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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
7 <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author"><mail link="jerry@gentoo.org">Jerry Alexandratos</mail></author>
10 <author title="Ghost"><mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail></author>
11 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
12 <author title="Editor"><mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail></author>
13 <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
14 <author title="Editor"><mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail></author>
15
16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
17 Linux 1.4_rc1. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
18 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
19 scratch.
20 </abstract>
21
22 <version>2.1</version>
23 <date>20 November 2002</date>
24
25 <chapter>
26 <title>About the Install</title>
27 <section>
28 <body>
29
30 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
31 as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
32 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE)
33 (built-in to the kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as
34 modules). In addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network
35 card that Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your
36 network and establish outbound <c>ssh</c> connections and download files.
37 </p>
38
39 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
40 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully
41 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
42 slow under those conditions.) To begin the install process, first grab the
43 livecd ISO images from
44 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc1/</uri>. The three stages make our life
45 easy with Gentoo. The stage1 is for building the entire system from scratch. Stage2 is for building
46 some of the system from scratch, and stage3 saves a lot of time because it is already
47 optimized for you specific system. At the moment only the stage1 tarball is
48 stored on the livecd, but you will be able to download a stage2 or
49 stage3 tarball optimized for your system after booting the livecd.
50 </p>
51
52 <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. We'll create partitions,
53 create our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball.
54 If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps
55 to get our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure
56 them (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and
57 have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
58 process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation:
59 </p>
60
61 <table>
62 <tr><th>stage tarball</th><th>requirements for installation</th></tr>
63 <tr><ti>1</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti></tr>
64 <tr><ti>2</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti></tr>
65 <tr><ti>3</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti></tr>
66 </table>
67
68 </body>
69 </section>
70 </chapter>
71
72 <chapter>
73 <title>Booting</title>
74 <section>
75 <body>
76
77 <p>Start by booting the livecd. You'll be
78 greeted with a lot of text output
79 followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
80 Login as "root" (just hit &lt;enter&gt; for the password),
81 and then use the <c>passwd</c> command to change the root
82 password. (This root password is only for this installation session.
83 The reason for changing the password is that you will have to connect
84 to the net to complete the installation. Connecting to the internet with
85 the default root password is a <i>really</i> bad idea!)
86 You should have a root ("<c>#</c>") prompt on the current
87 console, and can also open new consoles by typing alt-f2, alt-f3, etc and then
88 hitting enter.
89 </p>
90
91 <p>Next, you will be greeted with instructions for setting up your network,
92 and optional PCI autodetection. The PCI autodetection process will automatically
93 load the appropriate kernel modules for many popular PCI SCSI and ethernet
94 devices. After this, you should have a root ("<c>#</c>") prompt on the current
95 console, and can also open new consoles by typing Alt-F2, Alt-F3, etc and then
96 hitting enter.
97 </p>
98
99 </body>
100 </section>
101 </chapter>
102
103 <chapter>
104 <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
105 <section>
106 <body>
107
108
109 <p>Hopefully you need only type <c>pci-setup</c> at the root prompt to
110 autodetect the hardware on your system and to load the appropriate
111 kernel modules.
112 </p>
113
114 <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
115 will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
116 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
117 /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
118 type:
119 </p>
120
121 <pre caption = "PCI Modules Configuration">
122 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
123 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
124 </pre>
125
126 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
127 during the PCI autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
128 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
129 </p>
130
131 <pre caption = "Loading SCSI Modules">
132 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
133 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
134 </pre>
135
136 <p><c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks.
137 <note>
138 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs in build-in in the kernel.
139 </note>
140 </p>
141
142 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you need to load the
143 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
144 </p>
145
146 <pre caption = "Loading RAID Modules">
147 # <c>insmod ataraid</c>
148 # <c>insmod pdcraid</c>
149 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
150 # <c>insmod hptraid</c>
151 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
152 </pre>
153
154 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
155 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
156
157 <pre caption = "Setting DMA">
158 <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device. </comment>
159 # <c>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX </c>
160 <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
161 # <c>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX </c>
162 <comment>Enables Ultra-DMA </comment>
163 </pre>
164
165 </body>
166 </section>
167 </chapter>
168
169 <chapter>
170 <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
171 <section>
172 <body>
173
174 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to do some additional
175 trickery.
