter to begin the boot process, or boot the LiveCD with
308 custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options
309 and then hitting Enter. For example: <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>.
310 If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with more than one
311 processor ("SMP"), then you should type <c>smp</c> instead of
312 <c>gentoo</c> at the prompt. This will allow the LiveCD to see all
313 the processors in your system, not just the first one.
314 </p>
316 <p>
317 Consult the following table for a partial list of available kernels and
318 options or press F2 and F3 to view the help screens.
319 </p>
321 <table>
322 <tr><th>Available kernels</th><th>Description</th></tr>
323 <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>standard gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
324 <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
325 <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
326 <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
327 <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
328 </table>
330 <table>
331 <tr><th>Available boot options</th><th>Description</th></tr>
332 <tr><ti>doataraid</ti><ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
333 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti><ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc.)</ti></tr>
334 <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti><ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
335 <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti><ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
336 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti><ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
337 <tr><ti>noapm</ti><ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
338 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti><ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
339 <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti><ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
340 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti><ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
341 <tr><ti>noraid</ti><ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
342 <tr><ti>nousb</ti><ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
343 <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti><ti>force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
344 <tr><ti>cdcache</ti><ti>cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram. This uses 40mb of RAM, but allows you to umount <path>/mnt/cdrom</path> and mount another cdrom</ti></tr>
345 </table>
347 <p>
348 Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with an even fancier boot
349 screen and progress bar.
350 </p>
352 <!--
353 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-boot.png" caption="The Gentoo
354 Linux Live CD booting" />
355 -->
357 <p>
358 Once the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in
359 to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "<e>root</e>", the "super user". You should
360 have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
361 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
362 you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
363 </p>
365 <!--
367 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-con.png" caption="The Gentoo
368 Linux Live CD console" />
369 -->
371 <note>
372 <b>Advanced users:</b> When the Live CD boots, the Live CD root password is
373 set to a random string for security purposes. If you plan to start
374 <c>sshd</c> to allow remote logins to your Live CD, you should set the Live
375 CD root password now by typing <c>passwd</c> and following the prompts.
376 Otherwise, you will not know the proper password for logging into the Live
377 CD over the network.
378 </note>
380 <p>
381 You've probably also noticed that above your # prompt is a bunch of
382 help text that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking
383 and telling you where you can find the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages
384 on your CD.
385 </p>
387 </body>
388 </section>
389 </chapter>
391 <chapter>
392 <title>Optional hardware configuration</title>
393 <section>
394 <body>
396 <p>
397 When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware
398 devices and loads the appropiate kernel modules to support your
399 hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job.
400 However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules
401 you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you
402 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
403 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
404 /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
405 type:
406 </p>
408 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
409 # <i>modprobe pcnet32</i>
410 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
411 </pre>
413 <p>
414 Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't
415 detected during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to
416 load the appropriate modules from <path>/lib/modules</path>, again using
417 <c>modprobe</c>:
418 </p>
420 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
421 # <i>modprobe aic7xxx</i>
422 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
423 # <i>modprobe sd_mod</i>
424 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
425 </pre>
427 <note>
428 Support for SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
429 </note>
431 <note>
432 <b>Advanced users:</b> The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA
433 on your disks so that disk transfers are as fast as possible, but if it did not,
434 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives as follows:
435 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
436 <comment>(Replace hdX with your disk device)</comment>
437 # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX</i>
438 <comment>(Enables DMA)</comment>
439 # <i>hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX</i>
440 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
441 # <i>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX</i>
442 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
443 </pre>
444 </note>
447 </body>
448 </section>
449 </chapter>
450 <chapter>
451 <title>Optional Networking configuration</title>
452 <section>
453 <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
454 <body>
456 <p>
457 If your system is plugged into an Ethernet network, it is very
458 likely that your networking configuration has already been
459 set up automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of
460 the many included network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>,
461 <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>, among
462 others.
463 </p>
465 <p>
466 If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command
467 should list some internet interfaces besides lo, such as eth0:
468 </p>
470 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
471 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
472 inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
473 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
475 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
476 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
477 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
478 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
479 Interrupt:11 Base address:0xe800
480 </pre>
482 <p>
483 You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in
484 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>) and a Web site of choice, just to make sure
485 that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working
486 correctly, etc..
487 </p>
489 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
490 # <i>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com</i>
491 </pre>
493 <p>
494 Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this
495 section.
496 </p>
498 </body>
499 </section>
500 <section>
501 <title>PPPoE configuration</title>
502 <body>
504 <p>
505 Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version)
506 has made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided
507 <c>adsl-setup</c> script to configure your connection. You will be prompted
508 for the ethernet device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username
509 and password, the IPs of your DNS servers and if you need a basic firewall
510 or not.
511 </p>
513 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
514 # <i> adsl-setup </i>
515 # <i> adsl-start </i>
516 </pre>
518 <p>
519 If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed your username
520 and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
521 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and make sure you are using the right
522 ethernet device.
523 </p>
525 </body>
526 </section>
528 <section>
529 <title>Automatic Network Configuration </title>
530 <body>
532 <p>
533 The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured
534 automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script:
535 </p>
537 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
538 # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
539 </pre>
541 <p>
542 Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is
543 covered next.
544 </p>
546 </body>
547 </section>
548 <section>
549 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
550 <body>
552 <p>
553 Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
554 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below.
555 </p>
557 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
558 # <i>dhcpcd eth0</i>
559 </pre>
561 <note>
562 Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that, add a
563 <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
564 </note>
566 <p>
567 If you receive <e>dhcpConfig</e> warnings, don't panic; the errors are most
568 likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.
569 </p>
571 </body>
572 </section>
573 <section>
574 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
575 <body>
577 <p>
578 We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download sources for
579 the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed
580 information is explained in the next table.
581 </p>
583 <table>
584 <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
585 <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti></ti></tr>
586 <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network</ti><ti></ti></tr>
587 <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti></ti></tr>
588 <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti></ti></tr>
589 </table>
591 <p>
592 Type in the following commands, replacing <c>$IFACE</c> with your network
593 interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), <c>$IPNUM</c> with your IP address,
594 <c>$BCAST</c> with your broadcast address and <c>$NMASK</c> with your network
595 mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace <c>$GTWAY</c> with your default
596 gateway.
597 </p>
599 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
600 # <i>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</i>
601 # <i>route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask metric 1 $IFACE</i>
602 </pre>
604 <p>
605 Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file so that name
606 resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address)
607 will work. You can use <c>nano -w /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create
608 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use
609 editor.
610 </p>
612 <p>
613 Here is a template to follow for creating your <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
614 file:
615 </p>
617 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
618 domain mydomain.com
619 nameserver
620 nameserver
621 </pre>
623 <p>
624 Replace <c></c> and <c></c> with the IP addresses of your
625 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.
626 </p>
628 </body>
629 </section>
631 <section>
632 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
633 <body>
635 <p>
636 If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy
637 before you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy
638 accordingly.
639 </p>
641 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
642 <comment>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</comment>
643 # <i>export http_proxy="http://machine.company.com:1234"</i>
644 <comment>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</comment>
645 # <i>export ftp_proxy="ftp://machine.company.com"</i>
646 <comment>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</comment>
647 # <i>export RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://machine.company.com"</i>
648 </pre>
650 </body>
651 </section>
653 <section>
654 <title>Networking is go!</title>
655 <body>
657 <p>
658 Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the
659 included <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c>
660 commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.
661 </p>
663 </body>
664 </section>
665 </chapter>
667 <chapter>
668 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
669 <section>
670 <body>
672 <p>
673 Now you need to set your system's date and time. You can do this using the
674 <c>date</c> command.
