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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml"> 3<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title> 4<title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 <author title="Chief Architect"> 5<author title="Chief Architect">
6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail> 6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 </author> 7</author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author> 8<author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author">Jerry Alexandratos</author> 9<author title="Author">Jerry Alexandratos</author>
10 <author title="Ghost"> 10<author title="Ghost">
11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail> 11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
12 </author> 12</author>
13 <author title="Editor"> 13<author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail> 14 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
15 </author> 15</author>
16 <author title="Editor"> 16<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail> 17 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
18 </author> 18</author>
19 <author title="Editor"> 19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail> 20 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
21 </author> 21</author>
22 <author title="Editor"> 22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail> 23 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
24 </author> 24</author>
25 <author title="Editor"> 25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail> 26 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
27 </author> 27</author>
28 <author title="Editor"> 28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail> 29 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
30 </author> 30</author>
31 <author title="Editor"> 31<author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail> 32 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
33 </author> 33</author>
34<author title="Editor">Colin Morey</author>
34 <author title="Editor"> 35<author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
36 </author>
37 <author title="Editor">
38 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail> 36 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
39 </author> 37</author>
40 <author title="Editor"> 38<author title="Editor">
41 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail> 39 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
42 </author> 40</author>
43 <author title="Editor, Reviewer"> 41<author title="Editor, Reviewer">
44 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 42 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
45 </author> 43</author>
46 <author title="Editor"> 44<author title="Editor">
47 <mail link="avenj@gentoo.org">Jon Portnoy</mail> 45 <mail link="avenj@gentoo.org">Jon Portnoy</mail>
48 </author> 46</author>
49 <author title="Reviewer"> 47<author title="Reviewer">
50 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail> 48 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail>
51 </author> 49</author>
52 <author title="Reviewer"> 50<author title="Reviewer">
53 <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail> 51 <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>
54 </author> 52</author>
53
54<abstract>
55 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo 55These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
56 Linux 1.4, release version (not _rc versions.) The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation 56Linux 1.4, release version (not _rc versions). The Gentoo Linux installation
57 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from 57process supports various installation approaches, depending upon how much of
58 scratch. 58the system you want to custom-build from scratch.
59 </abstract> 59</abstract>
60 60
61 <license/> 61<license/>
62 62
63<version>2.6.4</version> 63<version>2.6.4</version>
64 <date>6th of August 2003</date> 64<date>8th of August 2003</date>
65
65 <chapter> 66<chapter>
66 <title>About the Install</title> 67<title>About the Install</title>
67 <section> 68<section>
68 <body> 69<body>
70
71<p>
69 <p>First, if you are new to this, welcome to Gentoo Linux! Gentoo 72First, if you are new to this, welcome to Gentoo Linux! Gentoo
70 Linux can be installed in many different ways. Those who are looking 73Linux can be installed in many different ways. Those who are looking
71 for a rapid install can use pre-built packages, while those who want 74for a rapid install can use pre-built packages, while those who want
72 the ultimate in customizability can compile Gentoo Linux entirely 75the ultimate in customizability can compile Gentoo Linux entirely
73 from the original source code. The method you choose is up to 76from the original source code. The method you choose is up to
74 you.</p> 77you.
78</p>
75 79
80<p>
76 <p>One significant change in relation to the official 1.4 release is 81One significant change in relation to the official 1.4 release is
77 our new 2-CD installation set, which can be ordered from <uri 82our new 2-CD installation set, which can be ordered from <uri
78 link="http://store.gentoo.org">The Gentoo Linux Store</uri>, in 83link="http://store.gentoo.org">The Gentoo Linux Store</uri>, in
79 addition to being available on our mirrors. We currently have 2-CD 84addition to being available on our mirrors. We currently have 2-CD
80 installation sets for x86 (486 and above), i686 (Pentium Pro, 85installation sets for x86 (486 and above), i686 (Pentium Pro,
81 Pentium II, Athlon/Duron and above), Pentium III, Pentium 4, and Athlon XP. 86Pentium II, Athlon/Duron and above), Pentium III, Pentium 4 and Athlon XP.
82 To see what 2-CD set is right for you, read the detailed 87To see what 2-CD set is right for you, read the detailed
83 descriptions of each product in the <uri 88descriptions of each product in the <uri
84 link="http://store.gentoo.org">store</uri>. The store descriptions 89link="http://store.gentoo.org">store</uri>. The store descriptions
85 contain fairly comprehensive CPU compatibility information.</p> 90contain fairly comprehensive CPU compatibility information.
