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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 <author title="Chief Architect">
6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author">Jerry Alexandratos</author>
10 <author title="Ghost, Reviewer">
11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
33 </author>
34 <author title="Editor">Colin Morey</author>
35 <author title="Editor">
36 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
37 </author>
38 <author title="Editor">
39 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
40 </author>
41 <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
42 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
43 </author>
44 <author title="Editor">
45 <mail link="avenj@gentoo.org">Jon Portnoy</mail>
46 </author>
47 <author title="Editor">
48 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
49 </author>
50 <author title="Reviewer">
51 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail>
52 </author>
53 <author title="Reviewer">
54 <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>
55 </author>
56 <author title="Reviewer">
57 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
58 </author>
59 <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
60 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
61 </author>
63 <abstract>
64 These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
65 Linux 1.4, release version (not _rc versions). The Gentoo Linux installation
66 process supports various installation approaches, depending upon how much of
67 the system you want to custom-build from scratch.
68 </abstract>
70 <license/>
72 <version>2.6.8</version>
73 <date>September 7, 2003</date>
75 <chapter>
76 <title>About the Install</title>
77 <section>
78 <body>
80 <p>
81 First, if you are new to this, welcome to Gentoo Linux! Gentoo
82 Linux can be installed in many different ways. Those who are looking
83 for a rapid install can use pre-built packages, while those who want
84 the ultimate in customizability can compile Gentoo Linux entirely
85 from the original source code. The method you choose is up to
86 you.
87 </p>
89 <p>
90 One significant change in relation to the official 1.4 release is
91 our new 2-CD installation set, which can be ordered from <uri
92 link="http://store.gentoo.org">The Gentoo Linux Store</uri>, in
93 addition to being available on our
94 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>.
95 We currently have 2-CD installation sets for x86 (486 and above),
96 i686 (Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Athlon/Duron and above), Pentium III,
97 Pentium 4 and Athlon XP. To see what 2-CD set is right for you, read
98 the detailed descriptions of each product in the <uri
99 link="http://store.gentoo.org">store</uri>. The store descriptions
100 contain fairly comprehensive CPU compatibility information.
101 </p>
103 <p>So, about the 2 CD set -- here's what's on each CD. The first
104 CD ("CD 1") is called "Live CD Installation" and is a bootable CD-ROM,
105 meaning that you can put "CD 1" in your drive and run Gentoo Linux
106 directly from the CD. You can then use this CD-based version of
107 Gentoo to install Gentoo Linux 1.4 to your hard disk. In addition
108 to containing a bootable Gentoo Linux environment, CD 1
109 contains everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly, even
110 without a connection to the Internet. In addition, several
111 pre-compiled packages are also included on CD 1, such as the
112 ever-important XFree86 X server. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image
113 file for CD 1, its name will end in "<path>-cd1.iso</path>".
114 </p>
116 <p>
117 In contrast, the second CD ("CD 2") isn't bootable and contains
118 lots of pre-built packages for your system. Included on this CD are
119 optimized versions of packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice,
120 Mozilla, Evolution and others. CD 2 is <e>optional</e> and is
121 intended for those people who are interested in installing Gentoo
122 Linux very quickly. The packages included on CD 2 typically take
123 about 36 hours to compile from source on a typical modern
124 single-processor system. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image file for CD
125 2, its name will end in "<path>-cd2.iso</path>".
126 </p>
128 <note>
129 A complete Gentoo Linux 2-CD set contains the Gentoo Reference
130 Platform, which is a complete pre-built Gentoo Linux system including GNOME,
131 KDE, Mozilla and OpenOffice. The Gentoo Reference Platform ("GRP")
132 was created to allow rapid Gentoo Linux package installations
133 for those who need this capability. The "compile from
134 source" functionality, which is the cornerstone of Gentoo Linux,
135 will always be a fully-supported installation option as well. The
136 purpose of the GRP is to make Gentoo Linux more convenient for some
137 users, without impacting Gentoo's powerful "compile from source"
138 installation process in any way.
139 </note>
141 <p>
142 In addition to our 2-CD set, we also have a very small "basic"
143 Live CD that you can use to boot your system. Once your system has
144 booted, you can configure a connection to the Internet and then
145 install Gentoo over the network. The advantage of this "basic" CD is
146 that it is small and thus the ISO CD-ROM image file can be
147 downloaded quickly. If you're an advanced user who wants to install
148 the most up-to-date version of Gentoo Linux available and have a
149 fast network connection, then you may prefer this option. If you
150 have an ISO CD-ROM image file for our "basic" Live CD, its name will
151 end in "<path>-basic.iso</path>".
152 </p>
154 <p>
155 To use any Gentoo Linux CD-based installation method, you will
156 need to have a 486+ processor and ideally at least 64 Megabytes of
157 RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully built with 64MB of RAM +
158 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully slow under
159 those conditions.)
160 </p>
162 <p>
163 Once you boot one of our Live CDs, you have even more options.
164 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot;
165 tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system
166 you want to compile yourself. The stage1 tarball is used when you
167 want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The
168 stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system from a
169 bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The stage3 tarball already
170 contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for
171 you. If you are interested in doing a "GRP" install, then the
172 stage3 tarball should be used.
173 </p>
175 <p>
176 <b>If you're not doing a GRP install, should you start from a stage1, stage2, or
177 stage3 tarball?</b> Here is some information that should help you
178 make this decision.
179 </p>
181 <p>
182 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total
183 control over the optimization settings and optional build-time
184 functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes
185 stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing.
186 It is also a great installation method for those who would like to
187 know more about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
188 </p>
190 <p>
191 Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing
192 this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we
193 chose for your particular stage2 tarball.
194 </p>
196 <p>
197 And choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
198 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
199 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were
200 carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
201 stability). Since major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's
202 specifically optimized for various popular processors, starting
203 from a stage3 can offer the best of all worlds -- a fast install
204 and a system that is well-optimized.
205 </p>
207 <p>
208 <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider using a
209 stage3 tarball for installation, or a stage3 with GRP.</b>
210 </p>
212 <note>
213 <b>Advanced users:</b> If you use a stage3 install, you should not
214 change the default CHOST setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If you need
215 to make such a change, you should start with a stage1 tarball and build up
216 your system with the desired CHOST setting. The CHOST setting
217 typically looks something like this: <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>.
218 </note>
220 <impo>
221 If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
222 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
223 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (e.g. the KDE
224 team) the <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
225 </impo>
227 <note>
228 The installation instructions in the LiveCD may not be as up-to-date as our
229 Web documentation at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri>.
230 Refer to our Web documentation for the most up-to-date installation
231 instructions.
232 </note>
234 <p>
235 Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
236 CD(s) and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create
237 partitions, create our filesystems and extract either a stage1, stage2 or
238 stage3 tarball. If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take
239 the appropriate steps to get our system to stage3. Once our system is at
240 stage3, we can configure it (customize configuration files, install a boot
241 loader, etc.), boot it and have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. After
242 your basic Gentoo Linux system is running, you can optionally use "CD 2" of
243 our 2-CD set and install any number of pre-built packages such as KDE, GNOME,
244 OpenOffice, Mozilla, or others that you'd like on your system.
245 </p>
247 <p>
248 Depending on what stage of the build process you're starting from, here is
249 what is required for installation:
250 </p>
252 <table>
253 <tr>
254 <th>Stage Tarball</th>
255 <th>Internet Access Required</th>
256 <th>Media Required</th>
257 <th>Steps</th>
258 </tr>
259 <tr>
260 <ti>1</ti>
261 <ti>Yes</ti>
262 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
263 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, final config</ti>
264 </tr>
265 <tr>
266 <ti>2</ti>
267 <ti>Yes</ti>
268 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
269 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, final config</ti>
270 </tr>
271 <tr>
272 <ti>3</ti>
273 <ti>No if using <e>CD 1</e>, Yes otherwise</ti>
274 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
275 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync (not required if using <e>CD 1</e>), final config</ti>
276 </tr>
277 <tr>
278 <ti>3+GRP</ti>
279 <ti>No</ti>
280 <ti><e>CD 1</e>, <e>CD 2</e> optionally</ti>
281 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, final config, install CD 1 pre-built packages (optional), reboot, install extra pre-built packages like KDE and GNOME (if using "CD 2")</ti>
282 </tr>
283 </table>
285 <note>
286 Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about ATA RAID on the bottom
287 of this document before proceeding.
288 </note>
290 </body>
291 </section>
292 </chapter>
294 <chapter>
295 <title>Booting</title>
296 <section>
297 <body>
299 <warn>
300 Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the available boot
301 options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong keyboard settings, unstarted
302 pcmcia services etc..
303 </warn>
305 <p>
306 Start by booting your Live CD of choice. You should see a fancy
307 boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you
308 can hit Enter to begin the boot process, or boot the LiveCD with
309 custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options
310 and then hitting Enter. For example: <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>.
311 If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with more than one
312 processor ("SMP"), then you should type <c>smp</c> instead of
313 <c>gentoo</c> at the prompt. This will allow the LiveCD to see all
314 the processors in your system, not just the first one.