675 </p>
677 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
678 # <i>date</i>
679 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
680 <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
681 # <i>date 022709042003</i>
682 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
683 </pre>
685 </body>
686 </section>
687 </chapter>
689 <chapter>
690 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
691 <section>
692 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
693 <body>
695 <p>
696 In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo
697 Linux and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block
698 devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
699 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
700 and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
701 </p>
703 <p>
704 To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
705 probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
706 </p>
708 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
709 /dev/hda
710 </pre>
712 <p>
713 If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
714 </p>
716 <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
717 /dev/sda
718 </pre>
720 <p>
721 The block devices above represent an <e>abstract</e> interface to the disk.
722 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
723 worrying about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
724 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
725 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
726 </p>
728 </body>
729 </section>
730 <section>
731 <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
732 <body>
734 <p>
735 Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
736 <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc.), specifying a particular
737 block device as a command-line argument.
738 </p>
740 <p>
741 However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
742 device (one that represents the <e>entire</e> disk) like <path>/dev/hda</path>
743 or <path>/dev/sda</path> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never
744 done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller,
745 more manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created
746 using a tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the
747 partition table that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines
748 exactly how to split up the full disk.
749 </p>
751 <p>
752 We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
753 specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument:
754 </p>
756 <note>
757 Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
758 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> because it's
759 more powerful and well known in the Unix/Linux world.
760 </note>
762 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
763 # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
764 </pre>
766 <p>
767 or
768 </p>
770 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
771 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
772 </pre>
774 <impo>
775 Note that you should <e>not</e> save or make any changes to a disk's
776 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
777 contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
778 lost.
779 </impo>
781 <p>
782 Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
783 </p>
785 <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
786 Command (m for help):
787 </pre>
789 <p>
790 Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
791 </p>
793 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
794 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
796 Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
797 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
799 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
800 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
801 /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
802 /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
803 /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
804 /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
805 /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
806 /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
807 /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
808 /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
810 Command (m for help):
811 </pre>
813 <p>
814 This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
815 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
816 (listed as "Linux swap").
817 </p>
819 <p>
820 Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
821 devices on the left hand side, starting with <path>/dev/hda1</path> and going
822 up to <path>/dev/hda9</path>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning
823 software only allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary"
824 partitions). This was too limiting, so a workaround called <e>extended
825 partitioning</e> was created. An extended partition is very similar to a
826 primary partition and counts towards the primary partition limit of four.
827 However, extended partitions can hold any number of so-called <e>logical</e>
828 partitions inside them, providing an effective means of working around the
829 four partition limit.
830 </p>
832 <p>
833 All partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> and higher are logical partitions.
834 The numbers 1 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions.
835 </p>
837 <p>
838 So, In our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> through <path>/dev/hda3</path> are
839 primary partitions. <path>/dev/hda4</path> is an extended partition that
840 contains logical partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
841 <path>/dev/hda9</path>. You would never actually <e>use</e>
842 <path>/dev/hda4</path> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
843 acts as a container for partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
844 <path>/dev/hda9</path>.
845 </p>
847 <p>
848 Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
849 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
850 partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
851 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
852 partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
853 type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
854 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
855 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
856 </p>
858 </body>
859 </section>
861 <section>
862 <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
863 <body>
865 <p>
866 Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
867 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
868 partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
869 process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
870 look like this:
871 </p>
873 <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
874 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
875 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
876 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
878 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
879 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
880 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
881 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
883 Command (m for help):
884 </pre>
886 <p>
887 In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
888 The first one (<path>/dev/hda1</path>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
889 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
890 the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
891 will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
892 us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
893 day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
894 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
895 likely end up being <path>/dev/sda1</path>.
896 </p>
898 <p>
899 It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
900 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
901 required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
902 loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
903 cylinder 1024.
904 </p>
906 <p>
907 The second partition (<path>/dev/hda2</path>) is used to for swap space. The
908 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
909 relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
910 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
911 being called <path>/dev/sda2</path>.
912 </p>
914 <p>
915 The third partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path>) is quite large and takes up the
916 rest of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be
917 used to store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI
918 system, this partition would likely end up being <path>/dev/sda3</path>.
919 </p>
921 <p>
922 Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
923 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
924 Linux:
925 </p>
927 <table>
928 <tr>
929 <th>Partition</th>
930 <th>Size</th>
931 <th>Type</th>
932 <th>example device</th>
933 </tr>
934 <tr>
935 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
936 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
937 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
938 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
939 </tr>
940 <tr>
941 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
942 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one and two times the size of the physical RAM in your system</ti>
943 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
944 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
945 </tr>
946 <tr>
947 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc.)</ti>
948 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
949 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
950 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
951 </tr>
952 </table>
954 <p>
955 OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
956 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
957 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
958 current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
959 to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
960 existing data on your disk will be erased</b>.
961 </p>
963 <impo>
964 Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
965 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
966 is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
967 <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
968 from the wrong drive.
969 </impo>
971 <p>
972 Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
973 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
974 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/hda1</path>, you would type:
975 </p>
977 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
978 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
979 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
980 </pre>
982 <p>
983 The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
984 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
985 saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
986 type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
987 deleted.
988 </p>
990 <p>
991 Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
992 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
993 <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
994 with a partition table with nothing in it:
995 </p>
997 <pre caption="An empty partition table">
998 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
999 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1000 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1002 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1004 Command (m for help):
1005 </pre>
1007 <p>
1008 Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
1009 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
1010 <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
1011 create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
1012 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
1013 partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:
1014 </p>
1016 <note>
1017 Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
1018 require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefore, if you are using a journaled
1019 filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
1020 for the last cylinder.
1021 </note>
1023 <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
1024 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
1025 Command action
1026 e extended
1027 p primary partition (1-4)
1028 <i>p</i>
1029 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
1030 First cylinder (1-3876, default 1): <comment>(Hit Enter)</comment>
1031 Using default value 1
1032 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): <i>+32M</i>
1033 </pre>
1035 <p>
1036 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition
1037 printout:
1038 </p>
1040 <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
1041 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1043 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1044 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1045 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1047 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1048 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1049 </pre>
1051 <p>
1052 Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
1053 new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition.
1054 Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
1055 <path>/dev/hda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1056 hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create
1057 a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the
1058 partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just created and then
1059 type in <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing
1060 these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks
1061 similar to this:
1062 </p>
1064 <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
1065 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1067 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1068 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1069 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1071 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1072 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1073 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1074 </pre>
1076 <p>
1077 Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
1078 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
1079 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
1080 <path>/dev/hda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1081 hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a
1082 partition that takes up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After
1083 completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that
1084 looks similar to this:
1085 </p>
1087 <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
1088 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1090 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1091 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1092 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1094 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1095 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1096 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1097 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
1098 </pre>
1100 <p>
1101 Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
1102 our changes to disk. To tag <path>/dev/hda1</path> as a "bootable" partition,
1103 type <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number.
1104 If you type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <path>/dev/hda1</path> has a
1105 <c>*</c> in the "Boot" column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do
1106 this, type <c>w</c> and hit enter. Your disk partitions are now properly
1107 configured for a Gentoo Linux install.
1108 </p>
1110 <note>
1111 If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
1112 allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.
1113 </note>
1115 </body>
1116 </section>
1118 <section>
1119 <title>Creating filesystems</title>
1120 <body>
1122 <p>
1123 Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
1124 the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store
1125 data. We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
1126 </p>
1128 <p>
1129 Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
1130 its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics.
1131 Currently, we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS
1132 filesystems.
1133 </p>
1135 <p>
1136 ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
1137 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
1138 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
1139 <e>journaled</e> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
1140 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
1141 Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
1142 filesystem happens to be in an <e>inconsistent</e> state.
1143 </p>
1145 <p>
1146 ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
1147 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
1148 like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
1149 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
1150 Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
1151 design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
1152 very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
1153 files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
1154 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.
1155 </p>
1157 <p>
1158 ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
1159 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
1160 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
1161 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
1162 now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
1163 filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
1164 use of many small files, very large files and directories containing tens of
1165 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
1166 non-boot partitions.