91</p>
86 92
87 <p>So, about the 2 CD set -- here's what's on each CD. The first 93<p>So, about the 2 CD set -- here's what's on each CD. The first
88 CD ("CD 1") is called "Live CD Installation," and is a bootable CD-ROM, 94CD ("CD 1") is called "Live CD Installation" and is a bootable CD-ROM,
89 meaning that you can put "CD 1" in your drive and run Gentoo Linux 95meaning that you can put "CD 1" in your drive and run Gentoo Linux
90 directly from the CD. You can then use this CD-based version of 96directly from the CD. You can then use this CD-based version of
91 Gentoo to install Gentoo Linux 1.4 to your hard disk. In addition 97Gentoo to install Gentoo Linux 1.4 to your hard disk. In addition
92 to containing a bootable Gentoo Linux environment, every CD 1 98to containing a bootable Gentoo Linux environment, CD 1
93 contains everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly, even 99contains everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly, even
94 without a connection to the Internet. In addition, several 100without a connection to the Internet. In addition, several
95 pre-compiled packages are also included on CD 1, such as the 101pre-compiled packages are also included on CD 1, such as the
96 ever-important XFree86 X server. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image 102ever-important XFree86 X server. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image
97 file for CD 1, its name will end in "-cd1.iso".</p> 103file for CD 1, its name will end in "<path>-cd1.iso</path>".
104</p>
98 105
106<p>
99 <p>In contrast, the second CD ("CD 2") isn't bootable, and contains 107In contrast, the second CD ("CD 2") isn't bootable and contains
100 lots of pre-built packages for your system. Included on this CD are 108lots of pre-built packages for your system. Included on this CD are
101 optimized versions of packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice, 109optimized versions of packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice,
102 Mozilla, Evolution, and others. CD 2 is <i>optional</i> and is 110Mozilla, Evolution and others. CD 2 is <e>optional</e> and is
103 intended for those people who are interested in installing Gentoo 111intended for those people who are interested in installing Gentoo
104 Linux very quickly. The packages included on CD 2 typically take 112Linux very quickly. The packages included on CD 2 typically take
105 about 36 hours to compile from source on a typical modern 113about 36 hours to compile from source on a typical modern
106 single-processor system. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image file for CD 114single-processor system. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image file for CD
107 2, its name will end in "-cd2.iso". </p> 1152, its name will end in "<path>-cd2.iso</path>".
116</p>
108 117
118<note>
109 <note>A complete Gentoo Linux 2-CD set contains the Gentoo Reference 119A complete Gentoo Linux 2-CD set contains the Gentoo Reference
110 Platform, which is a complete pre-built Gentoo Linux system including GNOME, 120Platform, which is a complete pre-built Gentoo Linux system including GNOME,
111 KDE, Mozilla, and OpenOffice. The Gentoo Reference Platform ("GRP") 121KDE, Mozilla and OpenOffice. The Gentoo Reference Platform ("GRP")
112 was created to allow rapid Gentoo Linux installs 122was created to allow rapid Gentoo Linux package installations
113 packages for those who need this capability. The "compile from 123for those who need this capability. The "compile from
114 source" functionality, which is the cornerstone of Gentoo Linux, 124source" functionality, which is the cornerstone of Gentoo Linux,
115 will always be a fully-supported installation option as well. The 125will always be a fully-supported installation option as well. The
116 purpose of the GRP is to make Gentoo Linux more convenient for some 126purpose of the GRP is to make Gentoo Linux more convenient for some
117 users, without impacting Gentoo's powerful "compile from source" 127users, without impacting Gentoo's powerful "compile from source"
118 installation process in any way.</note> 128installation process in any way.
129</note>
119 130
131<p>
120 <p>In addition to our 2-CD set, we also have a very small "basic" 132In addition to our 2-CD set, we also have a very small "basic"
121 Live CD that you can use to boot your system. Once your system has 133Live CD that you can use to boot your system. Once your system has
122 booted, you can configure a connection to the Internet and then 134booted, you can configure a connection to the Internet and then
123 install Gentoo over the network. The advantage of this "basic" CD is 135install Gentoo over the network. The advantage of this "basic" CD is
124 that it is small, and thus the ISO CD-ROM image file can be 136that it is small and thus the ISO CD-ROM image file can be
125 downloaded quickly. If you're an advanced user who wants to install 137downloaded quickly. If you're an advanced user who wants to install
126 the most up-to-date version of Gentoo Linux available, and have a 138the most up-to-date version of Gentoo Linux available and have a
127 fast network connection, then you may prefer this option. If you 139fast network connection, then you may prefer this option. If you
128 have an ISO CD-ROM image file for our "basic" Live CD, its name will 140have an ISO CD-ROM image file for our "basic" Live CD, its name will
129 end in "-basic.iso".</p> 141end in "<path>-basic.iso</path>".