176 </p>
177
178 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
179 portion of the install. </warn>
180
181 <pre caption = "Loading PCMCIA Modules">
182 # <i>insmod pcmcia_core</i>
183 # <i>insmod i82365</i>
184 # <i>insmod ds</i>
185 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
186 </pre>
187
188 <p>As cardmgr detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
189 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
190 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading cardmgr too, if that's
191 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
192 <i>cardmgr</i> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
193 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
194 as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
195 drop by. <i>cardmgr</i> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
196 remove it). </p>
197
198 </body>
199 </section>
200 </chapter>
201
202 <chapter>
203 <title>Configuring Networking</title>
204 <section>
205 <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
206 <body>
207
208 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has
209 made things easy for you by including <i>rp-pppoe</i>. Use the provided <i>adsl-setup </i>
210 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
211 device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
212 the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
213
214 <pre caption = "Configuring PPPoE">
215 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
216 # <c> adsl-start </c>
217 </pre>
218
219 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
220 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
221 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
222
223 </body>
224 </section>
225
226 <section>
227 <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
228 <body>
229
230 <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use
231 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
232 Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
233 Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
234 the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
235 The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
236 script. </p>
237
238 <pre caption = "Net-Setup Script">
239 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
240 </pre>
241
242 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. </p>
243
244 </body>
245 </section>
246
247 <section>
248 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
249 <body>
250
251 <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
252 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
253
254 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
255 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
256 </pre>
257
258 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
259 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
260 </note>
261
262 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
263 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
264
265 </body>
266 </section>
267
268 <section>
269 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
270 <body>
271
272 <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
273 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
274 Type in the following commands, replacing
275 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
276 with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
277 with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
278 $GTWAY with your default gateway.
279 </p>
280
281 <pre caption = "Static IP Network Configuration">
282 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
283 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
284 </pre>
285
286 <p>Now it's time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
287 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
288
289 <p>Here's a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
290
291 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
292 domain mydomain.com
293 nameserver 10.0.0.1
294 nameserver 10.0.0.2
295 </pre>
296
297 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
298 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
299 </body>
300 </section>
301
302 <section>
303 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
304 <body>
305 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
306 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
307 </p>
308
309 <pre caption = "Setting a Proxy">
310 # <c>export http_proxy="machine.company.com:1234" </c>
311 # <c>export ftp_proxy="$http_proxy" </c>
312 # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY="$http_proxy" </c>
313 </pre>
314
315 </body>
316 </section>
317
318 <section>
319 <title>Network Testing</title>
320 <body>
321 <p>Now that your network has been configured, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig -a</c> command should show
322 that your network card is working (look for <e>UP</e> and <e>RUNNING</e> in the output). </p>
323
324 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
325 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
326 inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
327 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
328 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
329 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
330 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
331 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
332 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
333 Interrupt:11
334 </pre>
335
336 <p>You may want to also try pinging Gentoo.org's website, just to make sure that your packets are
337 reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working correctly, etc.
338 </p>
339
340 <pre caption = "Further Network Testing">
341 # <c>ping www.gentoo.org </c>
342 </pre>
343
344 </body>
345 </section>
346
347 <section>
348 <title>Networking is go!</title>
349 <body>
350 <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
351 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
352 </body>
353 </section>
354 </chapter>
355
356 <chapter>
357 <title>Partition Configuration</title>
358 <section>
359 <body>
360
361 <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
362 to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
363 </p>
364
365 <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
366 We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
367 partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
368 The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
369 your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
370 everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
371 your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. This prevents your kernel
372 from being made unavailable to GRUB (due to filesystem corruption) in the event
373 of a system crash, preventing the chicken-and-egg problem where GRUB can't read
374 your kernel (since your filesystem isn't consistent) but you can't bring your
375 filesystem back to a consistent state (since you can't boot!)
376 </p>
377
378 <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have four filesystem options:
379 XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling) and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
380 filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
381 ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
382 providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
383 that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
384 ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
385 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
386 As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
387 XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
388 is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but be warned that it
389 is highly unstable at this time.
390 </p>
391
392 <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
393 for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
394 high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
395 mature and refined. Please be careful with XFS; this filesystem has a tendency to fry lots of data
396 if the system crashes or you lose power. Originally, it seemed like a promising filesystem but it
397 now appears that this tendency to lose data is a major achilles' heel.