1167 </p>
1169 <p>
1170 XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
1171 Gentoo Linux's <c>xfs-sources</c> kernel. It comes with a robust
1172 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
1173 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
1174 a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
1175 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
1176 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
1177 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
1178 </p>
1180 <p>
1181 JFS is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
1182 become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
1183 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
1184 point.
1185 </p>
1187 <p>
1188 If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
1189 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
1190 journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
1191 refined and recommended for general use.
1192 </p>
1194 <p>
1195 Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
1196 all our partitions for use:
1197 </p>
1199 <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
1200 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda1</i>
1201 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1202 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1203 </pre>
1205 <p>
1206 We choose ext3 for our <path>/dev/hda1</path> boot partition because it is a
1207 robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
1208 <c>mkswap</c> for our <path>/dev/hda2</path> swap partition -- the choice is
1209 obvious here. And for our main root filesystem on <path>/dev/hda3</path> we
1210 choose ReiserFS, since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent
1211 performance. Now, go ahead and initialize your partitions.
1212 </p>
1214 <p>
1215 For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
1216 during the installation process:
1217 </p>
1219 <p>
1220 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
1221 </p>
1223 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
1224 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1225 </pre>
1227 <p>
1228 You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:
1229 </p>
1231 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
1232 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1233 </pre>
1235 <p>
1236 If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
1237 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:
1238 </p>
1240 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
1241 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i>
1242 </pre>
1244 <note>
1245 You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
1246 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
1247 </note>
1249 <p>
1250 To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:
1251 </p>
1253 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
1254 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1255 </pre>
1257 <p>
1258 To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:
1259 </p>
1261 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
1262 # <i>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</i>
1263 </pre>
1265 <note>
1266 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c>
1267 command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>. The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command
1268 will lower the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at
1269 least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition, so, for example, if
1270 you have a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5. The
1271 <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing
1272 performance.
1273 </note>
1275 <p>
1276 To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:
1277 </p>
1279 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
1280 # <i>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</i>
1281 </pre>
1283 </body>
1284 </section>
1285 </chapter>
1287 <chapter>
1288 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
1289 <section>
1290 <body>
1292 <p>
1293 Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need
1294 the additional virtual memory that it provides later:
1295 </p>
1297 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
1298 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
1299 </pre>
1301 <p>
1302 Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount point,
1303 and we will mount our filesystems to the mount points. Once our boot and
1304 root filesystems are mounted, any files we copy or create inside
1305 <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
1306 Note that if you are setting up Gentoo Linux with separate
1307 <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1308 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1309 </p>
1311 <impo>
1312 If your <path>/boot</path> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS,
1313 be sure to mount it with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly
1314 installed. Make sure that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new
1315 <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1316 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS,
1317 then the <c>-o notail</c> is not needed. It's always safe to specify the
1318 <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're not sure what to do.
1319 </impo>
1321 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1322 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
1323 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1324 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1325 </pre>
1327 <impo>
1328 If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1329 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2</c>
1330 </impo>
1332 </body>
1333 </section>
1334 </chapter>
1337 <chapter>
1338 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1339 <section>
1340 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1341 <body>
1343 <p>
1344 Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1345 basis for the install if you haven't already. The stages on the Live CD are
1346 in <path>/mnt/cdrom/stages/</path> and you can type <c>ls
1347 /mnt/cdrom/stages/</c> to see what's available on your CD.
1348 </p>
1350 <p>
1351 <b>GRP users</b> should use the <path>stage3-xx-yy.tar.bz2</path> tarball.
1352 </p>
1354 <p>
1355 If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1356 <e>not</e> on your CD (which will likely be the case if you're using our
1357 "basic" Live CD), this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1358 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1359 tarball you want to use (which most users will have), then proceed to the
1360 "Extracting the stage tarball" section.
1361 </p>
1363 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1364 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1365 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1366 # <i>lynx http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</i>
1367 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1368 Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1369 Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1370 Save the file and quit the browser
1372 <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1373 # <i>wget </i><comment>(insert URL to the required stage tarball here)</comment>
1374 </pre>
1376 </body>
1377 </section>
1378 <section>
1379 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1380 <body>
1382 <p>
1383 Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1384 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1385 tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1386 stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1387 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:
1388 </p>
1390 <impo>
1391 Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1392 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.
1393 </impo>
1395 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1396 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1397 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1398 <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1399 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/stages/".</comment>
1400 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
1401 </pre>
1403 <p>
1404 If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now
1405 delete it by typing <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.
1406 </p>
1408 </body>
1409 </section>
1411 <section>
1412 <title>GRP package/snapshot steps</title>
1413 <body>
1415 <impo>
1416 The following instructions are for GRP users only.
1417 </impo>
1419 <p>
1420 <b>GRP Users</b>: There is a Portage snapshot on the Live CD. You will
1421 need to use this snapshot so that you can skip the <c>emerge sync</c> step
1422 later in this document, since <c>emerge sync</c> requires a network
1423 connection. Untar this snapshot as follows:
1424 </p>
1426 <pre caption="Using Portage snapshot">
1427 <comment>Replace yyyymmdd with the datestamp in the filename.</comment>
1428 # <i>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-yyyymmdd.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
1429 </pre>
1431 <p>
1432 This will extract a snapshot of the Portage tree to your fresh Gentoo
1433 install. Now you won't need to connect to the Internet and use <c>emerge
1434 sync</c> to download a Portage tree. Now, copy distfiles and packages
1435 from the Live CD into place:
1436 </p>
1438 <pre caption="Copying GRP files">
1439 # <i>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
1440 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages</i>
1441 </pre>
1443 <p>
1444 All relevant files are now in place for using GRP. You should now have
1445 everything copied over and unpacked that you'll need to install Gentoo Linux
1446 -- even without a network connection.
1447 </p>
1449 </body>
1450 </section>
1452 <section>
1453 <title>Selecting Mirrors (Optional)</title>
1454 <body>
1456 <p>
1457 <c>mirrorselect</c> is a tool designed to automatically pick the fastest
1458 mirrors based on your location, or manually pick a mirror from a list.
1459 Unfortunately, <c>mirrorselect</c> does not work well behind all routers.
1460 </p>
1462 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect">
1463 <comment>To select a mirror automatically:</comment>
1464 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1465 <comment>To select a mirror interactively:</comment>
1466 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1467 </pre>
1469 <p>
1470 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails you should be able to
1471 continue with this guide since no changes are made.
1472 </p>
1474 </body>
1475 </section>
1476 <section>
1477 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1478 <body>
1480 <p>
1481 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to
1482 "enter" the new Gentoo Linux system:
1483 </p>
1485 <note>
1486 You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1487 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1488 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document, which will resolve
1489 the problem.
1490 </note>
1492 <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1493 # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
1494 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
1495 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
1496 # <i>env-update</i>
1497 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1498 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
1499 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries)</comment>
1500 </pre>
1502 <p>
1503 After you execute these commands, you will be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux
1504 environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. We can perform the rest of the
1505 installation process inside the chroot.
1506 </p>
1508 </body>
1509 </section>
1510 </chapter>
1512 <chapter>
1513 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1514 <section>
1515 <body>
1517 <impo>
1518 If you are doing a GRP install then you can ignore the following section on
1519 <c>emerge sync</c>.
1520 </impo>
1522 <p>
1523 Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage
1524 to download the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree from the
1525 Internet. If you extracted a Portage tree snapshot from <e>CD 1</e> earlier,
1526 you can safely skip this step. The Portage tree contains all the scripts
1527 (called ebuilds) used to build every package under Gentoo Linux. Currently,
1528 we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1529 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in
1530 <path>/usr/portage</path>:
1531 </p>
1533 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1534 # <i>emerge sync</i>
1535 </pre>
1537 </body>
1538 </section>
1539 </chapter>
1541 <chapter>
1542 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1543 <section>
1544 <body>
1546 <p>
1547 Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1548 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1549 Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1550 programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1551 this file, you should set your USE flags, which specify optional
1552 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1553 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset USE variable) are
1554 fine. More information on USE flags can be found <uri
1555 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1556 of current USE flags can be found <uri
1557 link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
1558 </p>
1560 <p>
1561 If you are starting from a stage1 tarball, You also should set appropriate
1562 CHOST, CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings for the kind of system that you are
1563 creating (commented examples can be found further down in the file). If you
1564 are using a stage2 or stage3 tarball, these settings will already be configured
1565 optimally and should not require any modification.