142</p>
130 143
144<p>
131 <p>To use any Gentoo Linux CD-based installation method, you will 145To use any Gentoo Linux CD-based installation method, you will
132 need to have a 486+ processor and ideally at least 64 Megabytes of 146need to have a 486+ processor and ideally at least 64 Megabytes of
133 RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully built with 64MB of RAM + 147RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully built with 64MB of RAM +
134 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully slow under 14864MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully slow under
135 those conditions.)</p> 149those conditions.)
150</p>
136 151
152<p>
137 <p>Once you boot one of our Live CDs, you have even more options. 153Once you boot one of our Live CDs, you have even more options.
138 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; 154Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot;
139 tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system 155tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system
140 you want to compile yourself. The stage1 tarball is used when you 156you want to compile yourself. The stage1 tarball is used when you
141 want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The 157want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The
142 stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system from a 158stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system from a
143 bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The stage3 tarball already 159bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The stage3 tarball already
144 contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for 160contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for
145 you. If you are interested in doing a "GRP" install, then the 161you. If you are interested in doing a "GRP" install, then the
146 stage3 tarball should be used.</p> 162stage3 tarball should be used.
163</p>
147 164
165<p>
148 <p><b>If you're not doing a GRP install, should you start from a stage1, stage2, or 166<b>If you're not doing a GRP install, should you start from a stage1, stage2, or
149 stage3 tarball?</b> Here is some information that should help you 167stage3 tarball?</b> Here is some information that should help you
150 make this decision. 168make this decision.
169</p>
170
171<p>
151 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total 172Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total
152 control over the optimization settings and optional build-time 173control over the optimization settings and optional build-time
153 functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes 174functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes
154 stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. 175stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing.
155 It is also a great installation method for those who would like to 176It is also a great installation method for those who would like to
156 know more about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.</p> 177know more about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
178</p>
157 179
158 <p> 180<p>
159 Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing 181Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing
160 this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we 182this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we
161 chose for your particular stage2 tarball. And choosing to go with a 183chose for your particular stage2 tarball.
162 stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also 184</p>
185
186<p>
187And choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
163 means that your base system will have the optimization settings that 188Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
164 we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were 189settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were
165 carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining 190carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
166 stability.) Since major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's 191stability). Since major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's
167 specifically optimized for various popular processors, starting 192specifically optimized for various popular processors, starting
168 from a stage3 can offer the best of all worlds -- a fast install 193from a stage3 can offer the best of all worlds -- a fast install
169 and a system that is well-optimized. 194and a system that is well-optimized.
170 <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the 195</p>
171 first time, consider using a stage3 tarball for 196
197<p>
198<b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider using a
172 installation, or a stage3 with GRP.</b></p> 199stage3 tarball for installation, or a stage3 with GRP.</b>
200</p>
201
202<note>
203<b>Advanced users:</b> If you use a stage3 install, you should not
204change the default CHOST setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If you need
205to make such a change, you should start with a stage1 tarball and build up
206your system with the desired CHOST setting. The CHOST setting
207typically looks something like this: <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>.
208</note>
209
210<impo>
211If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
212report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
213needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (e.g. the KDE
214team) the <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
215</impo>
216
217<note>
218The installation instructions in the LiveCD may not be as up-to-date as our
219Web documentation at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri>.
220Refer to our Web documentation for the most up-to-date installation
221instructions.
222</note>
223
224<p>
225Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
226CD(s) and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create
227partitions, create our filesystems and extract either a stage1, stage2 or
228stage3 tarball. If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take
229the appropriate steps to get our system to stage3. Once our system is at
230stage3, we can configure it (customize configuration files, install a boot
231loader, etc.), boot it and have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. After
232your basic Gentoo Linux system is running, you can optionally use "CD 2" of
233our 2-CD set and install any number of pre-built packages such as KDE, GNOME,
234OpenOffice, Mozilla, or others that you'd like on your system.