398 Here are our basic recommended filesystem
399 sizes and types:
400 </p>
401
402 <table>
403 <tr>
404 <th>Partition</th>
405 <th>Size</th>
406 <th>Type</th>
407 <th>example device</th>
408 </tr>
409 <tr>
410 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
411 <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
412 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
413 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
414 </tr>
415 <tr>
416 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit)</ti>
417 <ti>&gt;=2*Amount of RAM in this system is recommended but no longer (as of kernel 2.4.10) required</ti>
418 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
419 <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
420 </tr>
421 <tr>
422 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
423 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
424 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
425 <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
426 </tr>
427 </table>
428
429 <p>Before creating your partitions, it is a <e>very</e> good idea to initialize the
430 beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that you have no issues with
431 mounting previously <i>fat32</i> partitions, like <path>/boot</path>
432 for example. To do this you would do:
433 </p>
434
435 <pre caption = "Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
436 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdaBOOT bs=1024 count=1024 </c>
437 <comment>BOOT is the partition that holds your <path>/boot</path>.</comment>
438 </pre>
439
440 <p>At this point, create your partitions using fdisk. Note that your partitions
441 should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS <e>or</e> ext2/3). </p>
442
443 <note><i>cfdisk</i> is included on the install CD, and it is *considerably* easier to use than
444 <i>fdisk</i>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it. </note>
445
446 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little
447 different.
448 You will have the partitions like this:
449 <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path>
450 X is the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1
451 array, then it will
452 be disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path>
453 </note>
454
455
456 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
457 the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p>
458
459 <pre caption= "Initializing Swap">
460 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
461 </pre>
462
463 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
464
465 <pre caption = "Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
466 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
467 </pre>
468
469 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
470
471 <pre caption = "Creating a XFS Filesystem">
472 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
473 </pre>
474
475 <note>
476 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
477 The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
478 the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
479 so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5.
480 The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
481 </note>
482
483 <warn>
484 If you are installing an XFS partition over a previous ReiserFS partition,
485 later attempts to mount may fail without an explicit <c>mount -t xfs</c>.
486 The solution is to zero out the partition before creating the XFS filesystem:
487 <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hd<comment>x</comment> bs=1k</c>.
488 </warn>
489
490 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
491
492 <pre caption = "Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
493 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
494 </pre>
495
496 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
497
498 <pre caption = "Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
499 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
500 </pre>
501
502 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
503 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
504 </note>
505
506 </body>
507 </section>
508 </chapter>
509
510 <chapter>
511 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
512 <section>
513 <body>
514
515 <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that
516 provides later:
517 </p>
518
519 <pre caption = "Activating Swap">
520 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
521 </pre>
522
523 <p>Next, we'll create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mountpoints,
524 and we'll mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
525
526 <pre caption = "Creating Mount Points">
527 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
528 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
529 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
530 # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
531 </pre>
532
533 <p>
534 If you are setting up Gentoo
535 Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
536 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
537 </p>
538
539 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
540 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
541 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
542 We'll get to that in a bit.
543 </impo>
544
545 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
546 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
547 </body>
548 </section>
549 </chapter>
550
551 <chapter>
552 <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
553
554 <section>
555 <body>
556
557 <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set
558 to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/cdroot/nocompress</path>.
559 On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3
560 tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it
561 (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest)
562 from one of the Gentoo mirror sites: </p>
563
564 <pre caption = "Downloading Required Stages">
565 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
566 # <c>env TMPDIR="/mnt/gentoo" lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc1/x86/</c>
567 </pre>
568
569 </body>
570 </section>
571 </chapter>
572
573 <chapter>
574 <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
575 <section>
576
577 <body>
578
579 <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
580 Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation.
581 </p>
582
583 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
584 cause certain files to contain incorrect permissions.</impo>
585
586 <p>If you are using the "from scratch, build everything" install method,
587 you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
588 If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
589 These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
590 compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stage3 image now also includes
591 complete linux sources and a Portage tree snapshot, eliminating the
592 need to do an <c>emerge sync</c> later, but it is highly recommended to do so anyway.
593 </p>
594
595 <pre caption = "Unpacking the Stages">
596 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
597 # <c>tar -xvjpf /path/to/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
598 # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
599 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
600 </pre>
601
602 <pre caption = "Entering the chroot Environment">
603 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
604 # <c>env-update</c>
605 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
606 # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
607 </pre>
608
609 <p>After you execute these commands, you'll be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux environment.