315 </p>
317 <p>
318 Consult the following table for a partial list of available kernels and
319 options or press F2 and F3 to view the help screens.
320 </p>
322 <table>
323 <tr><th>Available kernels</th><th>Description</th></tr>
324 <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>standard gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
325 <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
326 <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
327 <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
328 <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
329 </table>
331 <table>
332 <tr><th>Available boot options</th><th>Description</th></tr>
333 <tr><ti>doataraid</ti><ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
334 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti><ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc.)</ti></tr>
335 <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti><ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
336 <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti><ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
337 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti><ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
338 <tr><ti>noapm</ti><ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
339 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti><ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
340 <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti><ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
341 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti><ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
342 <tr><ti>noraid</ti><ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
343 <tr><ti>nousb</ti><ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
344 <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti><ti>force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
345 <tr><ti>cdcache</ti><ti>cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram. This uses 40mb of RAM, but allows you to umount <path>/mnt/cdrom</path> and mount another cdrom</ti></tr>
346 </table>
348 <p>
349 Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with an even fancier boot
350 screen and progress bar.
351 </p>
353 <!--
354 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-boot.png" caption="The Gentoo
355 Linux Live CD booting" />
356 -->
358 <p>
359 Once the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in
360 to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "<e>root</e>", the "super user". You should
361 have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
362 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
363 you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
364 </p>
366 <!--
368 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-con.png" caption="The Gentoo
369 Linux Live CD console" />
370 -->
372 <note>
373 <b>Advanced users:</b> When the Live CD boots, the Live CD root password is
374 set to a random string for security purposes. If you plan to start
375 <c>sshd</c> to allow remote logins to your Live CD, you should set the Live
376 CD root password now by typing <c>passwd</c> and following the prompts.
377 Otherwise, you will not know the proper password for logging into the Live
378 CD over the network.
379 </note>
381 <p>
382 You've probably also noticed that above your # prompt is a bunch of
383 help text that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking
384 and telling you where you can find the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages
385 on your CD.
386 </p>
388 </body>
389 </section>
390 </chapter>
392 <chapter>
393 <title>Optional hardware configuration</title>
394 <section>
395 <body>
397 <p>
398 When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware
399 devices and loads the appropiate kernel modules to support your
400 hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job.
401 However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules
402 you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you
403 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
404 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
405 /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
406 type:
407 </p>
409 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
410 # <i>modprobe pcnet32</i>
411 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
412 </pre>
414 <p>
415 Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't
416 detected during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to
417 load the appropriate modules from <path>/lib/modules</path>, again using
418 <c>modprobe</c>:
419 </p>
421 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
422 # <i>modprobe aic7xxx</i>
423 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
424 # <i>modprobe sd_mod</i>
425 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
426 </pre>
428 <note>
429 Support for SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
430 </note>
432 <note>
433 <b>Advanced users:</b> The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA
434 on your disks so that disk transfers are as fast as possible, but if it did not,
435 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives as follows:
436 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
437 <comment>(Replace hdX with your disk device)</comment>
438 # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX</i>
439 <comment>(Enables DMA)</comment>
440 # <i>hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX</i>
441 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
442 # <i>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX</i>
443 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
444 </pre>
445 </note>
448 </body>
449 </section>
450 </chapter>
451 <chapter>
452 <title>Optional Networking configuration</title>
453 <section>
454 <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
455 <body>
457 <p>
458 If your system is plugged into an Ethernet network, it is very
459 likely that your networking configuration has already been
460 set up automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of
461 the many included network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>,
462 <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>, among
463 others.
464 </p>
466 <p>
467 If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command
468 should list some internet interfaces besides lo, such as eth0:
469 </p>
471 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
472 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
473 inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
474 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
476 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
477 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
478 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
479 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
480 Interrupt:11 Base address:0xe800
481 </pre>
483 <p>
484 You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in
485 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>) and a Web site of choice, just to make sure
486 that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working
487 correctly, etc..
488 </p>
490 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
491 # <i>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com</i>
492 </pre>
494 <p>
495 Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this
496 section.
497 </p>
499 </body>
500 </section>
501 <section>
502 <title>PPPoE configuration</title>
503 <body>
505 <p>
506 Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version)
507 has made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided
508 <c>adsl-setup</c> script to configure your connection. You will be prompted
509 for the ethernet device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username
510 and password, the IPs of your DNS servers and if you need a basic firewall
511 or not.
512 </p>
514 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
515 # <i> adsl-setup </i>
516 # <i> adsl-start </i>
517 </pre>
519 <p>
520 If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed your username
521 and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
522 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and make sure you are using the right
523 ethernet device.
524 </p>
526 </body>
527 </section>
529 <section>
530 <title>Automatic Network Configuration </title>
531 <body>
533 <p>
534 The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured
535 automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script:
536 </p>
538 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
539 # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
540 </pre>
542 <p>
543 Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is
544 covered next.
545 </p>
547 </body>
548 </section>
549 <section>
550 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
551 <body>
553 <p>
554 Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
555 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below.
556 </p>
558 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
559 # <i>dhcpcd eth0</i>
560 </pre>
562 <note>
563 Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that, add a
564 <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
565 </note>
567 <p>
568 If you receive <e>dhcpConfig</e> warnings, don't panic; the errors are most
569 likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.
570 </p>
572 </body>
573 </section>
574 <section>
575 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
576 <body>
578 <p>
579 We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download sources for
580 the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed
581 information is explained in the next table.
582 </p>
584 <table>
585 <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
586 <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti></ti></tr>
587 <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network</ti><ti></ti></tr>
588 <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti></ti></tr>
589 <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti></ti></tr>
590 </table>
592 <p>
593 Type in the following commands, replacing <c>$IFACE</c> with your network
594 interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), <c>$IPNUM</c> with your IP address,
595 <c>$BCAST</c> with your broadcast address and <c>$NMASK</c> with your network
596 mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace <c>$GTWAY</c> with your default
597 gateway.
598 </p>
600 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
601 # <i>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</i>
602 # <i>route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask metric 1 $IFACE</i>
603 </pre>
605 <p>
606 Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file so that name
607 resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address)
608 will work. You can use <c>nano -w /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create
609 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use
610 editor.
611 </p>
613 <p>
614 Here is a template to follow for creating your <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
615 file:
616 </p>
618 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
619 domain mydomain.com
620 nameserver
621 nameserver
622 </pre>
624 <p>
625 Replace <c></c> and <c></c> with the IP addresses of your
626 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.
627 </p>
629 </body>
630 </section>
632 <section>
633 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
634 <body>
636 <p>
637 If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy
638 before you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy
639 accordingly.
640 </p>
642 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
643 <comment>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</comment>
644 # <i>export http_proxy="http://machine.company.com:1234"</i>
645 <comment>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</comment>
646 # <i>export ftp_proxy="ftp://machine.company.com"</i>
647 <comment>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</comment>
648 # <i>export RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://machine.company.com"</i>
649 </pre>
651 </body>
652 </section>
654 <section>
655 <title>Networking is go!</title>
656 <body>
658 <p>
659 Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the
660 included <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c>
661 commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.
662 </p>
664 </body>
665 </section>
666 </chapter>
668 <chapter>
669 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
670 <section>
671 <body>
673 <p>
674 Now you need to set your system's date and time. You can do this using the
675 <c>date</c> command.
676 </p>
678 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
679 # <i>date</i>
680 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
681 <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
682 # <i>date 022709042003</i>
683 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
684 </pre>
686 </body>
687 </section>
688 </chapter>
690 <chapter>
691 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
692 <section>
693 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
694 <body>
696 <p>
697 In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo
698 Linux and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block
699 devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
700 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
701 and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
702 </p>
704 <p>
705 To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
706 probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
707 </p>
709 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
710 /dev/hda
711 </pre>
713 <p>
714 If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
715 </p>
717 <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
718 /dev/sda
719 </pre>
721 <p>
722 The block devices above represent an <e>abstract</e> interface to the disk.
723 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
724 worrying about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
725 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
726 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
727 </p>
729 </body>
730 </section>
731 <section>
732 <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
733 <body>
735 <p>
736 Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
737 <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc.), specifying a particular
738 block device as a command-line argument.
739 </p>
741 <p>
742 However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
743 device (one that represents the <e>entire</e> disk) like <path>/dev/hda</path>
744 or <path>/dev/sda</path> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never
745 done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller,
746 more manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created
747 using a tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the
748 partition table that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines
749 exactly how to split up the full disk.
750 </p>
752 <p>
753 We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
754 specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument:
755 </p>
757 <note>
758 Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
759 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> because it's
760 more powerful and well known in the Unix/Linux world.
761 </note>
763 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
764 # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
765 </pre>
767 <p>
768 or
769 </p>
771 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
772 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
773 </pre>
775 <impo>
776 Note that you should <e>not</e> save or make any changes to a disk's
777 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
778 contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
779 lost.