1566 </p>
1568 <impo>
1569 <b>Advanced users:</b> The CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings are used to tell the
1570 C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that is generated on your system.
1571 It is common for users with Athlon XP processors to specify a
1572 "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings so that all
1573 packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and performance
1574 characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1575 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
1576 </impo>
1578 <!-- needs qa
1579 <note>
1580 <b>Advanced users:</b>If you are building from a stage1 and don't want
1581 to manually configure CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, you can use the <c>genflags</c>
1582 utility, which will try to guess accurate flags for your CPU architecture.
1583 Simply type <c>emerge -O genflags</c> and then execute
1584 <c>info2flags</c>. <c>info2flags</c> will suggest CHOST, CFLAGS and
1585 CXXFLAGS settings, which you can then add to
1586 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
1587 </note>
1588 -->
1590 <p>
1591 If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1592 firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1593 using <c>nano</c>, a simple visual editor:
1594 </p>
1596 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1597 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
1598 </pre>
1600 <note>
1601 <b>Advanced users:</b> People who need to substantially customize the build
1602 process should take a look at the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This
1603 file comprises gentoo defaults and should never be touched. If the defaults
1604 do not suffice, then new values should be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>,
1605 as entries in <path>make.conf</path> <e>override</e> the entries
1606 in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're interested in customizing USE
1607 settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1608 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate
1609 <c>USE="-foo"</c> in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c>
1610 USE setting enabled by default in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or
1611 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1612 </note>
1614 <warn>
1615 Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your USE variables until after
1616 stage1.
1617 </warn>
1619 </body>
1620 </section>
1621 </chapter>
1623 <chapter>
1624 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1625 <section>
1626 <body>
1628 <note>
1629 If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.
1630 </note>
1632 <p>
1633 The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you
1634 have picked this tarball, you are most likely looking to have an
1635 uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun! Installing from a stage1
1636 takes a lot of time, but the result is a system that has been optimized
1637 from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1638 </p>
1640 <p>
1641 Now, it is time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes
1642 about two hours on a 1200MHz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the GNU
1643 C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start
1644 the bootstrap as follows:
1645 </p>
1647 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1648 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
1649 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
1650 </pre>
1652 <p>
1653 The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
1654 </p>
1656 <note>
1657 <c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up
1658 users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related
1659 files in one go for later compilation. See <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more
1660 information.
1661 </note>
1663 <note>
1664 Portage by default uses <path>/var/tmp</path> during package building,
1665 often using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would
1666 like to change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new
1667 PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e> starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1668 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1669 # <i>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</i>
1670 </pre>
1671 </note>
1673 <p>
1674 <c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1675 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c> after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to
1676 say, this process takes a while. Once this process completes, your system
1677 will be equivalent to a "stage2" system, which means you can now move on to
1678 the stage2 instructions.
1679 </p>
1681 </body>
1682 </section>
1683 </chapter>
1685 <chapter>
1686 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1687 <section>
1688 <body>
1690 <note>
1691 This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1692 this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3), then skip this section.
1693 </note>
1695 <warn>
1696 If you start from stage2, don't change the CHOST variable in
1697 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so results in strange and
1698 broad compilation failures.
1699 </warn>
1701 <p>
1702 The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you
1703 have to do is install the rest of the system:
1704 </p>
1706 <note>
1707 If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1708 that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1709 option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1710 safe to skip this suggestion.
1711 </note>
1713 <pre caption="Installing the rest of the system">
1714 # <i>emerge -p system</i>
1715 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1716 # <i>emerge system</i>
1717 </pre>
1719 <p>
1720 It is going to take a while to finish building the entire base system.
1721 Your reward is that it will be thoroughly optimized for your system.
1722 The drawback is that you have to find a way to keep yourself occupied for
1723 some time to come. The author suggests "Star Wars - Super Bombad Racing"
1724 for the PS2.
1725 </p>
1727 <p>
1728 Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1729 your time zone" section.
1730 </p>
1732 </body>
1733 </section>
1734 </chapter>
1737 <chapter>
1738 <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1739 <section>
1740 <body>
1742 <note>
1743 This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3 and not for those who
1744 have started with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section. GRP users
1745 should skip ahead to the next section.
1746 </note>
1748 <warn>
1749 Remember, if you start from stage3, don't change the CHOST variable in
1750 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so can result in compilation failures.
1751 </warn>
1753 <p>
1754 The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system,
1755 so no building is required.
1756 </p>
1758 <note>
1759 <b>Advanced users:</b> However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it
1760 may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern for you, you can
1761 automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date
1762 versions of all system packages by making a backup of
1763 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, then typing <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"
1764 emerge -u system</c> (this requires a network connection) and replacing
1765 the backup afterwards. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is
1766 very old; otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you
1767 to benefit from the very latest Gentoo updates and fixes. In any case, feel
1768 free to skip these steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1769 </note>
1771 </body>
1772 </section>
1773 </chapter>
1776 <chapter>
1777 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1778 <section>
1779 <body>
1781 <p>
1782 Now you need to set your time zone.
1783 </p>
1785 <p>
1786 Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1787 in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1788 <path>/etc/localtime</path> by typing:
1789 </p>
1791 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1792 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</i>
1793 </pre>
1795 </body>
1796 </section>
1797 </chapter>
1799 <chapter>
1800 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1801 <section>
1802 <body>
1804 <impo>
1805 To edit files, remember to use <c>nano -w "filename"</c>.
1806 </impo>
1808 <p>
1809 Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is
1810 configure a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1811 The first file we need to configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember
1812 that you should use the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if
1813 you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it. Remember to specify
1814 <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1815 </p>
1817 <warn>
1818 Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be
1819 sure to replace "BOOT", "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices you
1820 are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.):
1821 </warn>
1823 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1824 <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1825 #
1826 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1827 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1828 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1829 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1831 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1833 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1834 </comment>
1835 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1836 /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1837 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1838 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1839 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1840 </pre>
1842 <warn>
1843 Please notice that <path>/boot</path> is <e>not</e> mounted at boot time. This
1844 is to protect the data in <path>/boot</path> from corruption. If you need to
1845 access <path>/boot</path>, please mount it!
1846 </warn>
1848 </body>
1849 </section>
1850 </chapter>
1853 <chapter>
1854 <title>Installing the kernel and system logger</title>
1855 <section>
1856 <title>Kernel selections</title>
1857 <body>
1859 <p>
1860 There are two options for installing a kernel. You can either configure your
1861 own kernel or use the <c>genkernel</c> utility to configure and compile your
1862 kernel automatically.
1863 </p>
1865 <p>
1866 Whether configuring a kernel by hand or using <c>genkernel</c>,
1867 you'll need to merge the Linux kernel sources you'd like to use.
1868 Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1869 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1870 which kernel sources to choose, we advise using <c>gentoo-sources</c>.
1871 If you want XFS support, you should choose <c>xfs-sources</c> or
1872 <c>gs-sources</c>. Gentoo's LiveCD uses <c>gs-sources</c> and
1873 <c>xfs-sources</c>. There is also a <c>gaming-sources</c> kernel optimized
1874 for game-playing responsiveness that works wonderfully for this purpose when
1875 the "Preemptible kernel" option is enabled.
1876 </p>
1878 <p>
1879 Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:
1880 </p>
1882 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1883 # <i>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</i>
1884 </pre>
1886 <p>
1887 The <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link will point to your
1888 newly-installed kernel source tree. Portage uses the
1889 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link for a special purpose. Any ebuilds
1890 you install that contain kernel modules will be configured to work with the
1891 kernel source tree pointed to by <path>/usr/src/linux</path>.