610 </p>
611
612 </body>
613 </section>
614 </chapter>
615
616 <chapter>
617 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using Rsync</title>
618
619 <section>
620 <body>
621
622 <p>Now, you'll need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
623 you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
624
625 <pre caption = "Updating Using Rsync">
626 # <c>emerge sync</c>
627 </pre>
628
629 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
630 it's about 90Mb in size without tarballs.
631 </p>
632
633 </body>
634 </section>
635 </chapter>
636
637 <chapter>
638 <title>Progressing from stage1 to stage2</title>
639 <section>
640
641 <body>
642
643 <p>If you are a stage2 or stage3 tarball, then we've already bootstrapped
644 for you. There is no reason for you to bootstrap again, unless you decided to
645 do an <c>emerge sync</c> and want to ensure that you have an up-to-the-minute
646 current Gentoo Linux system. Most people using stage2 or stage3 tarballs will
647 <i>not</i> want to bootstrap again, since it can take over two hours even on
648 very fast machines.
649 </p>
650
651 <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, people using stage1 to
652 install will need to bootstrap their Gentoo Linux system as follows. First
653 edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
654 <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
655 like to be built into packages; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
656 or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
657 More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
658 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
659 </p>
660
661
662 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
663 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
664 (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) Your best friend
665 is <path>man gcc</path> to figure out what additional <c>CFLAGS</c> and
666 <code>CXXFLAGS</code> are available. Search for 'Optimization'.
667 </p>
668
669 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
670 firewall.
671 </p>
672
673 <pre caption = "Setting make.conf Options">
674 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
675 </pre>
676
677 <note>
678 People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
679 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
680 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
681 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
682 <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
683 interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
684 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE="-foo"</c>
685 in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
686 </note>
687
688 <p>Now, it's time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes about two hours on
689 my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped
690 for compiling the rest ofthe system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
691 These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process.
692 </p>
693
694 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping">
695 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
696 # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
697 </pre>
698
699 <p>The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
700 </p>
701
702 <note>
703 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
704 using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
705 change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
706 starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
707 </note>
708
709 <pre caption = "Changing Portage's Storage Path">
710 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</c>
711 </pre>
712
713 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
714 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
715 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
716 Have a nice nap. Once this process completes, your system will be in a "stage2" state.
717 </p>
718
719 </body>
720 </section>
721 </chapter>
722
723 <chapter>
724 <title>Timezone</title>
725 <section>
726
727 <body>
728
729 <impo>It is extremely important that this step is completed, no matter which stage
730 tarball you use. Major clock drift will be experienced if you do not set localtime correctly,
731 let alone subtle issues when emerging packages later.
732 </impo>
733
734 <p>At this point, you should have a stage2 system that's ready for final configuration.
735 We'll start this process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building
736 the kernel we ensure that users get reasonable <c>uname -a</c> output.
737 </p>
738
739 <p>Look for your timezone (or GMT if you using Greenwich Mean Time) in
740 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:
741 </p>
742
743 <pre caption = "Creating a symbolic link for timezome">
744 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
745 </pre>
746
747 <p>You might also want to check <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to make sure your timezone settings
748 are correct.
749 </p>
750
751 </body>
752 </section>
753 </chapter>
754
755 <chapter>
756 <title>Progressing from stage2 to stage3</title>
757 <section>
758
759 <body>
760 <p>Once your build image has been bootstrapped and you're at stage2
761 (again, if you are using a stage3 tarball than these steps are not required)
762 it's time to build or install the rest of the base
763 system.
764 </p>
765
766 <note>
767 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
768 </note>
769
770 <pre caption = "Installing the Rest of the System">
771 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=""</c>
772 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
773 <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
774 # <c>emerge system</c>
775 </pre>
776
777 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=""</c> line ensures that any new scripts
778 installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
779 <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
780 management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
781
782 <p>It's going to take a while
783 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
784 thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
785 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests "Star
786 Wars - Super Bombad Racing" for the PS2. When <c>emerge system</c> completes,
787 you'll have a stage3 Gentoo Linux system.