780 </impo>
782 <p>
783 Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
784 </p>
786 <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
787 Command (m for help):
788 </pre>
790 <p>
791 Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
792 </p>
794 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
795 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
797 Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
798 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
800 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
801 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
802 /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
803 /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
804 /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
805 /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
806 /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
807 /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
808 /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
809 /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
811 Command (m for help):
812 </pre>
814 <p>
815 This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
816 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
817 (listed as "Linux swap").
818 </p>
820 <p>
821 Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
822 devices on the left hand side, starting with <path>/dev/hda1</path> and going
823 up to <path>/dev/hda9</path>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning
824 software only allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary"
825 partitions). This was too limiting, so a workaround called <e>extended
826 partitioning</e> was created. An extended partition is very similar to a
827 primary partition and counts towards the primary partition limit of four.
828 However, extended partitions can hold any number of so-called <e>logical</e>
829 partitions inside them, providing an effective means of working around the
830 four partition limit.
831 </p>
833 <p>
834 All partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> and higher are logical partitions.
835 The numbers 1 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions.
836 </p>
838 <p>
839 So, In our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> through <path>/dev/hda3</path> are
840 primary partitions. <path>/dev/hda4</path> is an extended partition that
841 contains logical partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
842 <path>/dev/hda9</path>. You would never actually <e>use</e>
843 <path>/dev/hda4</path> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
844 acts as a container for partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
845 <path>/dev/hda9</path>.
846 </p>
848 <p>
849 Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
850 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
851 partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
852 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
853 partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
854 type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
855 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
856 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
857 </p>
859 </body>
860 </section>
862 <section>
863 <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
864 <body>
866 <p>
867 Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
868 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
869 partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
870 process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
871 look like this:
872 </p>
874 <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
875 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
876 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
877 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
879 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
880 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
881 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
882 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
884 Command (m for help):
885 </pre>
887 <p>
888 In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
889 The first one (<path>/dev/hda1</path>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
890 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
891 the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
892 will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
893 us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
894 day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
895 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
896 likely end up being <path>/dev/sda1</path>.
897 </p>
899 <p>
900 It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
901 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
902 required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
903 loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
904 cylinder 1024.
905 </p>
907 <p>
908 The second partition (<path>/dev/hda2</path>) is used to for swap space. The
909 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
910 relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
911 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
912 being called <path>/dev/sda2</path>.
913 </p>
915 <p>
916 The third partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path>) is quite large and takes up the
917 rest of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be
918 used to store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI
919 system, this partition would likely end up being <path>/dev/sda3</path>.
920 </p>
922 <p>
923 Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
924 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
925 Linux:
926 </p>
928 <table>
929 <tr>
930 <th>Partition</th>
931 <th>Size</th>
932 <th>Type</th>
933 <th>example device</th>
934 </tr>
935 <tr>
936 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
937 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
938 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
939 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
940 </tr>
941 <tr>
942 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
943 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one and two times the size of the physical RAM in your system</ti>
944 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
945 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
946 </tr>
947 <tr>
948 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc.)</ti>
949 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
950 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
951 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
952 </tr>
953 </table>
955 <p>
956 OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
957 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
958 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
959 current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
960 to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
961 existing data on your disk will be erased</b>.
962 </p>
964 <impo>
965 Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
966 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
967 is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
968 <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
969 from the wrong drive.
970 </impo>
972 <p>
973 Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
974 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
975 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/hda1</path>, you would type:
976 </p>
978 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
979 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
980 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
981 </pre>
983 <p>
984 The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
985 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
986 saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
987 type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
988 deleted.
989 </p>
991 <p>
992 Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
993 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
994 <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
995 with a partition table with nothing in it:
996 </p>
998 <pre caption="An empty partition table">
999 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1000 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1001 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1003 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1005 Command (m for help):
1006 </pre>
1008 <p>
1009 Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
1010 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
1011 <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
1012 create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
1013 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
1014 partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:
1015 </p>
1017 <note>
1018 Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
1019 require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefore, if you are using a journaled
1020 filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
1021 for the last cylinder.
1022 </note>
1024 <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
1025 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
1026 Command action
1027 e extended
1028 p primary partition (1-4)
1029 <i>p</i>
1030 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
1031 First cylinder (1-3876, default 1): <comment>(Hit Enter)</comment>
1032 Using default value 1
1033 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): <i>+32M</i>
1034 </pre>
1036 <p>
1037 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition
1038 printout:
1039 </p>
1041 <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
1042 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1044 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1045 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1046 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1048 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1049 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1050 </pre>
1052 <p>
1053 Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
1054 new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition.
1055 Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
1056 <path>/dev/hda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1057 hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create
1058 a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the
1059 partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just created and then
1060 type in <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing
1061 these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks
1062 similar to this:
1063 </p>
1065 <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
1066 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1068 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1069 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1070 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1072 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1073 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1074 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1075 </pre>
1077 <p>
1078 Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
1079 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
1080 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
1081 <path>/dev/hda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1082 hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a
1083 partition that takes up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After
1084 completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that
1085 looks similar to this:
1086 </p>
1088 <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
1089 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1091 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1092 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1093 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1095 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1096 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1097 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1098 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
1099 </pre>
1101 <p>
1102 Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
1103 our changes to disk. To tag <path>/dev/hda1</path> as a "bootable" partition,
1104 type <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number.
1105 If you type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <path>/dev/hda1</path> has a
1106 <c>*</c> in the "Boot" column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do
1107 this, type <c>w</c> and hit enter. Your disk partitions are now properly
1108 configured for a Gentoo Linux install.
1109 </p>
1111 <note>
1112 If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
1113 allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.
1114 </note>
1116 </body>
1117 </section>
1119 <section>
1120 <title>Creating filesystems</title>
1121 <body>
1123 <p>
1124 Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
1125 the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store
1126 data. We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
1127 </p>
1129 <p>
1130 Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
1131 its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics.
1132 Currently, we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS
1133 filesystems.
1134 </p>
1136 <p>
1137 ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
1138 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
1139 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
1140 <e>journaled</e> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
1141 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
1142 Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
1143 filesystem happens to be in an <e>inconsistent</e> state.
1144 </p>
1146 <p>
1147 ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
1148 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
1149 like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
1150 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
1151 Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
1152 design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
1153 very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
1154 files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
1155 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.
1156 </p>
1158 <p>
1159 ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
1160 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
1161 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
1162 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
1163 now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
1164 filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
1165 use of many small files, very large files and directories containing tens of
1166 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
1167 non-boot partitions.
1168 </p>
1170 <p>
1171 XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
1172 Gentoo Linux's <c>xfs-sources</c> kernel. It comes with a robust
1173 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
1174 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
1175 a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
1176 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
1177 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
1178 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
1179 </p>
1181 <p>
1182 JFS is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
1183 become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
1184 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
1185 point.
1186 </p>
1188 <p>
1189 If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
1190 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
1191 journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
1192 refined and recommended for general use.
1193 </p>
1195 <p>
1196 Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
1197 all our partitions for use:
1198 </p>
1200 <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
1201 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda1</i>
1202 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1203 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1204 </pre>
1206 <p>
1207 We choose ext3 for our <path>/dev/hda1</path> boot partition because it is a
1208 robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
1209 <c>mkswap</c> for our <path>/dev/hda2</path> swap partition -- the choice is
1210 obvious here. And for our main root filesystem on <path>/dev/hda3</path> we
1211 choose ReiserFS, since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent
1212 performance. Now, go ahead and initialize your partitions.
1213 </p>
1215 <p>
1216 For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
1217 during the installation process:
1218 </p>
1220 <p>
1221 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
1222 </p>
1224 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
1225 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1226 </pre>
1228 <p>
1229 You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:
1230 </p>
1232 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
1233 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1234 </pre>
1236 <p>
1237 If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
1238 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:
1239 </p>
1241 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
1242 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i>
1243 </pre>
1245 <note>
1246 You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
1247 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
1248 </note>
1250 <p>
1251 To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:
1252 </p>
1254 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
1255 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1256 </pre>
1258 <p>
1259 To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:
1260 </p>
1262 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
1263 # <i>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</i>
1264 </pre>
1266 <note>
1267 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c>
1268 command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>. The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command
1269 will lower the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at
1270 least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition, so, for example, if
1271 you have a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5. The
1272 <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing
1273 performance.
1274 </note>
1276 <p>
1277 To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:
1278 </p>
1280 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
1281 # <i>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</i>
1282 </pre>
1284 </body>
1285 </section>
1286 </chapter>
1288 <chapter>
1289 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
1290 <section>
1291 <body>
1293 <p>
1294 Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need
1295 the additional virtual memory that it provides later:
1296 </p>
1298 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
1299 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
1300 </pre>
1302 <p>
1303 Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount point,
1304 and we will mount our filesystems to the mount points. Once our boot and
1305 root filesystems are mounted, any files we copy or create inside
1306 <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
1307 Note that if you are setting up Gentoo Linux with separate
1308 <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1309 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1310 </p>
1312 <impo>
1313 If your <path>/boot</path> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS,
1314 be sure to mount it with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly
1315 installed. Make sure that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new
1316 <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1317 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS,
1318 then the <c>-o notail</c> is not needed. It's always safe to specify the
1319 <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're not sure what to do.