1892 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is created when you emerge your first kernel
1893 source package, but after it exists, Portage does not modify this symbolic
1894 link.
1895 </p>
1897 </body>
1898 </section>
1899 <section>
1900 <title>Using genkernel to compile your kernel</title>
1901 <body>
1903 <p>
1904 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
1905 kernel. There are two ways to do this. The first way is to use our new
1906 <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for you.
1907 <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the way
1908 our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use <c>genkernel</c>
1909 to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all your hardware at
1910 boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any
1911 manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may
1912 not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
1913 </p>
1915 <p>
1916 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
1917 </p>
1919 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
1920 # <i>emerge -k genkernel</i>
1921 </pre>
1923 <p>
1924 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>:
1925 </p>
1927 <note>
1928 <b>Advanced users:</b> you can type <c>genkernel --config</c> instead,
1929 which will cause genkernel to allow you to tweak the default kernel
1930 configuration before building begins.
1931 </note>
1933 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
1934 <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.2 (included in the 1.4-20030803 x86/i686 GRP set), use the following:</comment>
1935 # <i>genkernel gentoo-sources</i>
1936 <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.4 or newer, there's no need to specify a kernel:</comment>
1937 # <i>genkernel</i>
1938 Gentoo Linux genkernel, version 1.4
1939 Copyright 2003 Gentoo Technologies, Inc., Bob Johnson, Daniel Robbins
1940 Distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2
1942 Settings:
1943 compile optimization: 1 processor(s)
1944 source tree: /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1945 config: gentoo (customized)
1946 config loc: /etc/kernels/config-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1947 initrd config: (default) /etc/kernels/settings
1949 * Running "make oldconfig"... [ ok ]
1950 * Logging to /var/log/genkernel.log... [ ok ]
1951 * Starting 2.4.20-gaming-r3 build... [ ok ]
1952 * Running "make dep"... [ ok ]
1953 * Running "make bzImage"... [ ok ]
1954 * Running "make modules"... [ ok ]
1955 * Running "make modules_install"... [ ok ]
1956 * Moving bzImage to /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3... [ ok ]
1957 * Building busybox... [ ok ]
1958 * Creating initrd... [ ok ]
1960 * Build completed successfully!
1962 * Please specify /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3 and /boot/initrd-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1963 * when customizing your boot loader configuration files.
1964 </pre>
1966 <p>
1967 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
1968 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
1969 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
1970 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
1971 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
1972 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
1973 your "real" system starts up.
1974 </p>
1976 <p>
1977 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
1978 CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
1979 is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
1980 To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
1981 </p>
1983 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
1984 # <i>emerge -k hotplug</i>
1985 # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
1986 </pre>
1988 <p>
1989 Now that you've run and configured your system to use <c>genkernel</c>, you
1990 can skip the "manual kernel configuration" section below.
1991 </p>
1993 </body>
1994 </section>
1995 <section>
1996 <title>Manual kernel configuration</title>
1997 <body>
1999 <p>
2000 If you opted not to use genkernel to compile your kernel, this section
2001 will guide you through the process of configuring and compiling a kernel by
2002 hand. Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your
2003 current emerged kernel source package and is set automatically by Portage at
2004 emerge time. If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to
2005 set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink to the correct one before
2006 proceeding.
2007 </p>
2009 <warn>
2010 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i>
2011 option. Being too aggressive with your security settings can cause certain
2012 programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
2013 </warn>
2015 <note>
2016 If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
2017 your configuration on it, you should execute <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
2018 If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
2019 about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
2020 </note>
2022 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
2023 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
2024 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
2025 </pre>
2027 <warn>
2028 For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
2029 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <e>be enabled
2030 and not compiled as modules</e>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you
2031 have any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're
2032 using XFS, enable the &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's
2033 always a good idea to leave ext2 enabled whether you are using it or not.
2034 </warn>
2036 <p>
2037 Below are some common options that you will need:
2038 </p>
2040 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
2041 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
2042 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
2043 <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below)</comment>
2044 ...
2046 File systems ---&gt;
2047 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
2048 <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs)</comment>
2049 ...
2050 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
2051 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3)</comment>
2052 ...
2053 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
2054 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2055 ...
2056 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
2057 <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS)</comment>
2058 ...
2059 [*] /proc file system support
2060 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2061 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
2062 [*] Automatically mount at boot
2063 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2064 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
2065 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed)</comment>
2066 ...
2067 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
2068 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2)</comment>
2069 ...
2070 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
2071 <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS)</comment>
2072 </pre>
2074 <p>
2075 If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
2076 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) : &quot;PPP
2077 (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial
2078 ports&quot;, &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression
2079 options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP
2080 over Ethernet&quot; option, that might only be used by <c>rp-pppoe</c> when
2081 configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
2082 </p>
2084 <p>
2085 If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
2086 kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA
2087 and ATAPI Block devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot;
2088 (I usually make it a module), then under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable
2089 &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and &quot;SCSI
2090 generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
2091 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
2092 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</c> to have them automatically
2093 added at boot time.
2094 </p>
2096 <p>
2097 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
2098 ethernet card.
2099 </p>
2101 <note>
2102 For those who prefer it, it is possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2
2103 kernel. However, doing this comes at a price: you will lose many of the nifty
2104 features that are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
2105 filesystems, iptables and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
2106 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
2107 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the
2108 kernel, so 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled
2109 in (ie, not a module). It is <comment>vital</comment> that a
2110 <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel line in
2111 <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in
2112 <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
2113 for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
2114 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
2115 </note>
2117 <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
2118 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</i>
2119 # <i>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
2120 </pre>
2122 </body>
2123 </section>
2124 <section>
2125 <title>Installing additional hardware-specific ebuilds</title>
2126 <body>
2128 <p>
2129 Finally, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is on
2130 your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
2131 </p>
2133 <table>
2134 <tr>
2135 <th>Ebuild</th>
2136 <th>Purpose</th>
2137 <th>Command</th>
2138 </tr>
2139 <tr>
2140 <ti>nvidia-kernel</ti>
2141 <ti>Accelerated NVIDIA graphics for XFree86</ti>
2142 <ti><c>emerge -k nvidia-kernel</c></ti>
2143 </tr>
2144 <tr>
2145 <ti>nforce-net</ti>
2146 <ti>On-board ethernet controller on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2147 <ti><c>emerge nforce-net</c></ti>
2148 </tr>
2149 <tr>
2150 <ti>nforce-audio</ti>
2151 <ti>On-board audio on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2152 <ti><c>emerge nforce-audio</c></ti>
2153 </tr>
2154 <tr>
2155 <ti>e100</ti>
2156 <ti>Intel e100 Fast Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2157 <ti><c>emerge e100</c></ti>
2158 </tr>
2159 <tr>
2160 <ti>e1000</ti>
2161 <ti>Intel e1000 Gigabit Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2162 <ti><c>emerge e1000</c></ti>
2163 </tr>
2164 <tr>
2165 <ti>emu10k1</ti>
2166 <ti>Creative Sound Blaster Live!/Audigy support</ti>
2167 <ti><c>emerge emu10k1</c></ti>
2168 </tr>
2169 <tr>
2170 <ti>ati-drivers</ti>
2171 <ti>Accelerated ATI Radeon 8500+/FireGL graphics for XFree86</ti>
2172 <ti><c>emerge ati-drivers</c></ti>
2173 </tr>
2174 <tr>
2175 <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
2176 <ti>Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and other cards for XFree86</ti>
2177 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
2178 </tr>
2179 </table>
2181 <p>
2182 The <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, <c>ati-drivers</c> and <c>xfree-drm</c> packages
2183 will require additional configuration to be enabled. All other ebuilds listed
2184 above should be auto-detected at boot-time by the <c>hotplug</c> package. If
2185 you are not using hotplug, be sure to add the appropriate modules to
2186 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path>.