235</p>
236
237<p>
238Depending on what stage of the build process you're starting from, here is
239what is required for installation:
240</p>
241
242<table>
243<tr>
244 <th>Stage Tarball</th>
245 <th>Internet Access Required</th>
246 <th>Media Required</th>
247 <th>Steps</th>
248</tr>
249<tr>
250 <ti>1</ti>
251 <ti>Yes</ti>
252 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
253 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, final config</ti>
254</tr>
255<tr>
256 <ti>2</ti>
257 <ti>Yes</ti>
258 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
259 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, final config</ti>
260</tr>
261<tr>
262 <ti>3</ti>
263 <ti>No if using <e>CD 1</e>, Yes otherwise</ti>
264 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
265 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync (not required if using <e>CD 1</e>), final config</ti>
266</tr>
267<tr>
268 <ti>3+GRP</ti>
269 <ti>No</ti>
270 <ti><e>CD 1</e>, <e>CD 2</e> optionally</ti>
271 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, final config, install CD 1 pre-built packages (optional), reboot, install extra pre-built packages like KDE and GNOME (if using "CD 2")</ti>
272</tr>
273</table>
274
275<note>
276Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about ATA RAID on the bottom
277of this document before proceeding.
278</note>
279
280</body>
281</section>
282</chapter>
283
284<chapter>
285<title>Booting</title>
286<section>
287<body>
288
289<warn>
290Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the available boot
291options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong keyboard settings, unstarted
292pcmcia services etc..
293</warn>
294
295<p>
296Start by booting your Live CD of choice. You should see a fancy
297boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you
298can hit Enter to begin the boot process, or boot the LiveCD with
299custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options
300and then hitting Enter. For example: <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>.
301If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with more than one
302processor ("SMP"), then you should type <c>smp</c> instead of
303<c>gentoo</c> at the prompt. This will allow the LiveCD to see all
304the processors in your system, not just the first one.
305</p>
173 306
174 <note><b>Advanced users:</b> if you use a stage3 install, you should not
175 change the default CHOST setting in make.conf. If you need to make
176 such a change, you should start with a stage1 tarball and build up
177 your system with the desired CHOST setting. The CHOST setting
178 typically looks something like this:
179 <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>.</note>
180
181 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
182report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
183needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
184<e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
185</impo>
186
187 <note>Another note: the installation instructions in the LiveCD may not
188 be as up-to-date as our Web documentation at
189 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri>. Refer to
190 our Web documentation for the most up-to-date
191 installation instructions.
192 </note>
193
194
195
196 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will
197 download, burn CD(s),
198and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
199our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
200are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
201our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
202(customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc), boot it and have a
203fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. After your basic Gentoo Linux system
204is running, you can optionally use "CD 2" of our 2-CD set and install any
205number of pre-built packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice, Mozilla, or
206others that you'd like on your system.
207</p> 307<p>
208<p>Depending on what stage of the build
209process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
210 <table>
211 <tr>
212 <th>stage tarball</th>
213 <th>Internet access required</th>
214 <th>Media required</th>
215 <th>steps</th>
216 </tr>
217 <tr>
218 <ti>1</ti>
219 <ti>Yes</ti>
220 <ti>"basic" or "CD 1"</ti>
221 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, final config</ti>
222 </tr>
223 <tr>
224 <ti>2</ti>
225 <ti>Yes</ti>
226 <ti>"basic" or "CD 1"</ti>
227 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, final config</ti>
228 </tr>
229 <tr>
230 <ti>3</ti>
231 <ti>No if using "CD 1", Yes otherwise</ti>
232 <ti>"basic" or "CD 1"</ti>
233 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync (not required if
234 using "CD 1"), final config</ti>
235 </tr>
236 <tr>
237 <ti>3+GRP</ti>
238 <ti>No</ti>
239 <ti>"CD 1", optionally "CD 2"</ti>
240 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, final config, install CD 1
241 pre-built packages (optional), reboot,
242 install extra pre-built packages like KDE and GNOME (if using
243 "CD 2").</ti>
244 </tr>
245 </table>
246 <note>Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about
247 ATA RAID on the bottom of this document before proceeding.
248 </note>
249 </body>
250 </section>
251 </chapter>
252 <chapter>
253 <title>Booting</title>
254 <section>
255 <body>
256 <warn>Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the
257 available boot options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong
258 keyboard settings, unstarted pcmcia services etc.</warn>
259
260 <p>Start by booting your Live CD of choice. You should see a fancy
261 boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you
262 can hit Enter to begin the boot process, or boot the LiveCD with
263 custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options
264 and then hitting Enter. For example <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>.
265 If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with more than one
266 processor ("SMP",) then you should type <c>smp</c> instead of
267 <c>gentoo</c> at the prompt. This will allow the LiveCD to see all
268 the processors in your system, not just the first one.</p>
269
270 <p>
271 Consult the following table for a partial list of available kernels and 308Consult the following table for a partial list of available kernels and
272 options or press F2 and F3 to view the help screens.</p> 309options or press F2 and F3 to view the help screens.