1320 </impo>
1322 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1323 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
1324 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1325 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1326 </pre>
1328 <impo>
1329 If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1330 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2</c>
1331 </impo>
1333 </body>
1334 </section>
1335 </chapter>
1338 <chapter>
1339 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1340 <section>
1341 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1342 <body>
1344 <p>
1345 Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1346 basis for the install if you haven't already. The stages on the Live CD are
1347 in <path>/mnt/cdrom/stages/</path> and you can type <c>ls
1348 /mnt/cdrom/stages/</c> to see what's available on your CD.
1349 </p>
1351 <p>
1352 <b>GRP users</b> should use the <path>stage3-xx-yy.tar.bz2</path> tarball.
1353 </p>
1355 <p>
1356 If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1357 <e>not</e> on your CD (which will likely be the case if you're using our
1358 "basic" Live CD), this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1359 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1360 tarball you want to use (which most users will have), then proceed to the
1361 "Extracting the stage tarball" section.
1362 </p>
1364 <note>
1365 On the basic LiveCD, <c>lynx</c> is substituted with <c>links2</c>. To
1366 use <c>links2</c> with proxy, press Escape once inside <c>links2</c> and
1367 go to Setup, Network Options. Don't forget to save everything in Setup,
1368 Save Options.
1369 </note>
1371 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1372 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1373 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1374 # <i>lynx http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</i>
1375 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1376 Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1377 Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1378 Save the file and quit the browser
1380 <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1381 # <i>wget </i><comment>(insert URL to the required stage tarball here)</comment>
1382 </pre>
1384 </body>
1385 </section>
1386 <section>
1387 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1388 <body>
1390 <p>
1391 Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1392 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1393 tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1394 stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1395 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:
1396 </p>
1398 <impo>
1399 Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1400 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.
1401 </impo>
1403 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1404 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1405 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1406 <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1407 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/stages/".</comment>
1408 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
1409 </pre>
1411 <p>
1412 If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now
1413 delete it by typing <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.
1414 </p>
1416 </body>
1417 </section>
1419 <section>
1420 <title>GRP package/snapshot steps</title>
1421 <body>
1423 <impo>
1424 The following instructions are for GRP users only.
1425 </impo>
1427 <p>
1428 <b>GRP Users</b>: There is a Portage snapshot on the Live CD. You will
1429 need to use this snapshot so that you can skip the <c>emerge sync</c> step
1430 later in this document, since <c>emerge sync</c> requires a network
1431 connection. Untar this snapshot as follows:
1432 </p>
1434 <pre caption="Using Portage snapshot">
1435 <comment>Replace yyyymmdd with the datestamp in the filename.</comment>
1436 # <i>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-yyyymmdd.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
1437 </pre>
1439 <p>
1440 This will extract a snapshot of the Portage tree to your fresh Gentoo
1441 install. Now you won't need to connect to the Internet and use <c>emerge
1442 sync</c> to download a Portage tree. Now, copy distfiles and packages
1443 from the Live CD into place:
1444 </p>
1446 <pre caption="Copying GRP files">
1447 # <i>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
1448 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages</i>
1449 </pre>
1451 <p>
1452 All relevant files are now in place for using GRP. You should now have
1453 everything copied over and unpacked that you'll need to install Gentoo Linux
1454 -- even without a network connection.
1455 </p>
1457 </body>
1458 </section>
1460 <section>
1461 <title>Selecting Mirrors (Optional)</title>
1462 <body>
1464 <p>
1465 <c>mirrorselect</c> is a tool designed to automatically pick the fastest
1466 mirrors based on your location, or manually pick a mirror from a list.
1467 Unfortunately, <c>mirrorselect</c> does not work well behind all routers.
1468 </p>
1470 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect">
1471 <comment>To select a mirror automatically:</comment>
1472 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1473 <comment>To select a mirror interactively:</comment>
1474 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1475 </pre>
1477 <p>
1478 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails you should be able to
1479 continue with this guide since no changes are made.
1480 </p>
1482 </body>
1483 </section>
1484 <section>
1485 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1486 <body>
1488 <p>
1489 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to
1490 "enter" the new Gentoo Linux system:
1491 </p>
1493 <note>
1494 You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1495 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1496 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document, which will resolve
1497 the problem.
1498 </note>
1500 <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1501 # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
1502 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
1503 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
1504 # <i>env-update</i>
1505 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1506 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
1507 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries)</comment>
1508 </pre>
1510 <p>
1511 After you execute these commands, you will be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux
1512 environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. We can perform the rest of the
1513 installation process inside the chroot.
1514 </p>
1516 </body>
1517 </section>
1518 </chapter>
1520 <chapter>
1521 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1522 <section>
1523 <body>
1525 <impo>
1526 If you are doing a GRP install then you can ignore the following section on
1527 <c>emerge sync</c>.
1528 </impo>
1530 <p>
1531 Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage
1532 to download the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree from the
1533 Internet. If you extracted a Portage tree snapshot from <e>CD 1</e> earlier,
1534 you can safely skip this step. The Portage tree contains all the scripts
1535 (called ebuilds) used to build every package under Gentoo Linux. Currently,
1536 we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1537 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in
1538 <path>/usr/portage</path>:
1539 </p>
1541 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1542 # <i>emerge sync</i>
1543 </pre>
1545 </body>
1546 </section>
1547 </chapter>
1549 <chapter>
1550 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1551 <section>
1552 <body>
1554 <p>
1555 Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1556 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1557 Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1558 programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1559 this file, you should set your USE flags, which specify optional
1560 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1561 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset USE variable) are
1562 fine. More information on USE flags can be found <uri
1563 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1564 of current USE flags can be found <uri
1565 link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
1566 </p>
1568 <p>
1569 If you are starting from a stage1 tarball, You also should set appropriate
1570 CHOST, CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings for the kind of system that you are
1571 creating (commented examples can be found further down in the file). If you
1572 are using a stage2 or stage3 tarball, these settings will already be configured
1573 optimally and should not require any modification.
1574 </p>
1576 <warn>
1577 <b>Advanced users:</b> If you are planning on installing an
1578 ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" Gentoo system, do not set ACCEPT_KEYWORDS until
1579 the bootstrap phase (stage1) is done.
1580 </warn>
1582 <impo>
1583 <b>Advanced users:</b> The CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings are used to tell the
1584 C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that is generated on your system.
1585 It is common for users with Athlon XP processors to specify a
1586 "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings so that all
1587 packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and performance
1588 characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1589 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
1590 </impo>
1592 <!-- needs qa
1593 <note>
1594 <b>Advanced users:</b>If you are building from a stage1 and don't want
1595 to manually configure CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, you can use the <c>genflags</c>
1596 utility, which will try to guess accurate flags for your CPU architecture.
1597 Simply type <c>emerge -O genflags</c> and then execute
1598 <c>info2flags</c>. <c>info2flags</c> will suggest CHOST, CFLAGS and
1599 CXXFLAGS settings, which you can then add to
1600 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
1601 </note>
1602 -->
1604 <p>
1605 If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1606 firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1607 using <c>nano</c>, a simple visual editor:
1608 </p>
1610 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1611 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
1612 </pre>
1614 <note>
1615 <b>Advanced users:</b> People who need to substantially customize the build
1616 process should take a look at the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This
1617 file comprises gentoo defaults and should never be touched. If the defaults
1618 do not suffice, then new values should be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>,
1619 as entries in <path>make.conf</path> <e>override</e> the entries
1620 in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're interested in customizing USE
1621 settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1622 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate
1623 <c>USE="-foo"</c> in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c>
1624 USE setting enabled by default in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or
1625 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1626 </note>
1628 <warn>
1629 Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your USE variables until after
1630 stage1.
1631 </warn>
1633 </body>
1634 </section>
1635 </chapter>
1637 <chapter>
1638 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1639 <section>
1640 <body>
1642 <note>
1643 If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.
1644 </note>
1646 <p>
1647 The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you
1648 have picked this tarball, you are most likely looking to have an
1649 uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun! Installing from a stage1
1650 takes a lot of time, but the result is a system that has been optimized
1651 from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1652 </p>
1654 <p>
1655 Now, it is time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes
1656 about two hours on a 1200MHz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the GNU
1657 C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start
1658 the bootstrap as follows:
1659 </p>
1661 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1662 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
1663 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
1664 </pre>
1666 <p>
1667 The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
1668 </p>
1670 <note>
1671 <c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up
1672 users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related
1673 files in one go for later compilation. See <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more
1674 information.
1675 </note>
1677 <note>
1678 Portage by default uses <path>/var/tmp</path> during package building,
1679 often using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would
1680 like to change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new
1681 PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e> starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1682 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1683 # <i>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</i>
1684 </pre>
1685 </note>
1687 <p>
1688 <c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1689 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c> after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to
1690 say, this process takes a while. Once this process completes, your system
1691 will be equivalent to a "stage2" system, which means you can now move on to
1692 the stage2 instructions.