788 </p>
789
790 </body>
791 </section>
792 </chapter>
793
794 <chapter>
795 <title>Final steps: kernel and system logger</title>
796 <section>
797 <body>
798
799 <note>
800 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
801 </note>
802
803 <p>You now need to merge Linux source ebuilds. Here are the ones we currently
804 offer:
805 </p>
806
807 <table>
808 <tr><th>ebuild</th><th>description</th></tr>
809 <tr><ti><path>gentoo-sources</path></ti><ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel based on -ac.</ti></tr>
810 <tr><ti><path>xfs-sources</path></ti><ti>A snapshot of the SGI XFS CVS Linux source tree; this is the kernel to run if you want bleeding edge(cvs) xfs support.</ti></tr>
811 <tr><ti><path>openmosix-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti></tr>
812 <tr><ti><path>usermode-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. ("Linux inside Linux" technology)</ti></tr>
813 <tr><ti><path>vanilla-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti></tr>
814 </table>
815
816 <warn>Please note that <i>gentoo-sources</i> is heavily patched and may not be stable.
817 Using <i>vanilla-sources</i> might be a better idea if you encounter numerous problems. If you are using
818 <i>gentoo-sources</i> beware of <i>grsecurity</i>, especially with <i>X</i>.
819 It is best to disable <i>grsecurity</i>unless you are absolutely sure that you need it.
820 </warn>
821
822 <p>Choose one and then merge as follows:</p>
823
824 <pre caption = "Emerging Kernel Sources">
825 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
826 </pre>
827
828 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel.
829 </p>
830
831 <pre caption = "Compiling the Linux Kernel">
832 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
833 # <c>make menuconfig</c>
834 # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
835 # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
836 <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
837 # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
838 </pre>
839
840 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
841 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
842 compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>"Code maturity
843 level options --> Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers"</i>
844 option to see several of these selections.
845 Under the "File systems" section, be sure to enable the <i>"Device File System"</i> (note that
846 you <e>don't</e> need to enable the "/dev/pts file system support" option). You'll also
847 need to enable the <i>"Virtual Memory Filesystem"</i>. Be sure to enable "ReiserFS" if you have
848 any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for "Ext3". If you're using XFS, enable the
849 "SGI XFS filesystem support"
850 option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
851 enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
852 want to enable the "USE DMA by default" option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
853 very poorly. Of course, remember to enable "IDE disk" support as well -- otherwise your
854 kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
855 </warn>
856
857 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
858 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
859 370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
860 support for IDE RAID
861 controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
862 </p>
863
864 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
865 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
866 "PPP (point-to-point protocol) support", "PPP support for async serial ports",
867 "PPP support for sync tty ports". The two compression options won't harm but
868 are not definitely needed, neither does the "PPP over Ethernet" option,
869 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
870 </p>
871
872 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
873 kernel. Turn on "ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support" ---> "IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
874 devices" ---> "SCSI emulation support" (I usually make it a module), then
875 under "SCSI support" enable "SCSI support", "SCSI CD-ROM support" and
876 "SCSI generic support" (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
877 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e "ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod"
878 >> /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
879 </p>
880
881 <note>
882 For those who prefer it,
883 it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
884 Such stability will come at a price:
885 you will lose many of the nifty features that
886 are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
887 filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
888 patched with Reiserfs and devfs support.
889 Gentoo linux bootscripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
890 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
891 It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
892 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
893 for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
894 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
895 </note>
896
897 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
898 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
899 of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
900 to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
901 newer alternatives.
902 If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
903 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
904 </p>
905
906
907 <pre caption = "Emerging System Logger of Choice">
908 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
909 # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
910 <comment>or</comment>
911 # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
912 # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
913 <comment>or</comment>
914 # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
915 # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
916 <comment>or</comment>
917 # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
918 # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
919 </pre>
920
921 <warn>
922 In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
923 <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
924 See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
925 for a sample configuration file.
926 </warn>
927
928 <impo>
929 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
930 the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
931 is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
932 metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
933 <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
934 in real time, as expected),
935 and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
936 again.
937 </impo>
938
939 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you'd like to use.
940 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you don't know which one to choose,
941 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
942 </p>
943
944 <pre caption = "Choosing a CRON Daemon">
945 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
946 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
947 <comment>or</comment>
948 # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
949 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
950 <comment>or</comment>
951 # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
952 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
953 <comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
954 # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
955 </pre>
956
957 <p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux,
958 see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>
959 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
960 <uri link="/doc/rc-scripts.html">rc-script guide</uri>.