2187 </p>
2189 <p>
2190 More information on <c>xfree-drm</c> can be found in our <uri
2191 link="/doc/en/dri-howto.xml">Direct Rendering Guide</uri>.
2192 </p>
2195 </body>
2196 </section>
2197 <section>
2198 <title>Installing a system logger</title>
2199 <body>
2201 <p>
2202 Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose
2203 a system logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is
2204 the traditional set of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and
2205 syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem to gravitate away from
2206 sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the newer alternatives.
2207 If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
2208 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four command
2209 sets:
2210 </p>
2212 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
2213 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/sysklogd</i>
2214 # <i>rc-update add sysklogd default</i>
2215 <comment>or</comment>
2216 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng</i>
2217 # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
2218 <comment>or</comment>
2219 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/metalog</i>
2220 # <i>rc-update add metalog default</i>
2221 <comment>or</comment>
2222 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/msyslog</i>
2223 # <i>rc-update add msyslog default</i>
2224 </pre>
2226 <impo>
2227 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
2228 recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
2229 performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
2230 system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
2231 turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
2232 <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
2233 expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
2234 disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
2235 METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
2236 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
2237 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
2238 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
2239 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
2240 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
2241 </pre>
2242 </impo>
2244 <p>
2245 Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
2246 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to
2247 choose, you might as well grab vcron.
2248 </p>
2250 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
2251 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/dcron</i>
2252 # <i>rc-update add dcron default</i>
2253 # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2254 <comment>or</comment>
2255 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/fcron</i>
2256 # <i>rc-update add fcron default</i>
2257 # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2258 <comment>or</comment>
2259 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/vcron</i>
2260 # <i>rc-update add vcron default</i>
2261 <comment>You do not need to run <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i> if using vcron.</comment>
2262 </pre>
2264 <p>
2265 For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
2266 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
2267 </p>
2269 </body>
2270 </section>
2271 </chapter>
2273 <chapter>
2274 <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
2275 <section>
2276 <body>
2278 <p>
2279 If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
2280 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it:
2281 </p>
2283 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
2284 # <i>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</i>
2285 <comment>GRP users should type the following:</comment>
2286 # <i>USE="-X bindist" emerge -K rp-pppoe</i>
2287 </pre>
2289 <note>
2290 The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface,
2291 which is a good thing, because X and its dependencies would also be emerged.
2292 You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with X support later.
2293 </note>
2295 <note>
2296 Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured. You will have to
2297 do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
2298 for the first time.
2299 </note>
2301 <p>
2302 You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
2303 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
2304 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
2305 </p>
2307 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
2308 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/xfsprogs</i>
2309 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
2310 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</i>
2311 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
2312 # <i>emerge -k jfsutils</i>
2313 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
2314 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/lvm-user</i>
2315 </pre>
2317 <p>
2318 If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
2319 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i>
2320 package.
2321 </p>
2323 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
2324 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</i>
2325 </pre>
2327 <!-- fix the bug or fix the docs, don't send the user in circles
2328 (drobbins)
2329 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
2330 to work.
2331 </warn>
2332 -->
2334 </body>
2335 </section>
2336 </chapter>
2338 <chapter>
2339 <title>User Management</title>
2340 <section>
2341 <title>Setting a root password</title>
2342 <body>
2344 <p>
2345 Before you forget, set the root password by typing:
2346 </p>
2348 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
2349 # <i>passwd</i>
2350 </pre>
2352 </body>
2353 </section>
2354 <section>
2355 <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
2356 <body>
2358 <p>
2359 Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
2360 should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
2361 recommended to add a user for day-to-day use:
2362 </p>
2364 <pre caption = "Adding a user">
2365 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
2366 # <i>passwd your_user</i>
2367 </pre>
2369 <p>
2370 Substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.
2371 </p>
2373 <p>
2374 Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
2375 use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
2376 a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.
2377 </p>
2379 </body>
2380 </section>
2381 </chapter>
2383 <chapter>
2384 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
2385 <section>
2386 <body>
2388 <p>
2389 Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
2390 on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
2391 </p>
2393 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
2394 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
2395 </pre>
2397 <p>
2398 Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
2399 domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
2400 </p>
2402 <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
2403 # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
2404 </pre>
2406 <p>
2407 If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
2408 <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
2409 </p>
2411 <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
2412 # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
2413 </pre>
2415 </body>
2416 </section>
2417 </chapter>
2420 <chapter>
2421 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
2422 <section>
2423 <body>
2425 <p>
2426 This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
2427 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses of any hostnames that
2428 may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
2429 </p>
2431 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
2432 localhost
2433 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN and your associated machine name</comment>
2434 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
2435 </pre>
2437 <note>
2438 If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
2439 machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
2440 GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
2441 </note>
2443 </body>
2444 </section>
2445 </chapter>
2448 <chapter>
2449 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
2450 <section>
2451 <body>
2453 <p>
2454 Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of
2455 your system to <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> file (you can
2456 also add any options you need to the same line). When Gentoo Linux boots, these
2457 modules will be automatically loaded. Of particular importance is your
2458 ethernet card module, if you happened to compile it as a module:
2459 </p>
2461 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
2462 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
2463 Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
2464 3c59x
2465 </pre>
2467 <p>
2468 Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured
2469 for your first boot:
2470 </p>
2472 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
2473 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
2474 <comment>Only for non-PCMCIA network cards:</comment>
2475 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
2476 </pre>
2478 <p>
2479 If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create
2480 additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or
2481 <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path> scripts respectively for each one
2482 (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...):
2483 </p>
2485 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
2486 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
2487 # <i>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></i>
2488 <comment>Only for non-PCMCIA network cards:</comment>
2489 # <i>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</i>
2490 </pre>
2492 <p>
2493 If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
2494 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for
2495 your setup, then run the following command:
2496 </p>
2498 <pre caption = "Have PCMCIA services start automatically">
2499 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
2500 </pre>
2502 <p>
2503 This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network
2504 is loaded. The appropriate <path>/etc/init.d/net.eth*</path> services
2505 will be started by the pcmcia service automatically.
2506 </p>
2508 </body>
2509 </section>
2510 </chapter>
2512 <chapter>
2513 <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
2514 <section>
2515 <body>
2517 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
2518 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
2519 </pre>
2521 <p>
2522 Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings. All users
2523 will want to make sure that CLOCK is set to his/her liking. International
2524 keyboard users will want to set the KEYMAP variable (browse
2525 <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various possibilities).
2526 </p>
2528 </body>
2529 </section>
2530 </chapter>
2532 <chapter>
2533 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
2534 <section>
2535 <title>Notes</title>
2536 <body>
2538 <p>
2539 In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose
2540 from. Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between
2541 both GRUB and LILO as their bootloaders.
2542 </p>
2544 <p>
2545 Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
2546 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
2547 </p>
2549 <p>
2550 In addition, you will need to configure our bootloader differently depending
2551 upon whether you are using <c>genkernel</c> (with kernel and initrd) or a
2552 kernel you compiled by hand. Be sure to take note of the important
2553 differences.
2554 </p>
2556 <impo>
2557 If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or
2558 nForce2 chipset with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use
2559 LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board video enabled, the low memory area of your
2560 RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low memory at boot time,
2561 it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
2562 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using
2563 off-board video right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics
2564 card and use the on-board video in a pinch, wouldn't it? :)
2565 </impo>
2567 </body>
2568 </section>
2569 <section>
2570 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
2571 <body>
2573 <p>
2574 The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how
2575 GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition
2576 <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the
2577 parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required. Hard drives count from zero
2578 rather than "a" and partitions start at zero rather than one. Be aware too
2579 that with the hd devices, only hard drives are counted, not atapi-ide devices
2580 such as cdrom players, burners and that the same construct can be used with
2581 scsi drives. (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the
2582 bios is configured to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a hard drive
2583 on <path>/dev/hda</path>, a cdrom player on <path>/dev/hdb</path>, a burner on
2584 <path>/dev/hdc</path>, a second hard drive on <path>/dev/hdd</path> and no
2585 SCSI hard drive, <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to
2586 <path>(hd1,6)</path>. It might sound tricky and tricky it is indeed, but as
2587 we will see, GRUB offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for
2588 those of you having a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a little
2589 lost in the GRUB numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that, it is
2590 time to install GRUB.