1693 </p>
1695 </body>
1696 </section>
1697 </chapter>
1699 <chapter>
1700 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1701 <section>
1702 <body>
1704 <note>
1705 This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1706 this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3), then skip this section.
1707 </note>
1709 <warn>
1710 If you start from stage2, don't change the CHOST variable in
1711 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so results in strange and
1712 broad compilation failures.
1713 </warn>
1715 <p>
1716 The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you
1717 have to do is install the rest of the system:
1718 </p>
1720 <note>
1721 If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1722 that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1723 option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1724 safe to skip this suggestion.
1725 </note>
1727 <pre caption="Installing the rest of the system">
1728 # <i>emerge -p system</i>
1729 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1730 # <i>emerge system</i>
1731 </pre>
1733 <p>
1734 It is going to take a while to finish building the entire base system.
1735 Your reward is that it will be thoroughly optimized for your system.
1736 The drawback is that you have to find a way to keep yourself occupied for
1737 some time to come. The author suggests "Star Wars - Super Bombad Racing"
1738 for the PS2.
1739 </p>
1741 <p>
1742 Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1743 your time zone" section.
1744 </p>
1746 </body>
1747 </section>
1748 </chapter>
1751 <chapter>
1752 <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1753 <section>
1754 <body>
1756 <note>
1757 This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3 and not for those who
1758 have started with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section. GRP users
1759 should skip ahead to the next section.
1760 </note>
1762 <warn>
1763 Remember, if you start from stage3, don't change the CHOST variable in
1764 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so can result in compilation failures.
1765 </warn>
1767 <p>
1768 The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system,
1769 so no building is required.
1770 </p>
1772 <note>
1773 <b>Advanced users:</b> However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it
1774 may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern for you, you can
1775 automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date
1776 versions of all system packages by making a backup of
1777 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, then typing <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"
1778 emerge -u system</c> (this requires a network connection) and replacing
1779 the backup afterwards. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is
1780 very old; otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you
1781 to benefit from the very latest Gentoo updates and fixes. In any case, feel
1782 free to skip these steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1783 </note>
1785 </body>
1786 </section>
1787 </chapter>
1790 <chapter>
1791 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1792 <section>
1793 <body>
1795 <p>
1796 Now you need to set your time zone.
1797 </p>
1799 <p>
1800 Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1801 in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1802 <path>/etc/localtime</path> by typing:
1803 </p>
1805 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1806 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</i>
1807 </pre>
1809 </body>
1810 </section>
1811 </chapter>
1813 <chapter>
1814 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1815 <section>
1816 <body>
1818 <impo>
1819 To edit files, remember to use <c>nano -w "filename"</c>.
1820 </impo>
1822 <p>
1823 Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is
1824 configure a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1825 The first file we need to configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember
1826 that you should use the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if
1827 you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it. Remember to specify
1828 <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1829 </p>
1831 <warn>
1832 Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be
1833 sure to replace "BOOT", "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices (such
1834 as <c>hda1</c>, etc.) and "ext2" and "ext3" with the actual filesystems you
1835 are using:
1836 </warn>
1838 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1839 <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1840 #
1841 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1842 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1843 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1844 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1846 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1848 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1849 </comment>
1850 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1851 /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1852 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1853 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1854 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1855 </pre>
1857 <warn>
1858 Please notice that <path>/boot</path> is <e>not</e> mounted at boot time. This
1859 is to protect the data in <path>/boot</path> from corruption. If you need to
1860 access <path>/boot</path>, please mount it!
1861 </warn>
1863 </body>
1864 </section>
1865 </chapter>
1868 <chapter>
1869 <title>Installing the kernel and system logger</title>
1870 <section>
1871 <title>Kernel selections</title>
1872 <body>
1874 <p>
1875 There are two options for installing a kernel. You can either configure your
1876 own kernel or use the <c>genkernel</c> utility to configure and compile your
1877 kernel automatically.
1878 </p>
1880 <p>
1881 Whether configuring a kernel by hand or using <c>genkernel</c>,
1882 you'll need to merge the Linux kernel sources you'd like to use.
1883 Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1884 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1885 which kernel sources to choose, we advise using <c>gentoo-sources</c>.
1886 If you want XFS support, you should choose <c>xfs-sources</c> or
1887 <c>gs-sources</c>. Gentoo's LiveCD uses <c>gs-sources</c> and
1888 <c>xfs-sources</c>. There is also a <c>gaming-sources</c> kernel optimized
1889 for game-playing responsiveness that works wonderfully for this purpose when
1890 the "Preemptible kernel" option is enabled.
1891 </p>
1893 <p>
1894 Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:
1895 </p>
1897 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1898 # <i>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</i>
1899 </pre>
1901 <p>
1902 The <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link will point to your
1903 newly-installed kernel source tree. Portage uses the
1904 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link for a special purpose. Any ebuilds
1905 you install that contain kernel modules will be configured to work with the
1906 kernel source tree pointed to by <path>/usr/src/linux</path>.
1907 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is created when you emerge your first kernel
1908 source package, but after it exists, Portage does not modify this symbolic
1909 link.
1910 </p>
1912 </body>
1913 </section>
1914 <section>
1915 <title>Using genkernel to compile your kernel</title>
1916 <body>
1918 <p>
1919 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
1920 kernel. There are two ways to do this. The first way is to use our new
1921 <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for you.
1922 <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the way
1923 our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use <c>genkernel</c>
1924 to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all your hardware at
1925 boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any
1926 manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may
1927 not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
1928 </p>
1930 <p>
1931 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
1932 </p>
1934 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
1935 # <i>emerge -k genkernel</i>
1936 </pre>
1938 <p>
1939 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>:
1940 </p>
1942 <note>
1943 <b>Advanced users:</b> you can type <c>genkernel --config</c> instead,
1944 which will cause genkernel to allow you to tweak the default kernel
1945 configuration before building begins.
1946 </note>
1948 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
1949 <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.2 (included in the 1.4-20030803 x86/i686 GRP set), use the following:</comment>
1950 # <i>genkernel gentoo-sources</i>
1951 <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.4 or newer, there's no need to specify a kernel:</comment>
1952 # <i>genkernel</i>
1953 Gentoo Linux genkernel, version 1.4
1954 Copyright 2003 Gentoo Technologies, Inc., Bob Johnson, Daniel Robbins
1955 Distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2
1957 Settings:
1958 compile optimization: 1 processor(s)
1959 source tree: /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1960 config: gentoo (customized)
1961 config loc: /etc/kernels/config-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1962 initrd config: (default) /etc/kernels/settings
1964 * Running "make oldconfig"... [ ok ]
1965 * Logging to /var/log/genkernel.log... [ ok ]
1966 * Starting 2.4.20-gaming-r3 build... [ ok ]
1967 * Running "make dep"... [ ok ]
1968 * Running "make bzImage"... [ ok ]
1969 * Running "make modules"... [ ok ]
1970 * Running "make modules_install"... [ ok ]
1971 * Moving bzImage to /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3... [ ok ]
1972 * Building busybox... [ ok ]
1973 * Creating initrd... [ ok ]
1975 * Build completed successfully!
1977 * Please specify /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3 and /boot/initrd-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1978 * when customizing your boot loader configuration files.
1979 </pre>
1981 <p>
1982 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
1983 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
1984 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
1985 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
1986 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
1987 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
1988 your "real" system starts up.
1989 </p>
1991 <p>
1992 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
1993 CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
1994 is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
1995 To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
1996 </p>
1998 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
1999 # <i>emerge -k hotplug</i>
2000 # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
2001 </pre>
2003 <p>
2004 Now that you've run and configured your system to use <c>genkernel</c>, you
2005 can skip the "manual kernel configuration" section below.
2006 </p>
2008 </body>
2009 </section>
2010 <section>
2011 <title>Manual kernel configuration</title>
2012 <body>
2014 <p>
2015 If you opted not to use genkernel to compile your kernel, this section
2016 will guide you through the process of configuring and compiling a kernel by
2017 hand. Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your
2018 current emerged kernel source package and is set automatically by Portage at
2019 emerge time. If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to
2020 set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink to the correct one before
2021 proceeding.
2022 </p>
2024 <warn>
2025 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i>
2026 option. Being too aggressive with your security settings can cause certain
2027 programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
2028 </warn>
2030 <note>
2031 If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
2032 your configuration on it, you should execute <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
2033 If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
2034 about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
2035 </note>
2037 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
2038 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
2039 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
2040 </pre>
2042 <warn>
2043 For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
2044 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <e>be enabled
2045 and not compiled as modules</e>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you
2046 have any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're
2047 using XFS, enable the &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's
2048 always a good idea to leave ext2 enabled whether you are using it or not.
2049 </warn>
2051 <p>
2052 Below are some common options that you will need:
2053 </p>
2055 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
2056 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
2057 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
2058 <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below)</comment>
2059 ...
2061 File systems ---&gt;
2062 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
2063 <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs)</comment>
2064 ...
2065 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
2066 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3)</comment>
2067 ...
2068 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
2069 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2070 ...
2071 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
2072 <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS)</comment>
2073 ...