961 </p>
962
963 </body>
964 </section>
965 </chapter>
966
967 <chapter>
968 <title>Final steps: Install Additional Packages</title>
969 <section>
970 <body>
971
972 <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
973 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
974
975 <pre caption = "Installing rp-pppoe">
976 # <c>emerge rp-pppoe</c>
977 </pre>
978
979 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
980 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
981 for the first time.
982 </note>
983
984
985 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
986 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
987 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> ebuild:
988 </p>
989
990 <pre caption = "Emerging Filesystem Tools">
991 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
992 <comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
993 # <c> emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
994 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
995 # <c>emerge --usepkg sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
996 </pre>
997
998
999 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1000 real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1001 </p>
1002
1003 <pre caption = "Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1004 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1005 </pre>
1006
1007 </body>
1008 </section>
1009 </chapter>
1010
1011 <chapter>
1012 <title>Final steps: /etc/fstab</title>
1013 <section>
1014
1015 <body>
1016
1017 <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1018 a few important system files and install the GRUB boot loader.
1019 The first file we need to
1020 configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1021 the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1022 Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1023 </p>
1024
1025 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace "BOOT",
1026 "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1027 <pre caption = "Editing fstab">
1028 <comment>
1029 # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1030 #
1031 # noatime turns of atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1032 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1033 # efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1034 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1035
1036 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1037
1038 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1039 </comment>
1040 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1041 /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1042 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1043 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1044 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1045 </pre>
1046
1047 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boottime.
1048 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1049 corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1050 </warn>
1051
1052 </body>
1053 </section>
1054
1055 <section>
1056 <title>Final steps: Root Password</title>
1057
1058 <body>
1059
1060 <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1061
1062 <pre caption = "Setting the root Password">
1063 # <i>passwd</i>
1064 </pre>
1065
1066 </body>
1067 </section>
1068
1069 <section>
1070 <title>Final steps: /etc/hostname</title>
1071
1072 <body>
1073 <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1074 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1075 </p>
1076
1077 <pre caption = "Configuring Hostname">
1078 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com > /etc/hostname</c>
1079 </pre>
1080
1081 </body>
1082 </section>
1083
1084 <section>
1085 <title>Final steps: /etc/hosts</title>
1086
1087 <body>
1088 <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1089 It's used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1090 of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here's a template for this file:
1091 </p>
1092
1093 <pre caption = "Hosts Template">
1094 127.0.0.1 localhost
1095 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1096 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1097 </pre>
1098
1099 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1100 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1101 </note>
1102
1103 </body>
1104 </section>
1105
1106 <section>
1107 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1108
1109 <body>
1110
1111
1112 <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1113 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1114 need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1115 loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1116 it as a module:
1117 </p>
1118
1119 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload">
1120 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card. Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your
1121 card. </comment>
1122 3c59x
1123 </pre>
1124
1125 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1126 first boot: </p>
1127
1128 <pre caption = "Boottime Network Configuration">
1129 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1130 # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1131 </pre>
1132
1133
1134 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1135 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1136
1137 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1138 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1139 # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1140 # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1141 </pre>
1142
1143
1144 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1145 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1146 then add:
1147 </p>
1148
1149 <pre caption = "PCMCIA Options">
1150 depend() {
1151 need pcmcia
1152 }
1153 </pre>
1154
1155 <p>to the top of your <path>/etc/init.d/net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> file.
1156 This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded. </p>
1157
1158 </body>
1159 </section>
1160
1161 <section>
1162 <title>Final steps: configure basic settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1163
1164 <body>
1165
1166 <pre caption="basic configuration">
1167 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1168 </pre>
1169
1170 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1171 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1172 liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1173 variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1174 possibilities).
1175 </p>
1176
1177 </body>
1178 </section>
1179
1180 <section>
1181 <title>Final steps: Configure GRUB</title>
1182
1183 <body>
1184
1185 <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1186 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1187 <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1188 Hard drives count from zero rather than "a", and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1189 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1190 cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1191 (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1192 to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1193 a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1194 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1195
1196 It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1197 offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1198 a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1199 grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1200 it's time to install GRUB.
1201 </p>
1202
1203 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1204
1205 <pre caption = "Installing GRUB">
1206 # <c>grub</c>
1207 </pre>
1208
1209 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1210 this time.