2591 </p>
2593 <p>
2594 The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted
2595 shell prompt:
2596 </p>
2598 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
2599 # <i>emerge -k grub</i>
2600 # <i>grub</i>
2601 </pre>
2603 <p>
2604 You will be presented with the <e>grub&gt;</e> grub command-line prompt.
2605 Now, you need to type in the right commands to install the GRUB boot record
2606 onto your hard drive. In my example configuration, I want to install the GRUB
2607 boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that the first
2608 thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the
2609 commands I want to type are:
2610 </p>
2612 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
2613 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2614 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here, it is the MBR)</comment>
2615 </pre>
2617 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
2618 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR:</comment>
2619 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2620 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0,4)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here it is /dev/hda5)</comment>
2621 grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2622 </pre>
2624 <p>
2625 Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells
2626 GRUB the location of your boot partition (in our example,
2627 <path>/dev/hda1</path> or <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the
2628 second <c>setup ( )</c> command tells GRUB where to install the boot record -
2629 it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root ( )</c>
2630 location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the MBR
2631 of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as
2632 <path>(hd0)</path>). If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up
2633 GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I could install GRUB to the boot record of
2634 a particular partition. In that case, I would specify a particular partition
2635 rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB boot record has been successfully
2636 installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
2637 </p>
2639 <note>
2640 The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB,
2641 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
2642 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only hard drives),
2643 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, GRUB would print the
2644 available hard drives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
2645 would make GRUB print the list of partitions on the first hard drive.
2646 Checking the syntax of the GRUB location with completion should really help
2647 to make the right choice.
2648 </note>
2650 <p>
2651 Gentoo Linux is now installed, but we need to create the
2652 <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that we get a nice GRUB boot menu
2653 when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
2654 </p>
2656 <impo>
2657 To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
2658 <path>grub.conf</path> to <path>menu.lst</path>. You can do this by typing
2659 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst</c>.
2660 </impo>
2662 <p>
2663 Now, create the <path>grub.conf</path> file (<c>nano -w
2664 /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>) and add the following to it:
2665 </p>
2667 <pre caption="grub.conf for GRUB">
2668 default 0
2669 timeout 30
2670 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
2672 <comment># If you compiled your own kernel, use something like this:</comment>
2673 title=My example Gentoo Linux
2674 root (hd0,0)
2675 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
2677 <comment># If you're using genkernel, use something like this instead:</comment>
2678 title=My example Gentoo Linux (genkernel)
2679 root (hd0,0)
2680 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/kernel-KV root=/dev/hda3
2681 initrd (hd0,0)/boot/initrd-KV
2683 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
2684 title=Windows XP
2685 root (hd0,5)
2686 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
2687 </pre>
2689 <warn>
2690 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed.
2691 </warn>
2693 <note>
2694 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
2695 </note>
2697 <impo>
2698 If you set up SCSI emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
2699 actually work you need to add an <c>hdx=ide-scsi</c> fragment to the kernel
2700 line in <path>grub.conf</path> (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd
2701 burner).
2702 </impo>
2704 <p>
2705 After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the
2706 first option will tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second
2707 part of the <path>grub.conf</path> file is optional and shows you how to use
2708 GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
2709 </p>
2711 <note>
2712 Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
2713 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path>
2714 should point to your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT
2715 boot loader.
2716 </note>
2718 <note>
2719 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for
2720 example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root
2721 partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the <path>grub.conf</path> file
2722 above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
2723 </note>
2725 <p>
2726 If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply add them to
2727 the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
2728 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you
2729 can turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're
2730 doing) by adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c>
2731 command.
2732 </p>
2734 <note>
2735 Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
2736 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs.
2737 Now devfs is enabled by default.
2738 </note>
2740 </body>
2741 </section>
2742 <section>
2743 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
2744 <body>
2746 <p>
2747 While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the
2748 best choice. LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux
2749 bootloaders. Here is how to install LILO if you would like to use it instead
2750 of GRUB.
2751 </p>
2753 <p>
2754 The first step is to emerge LILO:
2755 </p>
2757 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
2758 # <i>emerge -k lilo</i>
2759 </pre>
2761 <p>
2762 Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file
2763 <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>:
2764 </p>
2766 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
2767 boot=/dev/hda
2768 map=/boot/map
2769 install=/boot/boot.b
2770 prompt
2771 timeout=50
2772 lba32
2773 default=linux
2775 <comment># Use something like the following 4 lines if you compiled your kernel yourself</comment>
2776 image=/boot/bzImage
2777 label=linux
2778 read-only
2779 root=/dev/hda3
2781 <comment># If you used genkernel, use something like this:</comment>
2782 image=/boot/kernel-KV
2783 label=gk_linux
2784 root=/dev/hda3
2785 initrd=/boot/initrd-KV
2786 append="root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc"
2789 <comment># For dual booting windows/other OS</comment>
2790 other=/dev/hda1
2791 label=dos
2792 </pre>
2794 <warn>
2795 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed, and
2796 make sure that <c>default=</c> points to your label (<c>gk_linux</c> if
2797 you used genkernel).
2798 </warn>
2800 <ul>
2801 <li><c>boot=/dev/hda</c> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller.</li>
2802 <li><c>map=/boot/map</c> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
2803 <li><c>install=/boot/boot.b</c> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector. In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will assume a default of <path>/boot/boot.b</path> as the file to be used. </li>
2804 <li>The existence of <c>prompt</c> tells LILO to display the classic <e>lilo:</e> prompt at bootup. While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
2805 <li><c>timeout=50</c> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
2806 <li><c>lba32</c> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put your system in an unbootable state. </li>
2807 <li><c>default=linux</c> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
2808 <li><c>image=/boot/bzImage</c> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
2809 <li><c>label=linux</c> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case, it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
2810 <li><c>read-only</c> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be altered during the boot process. </li>
2811 <li><c>root=/dev/hda3</c> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
2812 </ul>
2814 <p>
2815 After you have edited your <path>lilo.conf</path> file, it is time to run LILO
2816 to load the information into the MBR:
2817 </p>
2819 <pre caption="Running LILO">
2820 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
2821 </pre>
2823 <p>
2824 LILO is configured and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
2825 </p>
2827 </body>
2828 </section>
2830 <section>
2831 <title>Using framebuffer</title>
2832 <body>
2834 <p>
2835 People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c>
2836 to their bootloader configuration file. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the
2837 following table:
2838 </p>
2840 <table>
2841 <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
2842 <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
2843 <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
2844 <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
2845 </table>
2847 <p>
2848 LILO-users will have to add <c>vga=xxx</c> on top of their configuration
2849 file.
2850 </p>
2852 <p>
2853 GRUB-users will have to append <c>vga=xxx</c> to the <c>kernel
2854 (hd0,0)...</c> line.
2855 </p>
2857 </body>
2858 </section>
2859 </chapter>
2861 <chapter>
2862 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
2863 <section>
2864 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
2865 <body>
2867 <impo>
2868 Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2869 </impo>
2871 <p>
2872 It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
2873 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
2874 blanket and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
2875 let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
2876 you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
2877 If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk and when you reboot
2878 the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
2879 like this:
2880 </p>
2882 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
2883 # <i>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</i>
2884 # <i>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</i>
2885 </pre>
2887 <p>
2888 Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you
2889 can now execute the necessary <c>root</c> and <c>setup</c> commands.