2074 [*] /proc file system support
2075 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2076 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
2077 [*] Automatically mount at boot
2078 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2079 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
2080 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is not needed unless you use a 2.6 kernel)</comment>
2081 ...
2082 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
2083 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2)</comment>
2084 ...
2085 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
2086 <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS)</comment>
2087 </pre>
2089 <p>
2090 If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
2091 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) : &quot;PPP
2092 (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial
2093 ports&quot;, &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression
2094 options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP
2095 over Ethernet&quot; option, that might only be used by <c>rp-pppoe</c> when
2096 configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
2097 </p>
2099 <p>
2100 If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
2101 kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA
2102 and ATAPI Block devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot;
2103 (I usually make it a module), then under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable
2104 &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and &quot;SCSI
2105 generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
2106 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
2107 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</c> to have them automatically
2108 added at boot time.
2109 </p>
2111 <p>
2112 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
2113 ethernet card.
2114 </p>
2116 <note>
2117 For those who prefer it, it is possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2
2118 kernel. However, doing this comes at a price: you will lose many of the nifty
2119 features that are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
2120 filesystems, iptables and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
2121 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
2122 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the
2123 kernel, so 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled
2124 in (ie, not a module). It is <comment>vital</comment> that a
2125 <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel line in
2126 <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in
2127 <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
2128 for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
2129 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
2130 </note>
2132 <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
2133 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</i>
2134 # <i>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
2135 </pre>
2137 </body>
2138 </section>
2139 <section>
2140 <title>Installing additional hardware-specific ebuilds</title>
2141 <body>
2143 <p>
2144 Finally, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is on
2145 your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
2146 </p>
2148 <table>
2149 <tr>
2150 <th>Ebuild</th>
2151 <th>Purpose</th>
2152 <th>Command</th>
2153 </tr>
2154 <tr>
2155 <ti>nvidia-kernel</ti>
2156 <ti>Accelerated NVIDIA graphics for XFree86</ti>
2157 <ti><c>emerge -k nvidia-kernel</c></ti>
2158 </tr>
2159 <tr>
2160 <ti>nforce-net</ti>
2161 <ti>On-board ethernet controller on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2162 <ti><c>emerge nforce-net</c></ti>
2163 </tr>
2164 <tr>
2165 <ti>nforce-audio</ti>
2166 <ti>On-board audio on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2167 <ti><c>emerge nforce-audio</c></ti>
2168 </tr>
2169 <tr>
2170 <ti>e100</ti>
2171 <ti>Intel e100 Fast Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2172 <ti><c>emerge e100</c></ti>
2173 </tr>
2174 <tr>
2175 <ti>e1000</ti>
2176 <ti>Intel e1000 Gigabit Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2177 <ti><c>emerge e1000</c></ti>
2178 </tr>
2179 <tr>
2180 <ti>emu10k1</ti>
2181 <ti>Creative Sound Blaster Live!/Audigy support</ti>
2182 <ti><c>emerge emu10k1</c></ti>
2183 </tr>
2184 <tr>
2185 <ti>ati-drivers</ti>
2186 <ti>Accelerated ATI Radeon 8500+/FireGL graphics for XFree86</ti>
2187 <ti><c>emerge ati-drivers</c></ti>
2188 </tr>
2189 <tr>
2190 <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
2191 <ti>Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and other cards for XFree86</ti>
2192 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
2193 </tr>
2194 </table>
2196 <p>
2197 The <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, <c>ati-drivers</c> and <c>xfree-drm</c> packages
2198 will require additional configuration to be enabled. All other ebuilds listed
2199 above should be auto-detected at boot-time by the <c>hotplug</c> package. If
2200 you are not using hotplug, be sure to add the appropriate modules to
2201 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path>.
2202 </p>
2204 <p>
2205 More information on <c>xfree-drm</c> can be found in our <uri
2206 link="/doc/en/dri-howto.xml">Direct Rendering Guide</uri>.
2207 </p>
2210 </body>
2211 </section>
2212 <section>
2213 <title>Installing a system logger</title>
2214 <body>
2216 <p>
2217 Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose
2218 a system logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is
2219 the traditional set of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and
2220 syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem to gravitate away from
2221 sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the newer alternatives.
2222 If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
2223 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four command
2224 sets:
2225 </p>
2227 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
2228 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/sysklogd</i>
2229 # <i>rc-update add sysklogd default</i>
2230 <comment>or</comment>
2231 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng</i>
2232 # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
2233 <comment>or</comment>
2234 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/metalog</i>
2235 # <i>rc-update add metalog default</i>
2236 <comment>or</comment>
2237 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/msyslog</i>
2238 # <i>rc-update add msyslog default</i>
2239 </pre>
2241 <impo>
2242 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
2243 recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
2244 performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
2245 system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
2246 turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
2247 <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
2248 expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
2249 disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
2250 METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
2251 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
2252 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
2253 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
2254 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
2255 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
2256 </pre>
2257 </impo>
2259 <p>
2260 Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
2261 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to
2262 choose, you might as well grab vcron.
2263 </p>
2265 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
2266 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/dcron</i>
2267 # <i>rc-update add dcron default</i>
2268 # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2269 <comment>or</comment>
2270 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/fcron</i>
2271 # <i>rc-update add fcron default</i>
2272 # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2273 <comment>or</comment>
2274 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/vcron</i>
2275 # <i>rc-update add vcron default</i>
2276 <comment>You do not need to run <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i> if using vcron.</comment>
2277 </pre>
2279 <p>
2280 For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
2281 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
2282 </p>
2284 </body>
2285 </section>
2286 </chapter>
2288 <chapter>
2289 <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
2290 <section>
2291 <body>
2293 <p>
2294 If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
2295 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it:
2296 </p>
2298 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
2299 # <i>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</i>
2300 <comment>GRP users should type the following:</comment>
2301 # <i>USE="-X bindist" emerge -K rp-pppoe</i>
2302 </pre>
2304 <note>
2305 The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface,
2306 which is a good thing, because X and its dependencies would also be emerged.
2307 You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with X support later.
2308 </note>
2310 <note>
2311 Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured. You will have to
2312 do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
2313 for the first time.
2314 </note>
2316 <p>
2317 You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
2318 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
2319 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
2320 </p>
2322 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
2323 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/xfsprogs</i>
2324 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
2325 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</i>
2326 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
2327 # <i>emerge -k jfsutils</i>
2328 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
2329 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/lvm-user</i>
2330 </pre>
2332 <p>
2333 If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
2334 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i>
2335 package.
2336 </p>
2338 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
2339 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</i>
2340 </pre>
2342 <!-- fix the bug or fix the docs, don't send the user in circles
2343 (drobbins)
2344 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
2345 to work.
2346 </warn>
2347 -->
2349 </body>
2350 </section>
2351 </chapter>
2353 <chapter>
2354 <title>User Management</title>
2355 <section>
2356 <title>Setting a root password</title>
2357 <body>
2359 <p>
2360 Before you forget, set the root password by typing:
2361 </p>
2363 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
2364 # <i>passwd</i>
2365 </pre>
2367 </body>
2368 </section>
2369 <section>
2370 <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
2371 <body>
2373 <p>
2374 Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
2375 should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
2376 recommended to add a user for day-to-day use:
2377 </p>
2379 <pre caption = "Adding a user">
2380 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
2381 # <i>passwd your_user</i>
2382 </pre>
2384 <p>
2385 Substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.
2386 </p>
2388 <p>
2389 Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
2390 use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
2391 a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.
2392 </p>
2394 </body>
2395 </section>
2396 </chapter>
2398 <chapter>
2399 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
2400 <section>
2401 <body>
2403 <p>
2404 Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
2405 on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
2406 </p>
2408 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
2409 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
2410 </pre>
2412 <p>
2413 Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
2414 domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
2415 </p>
2417 <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
2418 # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
2419 </pre>
2421 <p>
2422 If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
2423 <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
2424 </p>
2426 <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
2427 # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
2428 </pre>
2430 </body>
2431 </section>
2432 </chapter>
2435 <chapter>
2436 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
2437 <section>
2438 <body>
2440 <p>
2441 This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
2442 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses of any hostnames that
2443 may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
2444 </p>
2446 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
2447 localhost
2448 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN and your associated machine name</comment>
2449 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
2450 </pre>
2452 <note>
2453 If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
2454 machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
2455 GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
2456 </note>
2458 </body>
2459 </section>
2460 </chapter>
2463 <chapter>
2464 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
2465 <section>
2466 <body>
2468 <p>
2469 Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of
2470 your system to <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> file (you can
2471 also add any options you need to the same line). When Gentoo Linux boots, these
2472 modules will be automatically loaded. Of particular importance is your
2473 ethernet card module, if you happened to compile it as a module:
2474 </p>
2476 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
2477 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
2478 Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
2479 3c59x
2480 </pre>
2482 <p>
2483 Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured
2484 for your first boot:
2485 </p>
2487 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
2488 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
2489 <comment>Only for non-PCMCIA network cards:</comment>
2490 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
2491 </pre>
2493 <p>
2494 If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create
2495 additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or
2496 <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path> scripts respectively for each one
2497 (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...):
2498 </p>
2500 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
2501 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
2502 # <i>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></i>
2503 <comment>Only for non-PCMCIA network cards:</comment>
2504 # <i>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</i>
2505 </pre>
2507 <p>
2508 If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
2509 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for
2510 your setup, then run the following command:
2511 </p>
2513 <pre caption = "Have PCMCIA services start automatically">
2514 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
2515 </pre>
2517 <p>
2518 This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network
2519 is loaded. The appropriate <path>/etc/init.d/net.eth*</path> services
2520 will be started by the pcmcia service automatically.