1211 Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1212 grub setup for RAID controllers
1213 </impo>
1214
1215 <p>You'll be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1216 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1217 right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1218 I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1219 the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1220 I want to type are:
1221 </p>
1222
1223 <pre caption = "GRUB Commands">
1224 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c>
1225 grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c>
1226 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1227 </pre>
1228
1229 <p>Here's how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1230 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1231 <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1232 </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1233 boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1234 ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1235 MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1236 If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1237 could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1238 I'd specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1239 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1240
1241 <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1242 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1243 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1244 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1245 available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1246 would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1247
1248 Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1249 to make the right choice.
1250 </note>
1251
1252 Gentoo Linux is now
1253 installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1254 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here's how to do it.
1255 </p>
1256
1257 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1258 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1259 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1260
1261 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1262 </p>
1263
1264 <pre caption = "Grub.conf for GRUB">
1265 default 0
1266 timeout 30
1267 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1268
1269 title=My example Gentoo Linux
1270 root (hd0,0)
1271 kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1272
1273 <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1274 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1275 root (hd0,0)
1276 kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/discX/partY
1277
1278 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1279 title=Windows NT Workstation
1280 root (hd0,5)
1281 chainloader +1
1282 </pre>
1283
1284 <note>
1285 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1286 </note>
1287
1288 <impo>
1289 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1290 actually work you need to add an "hdx=ide-scsi" fragment to the kernel
1291 line in grub.conf (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd burner).
1292 </impo>
1293
1294 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1295 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1296 and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1297 </p>
1298
1299 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
1300 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1301 your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1302 loader.
1303 </note>
1304
1305 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1306 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1307 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1308 turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1309 adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1310 </p>
1311
1312 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1313 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1314 devfs is enabled by default.
1315 </note>
1316
1317 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you must make a GRUB boot
1318 disk. With hardware RAID
1319 if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. So we
1320 will make a GRUB
1321 boot disk, and when you reboot the first time we will install GRUB
1322 to the MBR. Make your
1323 bootdisk like this:
1324 </p>
1325
1326 <pre caption = "Creating a RAID Bootdisk">
1327 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1328 # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1329 # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1330 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1331 # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1332
1333 # <c>grub</c>
1334
1335 grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1336 grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1337 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1338 </pre>
1339
1340
1341 </body>
1342 </section>
1343 </chapter>
1344
1345 <chapter>
1346 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1347 <section>
1348
1349 <body>
1350 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to exit the chrooted shell,
1351 udpate necessary configuration files,
1352 safely unmount your partitions
1353 and reboot the system:
1354 </p>
1355
1356 <pre caption = "Rebooting the System">
1357 # <c>etc-update</c>
1358 # <c>exit</c>
1359 <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1360 # <c>cd / </c>
1361 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1362 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1363 # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1364 # <c>reboot</c>
1365 </pre>
1366
1367 <note>
1368 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1369 the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1370 generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1371 </note>
1372
1373 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1374 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1375 then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1376 time. You are done, congratulations</impo>
1377
1378 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1379 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1380 (there's a "click to subscribe" link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1381 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1382 that will
1383 help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1384 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1385 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1386 <uri link = "http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>.
1387 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1388 </p>
1389
1390 </body>
1391 </section>
1392 </chapter>
1393
1394 <chapter>
1395 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1396 <section>
1397
1398 <body>
1399
1400 <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1401 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1402 us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1403 appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1404 </p>
1405
1406 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1407 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1408 to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1409 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1410 development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1411 right now through our "gentoo-stats" program:
1412 </p>
1413 <ul>
1414 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1415 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx" or "3dnow")</li>
1416 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1417 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1418 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1419 </ul>
1420
1421 <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1422 (just as it is to the developers).
1423 </p>
1424
1425 <ul>
1426 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1427 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1428 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1429 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1430 in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID" pairs.</li>
1431 </ul>
1432
1433 <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1434 </p>
1435
1436 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1437 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1438 # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1439 </pre>
1440
1441 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1442 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1443 to see additional configuration options.
1444 </p>
1445
1446 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1447 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1448 </p>
1449
1450 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1451 <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update > /dev/null</c>
1452 </pre>
1453
1454 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1455 viewed with your favortive pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1456
1457
1458 </body>
1459 </section>
1460 </chapter>
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465 </guide>

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