2890 </p>
2892 </body>
2893 </section>
2894 <section>
2895 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
2896 <body>
2898 <impo>
2899 Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2900 </impo>
2902 <p>
2903 If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
2904 </p>
2906 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
2907 # <i>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </i>
2908 <comment>(This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB)</comment>
2909 </pre>
2911 </body>
2912 </section>
2913 </chapter>
2915 <chapter>
2916 <title>Using GRP</title>
2917 <section>
2918 <body>
2920 <p>
2921 GRP users can, at this point, install binary packages:
2922 </p>
2924 <pre caption="Installing from GRP">
2925 # <i>USE="bindist" emerge -k xfree</i>
2926 <codenote>(USE="bindist" must be set while installing GRP packages that use XFree86)</codenote>
2927 </pre>
2929 <p>
2930 CD 1 contains enough applications to install a working system with XFree86.
2931 Additionally, CD2 of the 2-CD GRP set contains other applications including
2932 KDE, GNOME, Mozilla and others. To install these packages, you will need to
2933 reboot into your new Gentoo system first (covered in the "Installation
2934 complete!" section near the end of this document). After you are running your
2935 basic Gentoo system from the hard drive, you can mount the second CD and copy
2936 files:
2937 </p>
2939 <pre caption="Loading binary packages from CD2">
2940 # <i>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</i>
2941 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/* /usr/portage/packages/</i>
2942 </pre>
2944 <p>
2945 Now various other applications can be installed the same way. For example:
2946 </p>
2948 <pre caption="Installing KDE from GRP">
2949 # <i>USE="bindist" emerge -k kde</i>
2950 </pre>
2952 </body>
2953 </section>
2954 </chapter>
2956 <chapter>
2957 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
2958 <section>
2959 <body>
2961 <p>
2962 Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary
2963 configuration files, exit the chrooted shell, safely unmount your partitions
2964 and reboot the system:
2965 </p>
2967 <warn>
2968 <c>etc-update</c> can provide you with a list of configuration files
2969 that have newer versions at your disposal. Verify that none of the
2970 configuration files have a big impact (such as <path>/etc/fstab</path>,
2971 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, ...). Merge the
2972 files that don't have such a big impact, remove the updates of the
2973 others or view the diff and manually update the configuration file.
2974 </warn>
2976 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
2977 # <i>etc-update</i>
2978 # <i>exit</i>
2979 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <i>^D</i>)</comment>
2980 # <i>cd / </i>
2981 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
2982 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
2983 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo</i>
2984 # <i>reboot</i>
2985 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the bootable CD)</comment>
2986 </pre>
2988 <note>
2989 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to
2990 create the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this
2991 file directly, you should generally make changes to the files in
2992 <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
2993 </note>
2995 <p>
2996 If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux
2997 evelopment, consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
2998 (more information on our <uri
2999 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
3000 We also have a handy <uri
3001 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration
3002 guide</uri> that will help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux
3003 system and a useful <uri
3004 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
3005 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the
3006 Gentoo Documentation <uri
3007 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any
3008 other questions involving installation or anything for that matter, please
3009 check the Gentoo Linux <uri
3010 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>. Enjoy and welcome to
3011 Gentoo Linux!
3012 </p>
3014 </body>
3015 </section>
3016 </chapter>
3018 <chapter>
3019 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
3020 <section>
3021 <body>
3023 <p>
3024 The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give
3025 the developers a way to find out about their user base. It collects information
3026 about Gentoo Linux usage to help us in set priorities our development.
3027 Installing it is completely optional and it would be greatly appreciated if
3028 you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at
3029 <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
3030 </p>
3032 <p>
3033 The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
3034 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID
3035 will not be used to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched
3036 against an IP address or other personal information. Every precaution has been
3037 taken to assure your privacy in the development of this system. The following
3038 are the things that we are monitoring right now through our "gentoo-stats"
3039 program:
3040 </p>
3042 <ul>
3043 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
3044 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx" or "3dnow")</li>
3045 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
3046 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
3047 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> link is pointing to).</li>
3048 </ul>
3050 <p>
3051 We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most
3052 Gentoo Linux users (just as it is to the developers).
3053 </p>
3055 <ul>
3056 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
3057 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
3058 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID" pairs.</li>
3059 </ul>
3061 <p>
3062 The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
3063 </p>
3065 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
3066 # <i>emerge gentoo-stats</i> <comment>(Installs gentoo-stats)</comment>
3067 # <i>gentoo-stats --new</i> <comment>(Obtains a new system ID)</comment>
3068 </pre>
3070 <p>
3071 The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
3072 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view
3073 this file to see additional configuration options.
3074 </p>
3076 <p>
3077 After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule (gentoo-stats does
3078 not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
3079 </p>
3081 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
3082 0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null
3083 </pre>
3085 <p>
3086 The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
3087 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>.
3088 </p>
3090 </body>
3091 </section>
3092 </chapter>
3094 <chapter>
3095 <title>Gentoo On Less-Common Hardware</title>
3096 <section>
3097 <title>Hardware ATA RAID</title>
3098 <body>
3100 <p>
3101 Users who want to install Gentoo on Hardware ATA RAID must pay
3102 attention to the next steps in order for them to succesfully
3103 install Gentoo Linux:
3104 </p>
3106 <ul>
3107 <li>Be sure to start the LiveCD with the <c>doataraid</c> kerneloption.</li>
3108 <li>If you've forgotten to select <c>doataraid</c> during bootup, or the modules mysteriously didn't load, load them as needed:
3109 <pre caption = "Loading RAID modules">
3110 # <i>modprobe ataraid</i>
3111 <comment>For Promise Raid Controllers:</comment>
3112 # <i>modprobe pdcraid</i>
3113 <comment>For Highpoint Raid Controllers:</comment>
3114 # <i>modprobe hptraid</i>
3115 </pre></li>
3116 <li>Some ATA RAID Controllers require you to reboot after partitioning; formatting will otherwise fail.</li>
3117 <li>Before chrooting, mount the devicetree into the new environment:
3118 <pre caption = "Mounting /dev into /mnt/gentoo/dev">
3119 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
3120 </pre></li>
3121 <li>During kernel configuration, select the required RAID options:
3122 <pre caption = "RAID in the Linux Kernel Configuration">
3123 <comment>For Highpoint RAID controllers:</comment>
3124 ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3125 [*] HPT36X/37X chipset support
3126 [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3127 [*] Highpoint 370 software RAID
3128 <comment>For Promise RAID controllers:</comment>
3129 ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3130 [*] PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67} support
3131 <comment>and/or</comment>
3132 [*] PROMISE PDC202{68|69|70|71|75|76|77} support
3133 [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3134 [*] Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
3135 </pre></li>
3136 <li>When using GRUB add <c>--stage2=/boot/grub/stage2</c> when running <c>grub</c> to the <c>setup</c> command:
3137 <pre caption = "Installing GRUB for Hardware RAID systems">
3138 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
3139 grub&gt; <i>setup --stage2=/boot/grub/stage2 (hd0)</i>
3140 grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
3141 </pre>
3142 Also, in the GRUB configuration be sure to point the <c>root</c>
3143 to the appropriate RAID device:
3144 <pre caption = "grub.conf for RAID">
3145 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
3146 root (hd0,0)
3147 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3148 </pre></li>
3149 <li>LILO users should set the <c>root</c> option to the appropriate RAID device:
3150 <pre caption = "lilo.conf for RAID">
3151 image=/boot/bzImage
3152 label=linux
3153 read-only
3154 root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3155 </pre></li>
3156 </ul>
3158 <p>
3159 If you still have problems installing Gentoo Linux on your Hardware
3160 RAID, be sure to report them on <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>.
3161 </p>
3163 <p>
3164 Thanks for using Gentoo Linux, and have fun with your new installation!
3165 </p>
3168 </body>
3169 </section>
3170 </chapter>
3171 </guide>

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