2521 </p>
2523 </body>
2524 </section>
2525 </chapter>
2527 <chapter>
2528 <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
2529 <section>
2530 <body>
2532 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
2533 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
2534 </pre>
2536 <p>
2537 Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings. All users
2538 will want to make sure that CLOCK is set to his/her liking. International
2539 keyboard users will want to set the KEYMAP variable (browse
2540 <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various possibilities).
2541 </p>
2543 </body>
2544 </section>
2545 </chapter>
2547 <chapter>
2548 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
2549 <section>
2550 <title>Notes</title>
2551 <body>
2553 <p>
2554 In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose
2555 from. Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between
2556 both GRUB and LILO as their bootloaders.
2557 </p>
2559 <p>
2560 Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
2561 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
2562 </p>
2564 <p>
2565 In addition, you will need to configure our bootloader differently depending
2566 upon whether you are using <c>genkernel</c> (with kernel and initrd) or a
2567 kernel you compiled by hand. Be sure to take note of the important
2568 differences.
2569 </p>
2571 <impo>
2572 If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or
2573 nForce2 chipset with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use
2574 LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board video enabled, the low memory area of your
2575 RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low memory at boot time,
2576 it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
2577 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using
2578 off-board video right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics
2579 card and use the on-board video in a pinch, wouldn't it? :)
2580 </impo>
2582 </body>
2583 </section>
2584 <section>
2585 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
2586 <body>
2588 <p>
2589 The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how
2590 GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition
2591 <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the
2592 parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required. Hard drives count from zero
2593 rather than "a" and partitions start at zero rather than one. Be aware too
2594 that with the hd devices, only hard drives are counted, not atapi-ide devices
2595 such as cdrom players, burners and that the same construct can be used with
2596 scsi drives. (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the
2597 bios is configured to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a hard drive
2598 on <path>/dev/hda</path>, a cdrom player on <path>/dev/hdb</path>, a burner on
2599 <path>/dev/hdc</path>, a second hard drive on <path>/dev/hdd</path> and no
2600 SCSI hard drive, <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to
2601 <path>(hd1,6)</path>. It might sound tricky and tricky it is indeed, but as
2602 we will see, GRUB offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for
2603 those of you having a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a little
2604 lost in the GRUB numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that, it is
2605 time to install GRUB.
2606 </p>
2608 <p>
2609 The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted
2610 shell prompt:
2611 </p>
2613 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
2614 # <i>emerge -k grub</i>
2615 # <i>grub</i>
2616 </pre>
2618 <p>
2619 You will be presented with the <e>grub&gt;</e> grub command-line prompt.
2620 Now, you need to type in the right commands to install the GRUB boot record
2621 onto your hard drive. In my example configuration, I want to install the GRUB
2622 boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that the first
2623 thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the
2624 commands I want to type are:
2625 </p>
2627 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
2628 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2629 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here, it is the MBR)</comment>
2630 </pre>
2632 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
2633 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR:</comment>
2634 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2635 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0,4)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here it is /dev/hda5)</comment>
2636 grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2637 </pre>
2639 <p>
2640 Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells
2641 GRUB the location of your boot partition (in our example,
2642 <path>/dev/hda1</path> or <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the
2643 second <c>setup ( )</c> command tells GRUB where to install the boot record -
2644 it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root ( )</c>
2645 location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the MBR
2646 of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as
2647 <path>(hd0)</path>). If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up
2648 GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I could install GRUB to the boot record of
2649 a particular partition. In that case, I would specify a particular partition
2650 rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB boot record has been successfully
2651 installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
2652 </p>
2654 <note>
2655 The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB,
2656 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
2657 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only hard drives),
2658 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, GRUB would print the
2659 available hard drives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
2660 would make GRUB print the list of partitions on the first hard drive.
2661 Checking the syntax of the GRUB location with completion should really help
2662 to make the right choice.
2663 </note>
2665 <p>
2666 Gentoo Linux is now installed, but we need to create the
2667 <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that we get a nice GRUB boot menu
2668 when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
2669 </p>
2671 <impo>
2672 To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
2673 <path>grub.conf</path> to <path>menu.lst</path>. You can do this by typing
2674 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst</c>.
2675 </impo>
2677 <p>
2678 Now, create the <path>grub.conf</path> file (<c>nano -w
2679 /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>) and add the following to it:
2680 </p>
2682 <pre caption="grub.conf for GRUB">
2683 default 0
2684 timeout 30
2685 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
2687 <comment># If you compiled your own kernel, use something like this:</comment>
2688 title=My example Gentoo Linux
2689 root (hd0,0)
2690 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
2692 <comment># If you're using genkernel, use something like this instead:</comment>
2693 title=My example Gentoo Linux (genkernel)
2694 root (hd0,0)
2695 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/kernel-KV root=/dev/hda3
2696 initrd (hd0,0)/boot/initrd-KV
2698 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
2699 title=Windows XP
2700 root (hd0,5)
2701 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
2702 </pre>
2704 <warn>
2705 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed.
2706 </warn>
2708 <note>
2709 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
2710 </note>
2712 <impo>
2713 If you set up SCSI emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
2714 actually work you need to add an <c>hdx=ide-scsi</c> fragment to the kernel
2715 line in <path>grub.conf</path> (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd
2716 burner).
2717 </impo>
2719 <p>
2720 After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the
2721 first option will tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second
2722 part of the <path>grub.conf</path> file is optional and shows you how to use
2723 GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
2724 </p>
2726 <note>
2727 Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
2728 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path>
2729 should point to your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT
2730 boot loader.
2731 </note>
2733 <note>
2734 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for
2735 example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root
2736 partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the <path>grub.conf</path> file
2737 above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
2738 </note>
2740 <p>
2741 If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply add them to
2742 the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
2743 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you
2744 can turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're
2745 doing) by adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c>
2746 command.
2747 </p>
2749 <note>
2750 Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
2751 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs.
2752 Now devfs is enabled by default.
2753 </note>
2755 </body>
2756 </section>
2757 <section>
2758 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
2759 <body>
2761 <p>
2762 While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the
2763 best choice. LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux
2764 bootloaders. Here is how to install LILO if you would like to use it instead
2765 of GRUB.
2766 </p>
2768 <p>
2769 The first step is to emerge LILO:
2770 </p>
2772 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
2773 # <i>emerge -k lilo</i>
2774 </pre>
2776 <p>
2777 Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file
2778 <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>:
2779 </p>
2781 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
2782 boot=/dev/hda
2783 map=/boot/map
2784 install=/boot/boot.b
2785 prompt
2786 timeout=50
2787 lba32
2788 default=linux
2790 <comment># Use something like the following 4 lines if you compiled your kernel yourself</comment>
2791 image=/boot/bzImage
2792 label=linux
2793 read-only
2794 root=/dev/hda3
2796 <comment># If you used genkernel, use something like this:</comment>
2797 image=/boot/kernel-KV
2798 label=gk_linux
2799 root=/dev/hda3
2800 initrd=/boot/initrd-KV
2801 append="root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc"
2804 <comment># For dual booting windows/other OS</comment>
2805 other=/dev/hda1
2806 label=dos
2807 </pre>
2809 <warn>
2810 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed, and
2811 make sure that <c>default=</c> points to your label (<c>gk_linux</c> if
2812 you used genkernel).
2813 </warn>
2815 <ul>
2816 <li><c>boot=/dev/hda</c> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller.</li>
2817 <li><c>map=/boot/map</c> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
2818 <li><c>install=/boot/boot.b</c> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector. In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will assume a default of <path>/boot/boot.b</path> as the file to be used. </li>
2819 <li>The existence of <c>prompt</c> tells LILO to display the classic <e>lilo:</e> prompt at bootup. While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
2820 <li><c>timeout=50</c> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
2821 <li><c>lba32</c> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put your system in an unbootable state. </li>
2822 <li><c>default=linux</c> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
2823 <li><c>image=/boot/bzImage</c> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
2824 <li><c>label=linux</c> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case, it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
2825 <li><c>read-only</c> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be altered during the boot process. </li>
2826 <li><c>root=/dev/hda3</c> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
2827 </ul>
2829 <p>
2830 After you have edited your <path>lilo.conf</path> file, it is time to run LILO
2831 to load the information into the MBR:
2832 </p>
2834 <pre caption="Running LILO">
2835 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
2836 </pre>
2838 <p>
2839 LILO is configured and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
2840 </p>
2842 </body>
2843 </section>
2845 <section>
2846 <title>Using framebuffer</title>
2847 <body>
2849 <p>
2850 People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c>
2851 to their bootloader configuration file. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the
2852 following table:
2853 </p>
2855 <table>
2856 <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
2857 <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
2858 <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
2859 <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
2860 </table>
2862 <p>
2863 LILO-users will have to add <c>vga=xxx</c> on top of their configuration
2864 file.
2865 </p>
2867 <p>
2868 GRUB-users will have to append <c>vga=xxx</c> to the <c>kernel
2869 (hd0,0)...</c> line.
2870 </p>
2872 </body>
2873 </section>
2874 </chapter>
2876 <chapter>
2877 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
2878 <section>
2879 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
2880 <body>
2882 <impo>
2883 Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2884 </impo>
2886 <p>
2887 It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
2888 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
2889 blanket and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
2890 let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
2891 you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
2892 If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk and when you reboot
2893 the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
2894 like this:
2895 </p>
2897 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
2898 # <i>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</i>
2899 # <i>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</i>
2900 </pre>
2902 <p>
2903 Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you
2904 can now execute the necessary <c>root</c> and <c>setup</c> commands.
2905 </p>
2907 </body>
2908 </section>
2909 <section>
2910 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
2911 <body>
2913 <impo>
2914 Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2915 </impo>
2917 <p>
2918 If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
2919 </p>
2921 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
2922 # <i>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </i>
2923 <comment>(This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB)</comment>
2924 </pre>
2926 </body>
2927 </section>
2928 </chapter>
2930 <chapter>
2931 <title>Using GRP</title>
2932 <section>
2933 <body>
2935 <p>
2936 GRP users can, at this point, install binary packages:
2937 </p>
2939 <pre caption="Installing from GRP">
2940 # <i>USE="bindist" emerge -k xfree</i>
2941 <codenote>(USE="bindist" must be set while installing GRP packages that use XFree86)</codenote>
2942 </pre>
2944 <p>
2945 CD 1 contains enough applications to install a working system with XFree86.
2946 Additionally, CD2 of the 2-CD GRP set contains other applications including
2947 KDE, GNOME, Mozilla and others. To install these packages, you will need to
2948 reboot into your new Gentoo system first (covered in the "Installation
2949 complete!" section near the end of this document). After you are running your
2950 basic Gentoo system from the hard drive, you can mount the second CD and copy
2951 files:
2952 </p>
2954 <pre caption="Loading binary packages from CD2">
2955 # <i>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</i>
2956 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/* /usr/portage/packages/</i>
2957 </pre>
2959 <p>
2960 Now various other applications can be installed the same way. For example:
2961 </p>
2963 <pre caption="Installing KDE from GRP">
2964 # <i>USE="bindist" emerge -k kde</i>
2965 </pre>
2967 </body>
2968 </section>
2969 </chapter>
2971 <chapter>
2972 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
2973 <section>
2974 <body>
2976 <p>
2977 Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary
2978 configuration files, exit the chrooted shell, safely unmount your partitions
2979 and reboot the system:
2980 </p>
2982 <warn>
2983 <c>etc-update</c> can provide you with a list of configuration files
2984 that have newer versions at your disposal. Verify that none of the
2985 configuration files have a big impact (such as <path>/etc/fstab</path>,
2986 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, ...). Merge the
2987 files that don't have such a big impact, remove the updates of the
2988 others or view the diff and manually update the configuration file.
2989 </warn>
2991 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
2992 # <i>etc-update</i>
2993 # <i>exit</i>
2994 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <i>^D</i>)</comment>
2995 # <i>cd / </i>
2996 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
2997 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
2998 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo</i>
2999 # <i>reboot</i>
3000 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the bootable CD)</comment>
3001 </pre>
3003 <note>
3004 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>modules-update</c> command to
3005 create the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this
3006 file directly, you should generally make changes to the files in
3007 <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
3008 </note>
3010 <p>
3011 If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux
3012 evelopment, consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
3013 (more information on our <uri
3014 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
3015 We also have a handy <uri
3016 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration
3017 guide</uri> that will help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux
3018 system and a useful <uri
3019 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
3020 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the
3021 Gentoo Documentation <uri
3022 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any
3023 other questions involving installation or anything for that matter, please
3024 check the Gentoo Linux <uri
3025 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>. Enjoy and welcome to
3026 Gentoo Linux!
3027 </p>
3029 </body>
3030 </section>
3031 </chapter>
3033 <chapter>
3034 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
3035 <section>
3036 <body>
3038 <p>
3039 The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give
3040 the developers a way to find out about their user base. It collects information
3041 about Gentoo Linux usage to help us in set priorities our development.
3042 Installing it is completely optional and it would be greatly appreciated if
3043 you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at
3044 <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
3045 </p>
3047 <p>
3048 The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
3049 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID
3050 will not be used to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched
3051 against an IP address or other personal information. Every precaution has been
3052 taken to assure your privacy in the development of this system. The following
3053 are the things that we are monitoring right now through our "gentoo-stats"
3054 program:
3055 </p>
3057 <ul>
3058 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
3059 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx" or "3dnow")</li>
3060 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
3061 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
3062 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> link is pointing to).</li>
3063 </ul>
3065 <p>
3066 We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most
3067 Gentoo Linux users (just as it is to the developers).
3068 </p>
3070 <ul>
3071 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
3072 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
3073 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID" pairs.</li>
3074 </ul>
3076 <p>
3077 The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
3078 </p>
3080 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
3081 # <i>emerge gentoo-stats</i> <comment>(Installs gentoo-stats)</comment>
3082 # <i>gentoo-stats --new</i> <comment>(Obtains a new system ID)</comment>
3083 </pre>
3085 <p>
3086 The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
3087 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view
3088 this file to see additional configuration options.
3089 </p>
3091 <p>
3092 After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule (gentoo-stats does
3093 not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
3094 </p>
3096 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
3097 0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null
3098 </pre>
3100 <p>
3101 The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
3102 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>.
3103 </p>
3105 </body>
3106 </section>
3107 </chapter>
3109 <chapter>
3110 <title>Gentoo On Less-Common Hardware</title>
3111 <section>
3112 <title>Hardware ATA RAID</title>
3113 <body>
3115 <p>
3116 Users who want to install Gentoo on Hardware ATA RAID must pay
3117 attention to the next steps in order for them to succesfully
3118 install Gentoo Linux:
3119 </p>
3121 <ul>
3122 <li>Be sure to start the LiveCD with the <c>doataraid</c> kerneloption.</li>
3123 <li>If you've forgotten to select <c>doataraid</c> during bootup, or the modules mysteriously didn't load, load them as needed:
3124 <pre caption = "Loading RAID modules">
3125 # <i>modprobe ataraid</i>
3126 <comment>For Promise Raid Controllers:</comment>
3127 # <i>modprobe pdcraid</i>
3128 <comment>For Highpoint Raid Controllers:</comment>
3129 # <i>modprobe hptraid</i>
3130 </pre></li>
3131 <li>Some ATA RAID Controllers require you to reboot after partitioning; formatting will otherwise fail.</li>
3132 <li>Before chrooting, mount the devicetree into the new environment:
3133 <pre caption = "Mounting /dev into /mnt/gentoo/dev">
3134 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
3135 </pre></li>
3136 <li>During kernel configuration, select the required RAID options:
3137 <pre caption = "RAID in the Linux Kernel Configuration">
3138 <comment>For Highpoint RAID controllers:</comment>
3139 ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3140 [*] HPT36X/37X chipset support
3141 [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3142 [*] Highpoint 370 software RAID
3143 <comment>For Promise RAID controllers:</comment>
3144 ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3145 [*] PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67} support
3146 <comment>and/or</comment>
3147 [*] PROMISE PDC202{68|69|70|71|75|76|77} support
3148 [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3149 [*] Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
3150 </pre></li>
3151 <li>When using GRUB add <c>--stage2=/boot/grub/stage2</c> when running <c>grub</c> to the <c>setup</c> command:
3152 <pre caption = "Installing GRUB for Hardware RAID systems">
3153 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
3154 grub&gt; <i>setup --stage2=/boot/grub/stage2 (hd0)</i>
3155 grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
3156 </pre>
3157 Also, in the GRUB configuration be sure to point the <c>root</c>
3158 to the appropriate RAID device:
3159 <pre caption = "grub.conf for RAID">
3160 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
3161 root (hd0,0)
3162 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3163 </pre></li>
3164 <li>LILO users should set the <c>root</c> option to the appropriate RAID device:
3165 <pre caption = "lilo.conf for RAID">
3166 image=/boot/bzImage
3167 label=linux
3168 read-only
3169 root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3170 </pre></li>
3171 </ul>
3173 <p>
3174 If you still have problems installing Gentoo Linux on your Hardware
3175 RAID, be sure to report them on <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>.
3176 </p>
3178 <p>
3179 Thanks for using Gentoo Linux, and have fun with your new installation!
3180 </p>
3183 </body>
3184 </section>
3185 </chapter>
3186 </guide>

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