310</p>
273 311
274<table> 312<table>
275 <tr> 313<tr><th>Available kernels</th><th>Description</th></tr>
276 <th>Available kernels</th>
277 <th>description</th>
278 </tr>
279
280 <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>standard gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr> 314<tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>standard gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
281 <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr> 315<tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
282 <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr> 316<tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
283 <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr> 317<tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
284 <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr> 318<tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
285
286 </table> 319</table>
287 320
288 <p>
289 <table> 321<table>
290 <tr> 322<tr><th>Available boot options</th><th>Description</th></tr>
291 <th>Available boot options</th>
292 <th>description</th>
293 </tr>
294
295 <tr><ti>doataraid</ti>
296 <ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr> 323<tr><ti>doataraid</ti><ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
297
298 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti>
299 <ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)</ti></tr> 324<tr><ti>dofirewire</ti><ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc.)</ti></tr>
300
301 <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti>
302 <ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr> 325<tr><ti>dokeymap</ti><ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
303
304 <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti>
305 <ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr> 326<tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti><ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
306
307 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti>
308 <ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr> 327<tr><ti>doscsi</ti><ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
309
310 <tr><ti>noapm</ti>
311 <ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr> 328<tr><ti>noapm</ti><ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
312
313 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti>
314 <ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr> 329<tr><ti>nodetect</ti><ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
315
316 <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti>
317 <ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr> 330<tr><ti>nodhcp</ti><ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
318
319 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti>
320 <ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr> 331<tr><ti>nohotplug</ti><ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
321
322 <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
323 <ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr> 332<tr><ti>noraid</ti><ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
324
325 <tr><ti>nousb</ti>
326 <ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr> 333<tr><ti>nousb</ti><ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
327
328 <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti>
329 <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr> 334<tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti><ti>force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
330
331 <tr><ti>cdcache</ti>
332 <ti>Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram, This uses 40mb of RAM , but allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another cdrom.</ti></tr> 335<tr><ti>cdcache</ti><ti>cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram. This uses 40mb of RAM, but allows you to umount <path>/mnt/cdrom</path> and mount another cdrom</ti></tr>
333
334 </table></p> 336</table>
335 337
336 338<p>
337 <p>Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with an even fancier boot 339Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with an even fancier boot
338 screen and progress bar.</p> 340screen and progress bar.
341</p>
342
339<!-- 343<!--
340 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-boot.png" caption="The Gentoo 344 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-boot.png" caption="The Gentoo
341 Linux Live CD booting" /> 345 Linux Live CD booting" />
342--> 346-->
343 347
348<p>
344 <p>Once the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in 349Once the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in
345 to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as 350to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "<e>root</e>", the "super user". You should
346&quot;<c>root</c>&quot;, the "super user." You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt 351have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
347on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing 352to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
348Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing 353you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
349Alt-F1. </p> 354</p>
355
350<!-- 356<!--
351 357
352 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-con.png" caption="The Gentoo 358 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-con.png" caption="The Gentoo
353 Linux Live CD console" /> 359 Linux Live CD console" />
354--> 360-->
355 361
362<note>
356<note><b>Advanced users:</b> When the Live CD boots, the Live CD root password is 363<b>Advanced users:</b> When the Live CD boots, the Live CD root password is
357set to a random string for security purposes. If you plan to start 364set to a random string for security purposes. If you plan to start
358<c>sshd</c> to allow remote logins to your Live CD, you should set the Live 365<c>sshd</c> to allow remote logins to your Live CD, you should set the Live
359CD root password now by typing <c>passwd</c> and following the prompts. 366CD root password now by typing <c>passwd</c> and following the prompts.
360Otherwise, you will not know the proper password for logging into the Live 367Otherwise, you will not know the proper password for logging into the Live
361CD over the network. </note> 368CD over the network.
369</note>
362 370
371<p>
363 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text 372You've probably also noticed that above your # prompt is a bunch of
364 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find 373help text that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking
365 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD. 374and telling you where you can find the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages
366 </p> 375on your CD.
367 </body> 376</p>
377
378</body>
368 </section> 379</section>
369 </chapter> 380</chapter>
381
370 <chapter> 382<chapter>
371 <title>Optional hardware configuration</title> 383<title>Optional hardware configuration</title>
372 <section> 384<section>
373 <body> 385<body>
386
387<p>
374 <p>When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware 388When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware
375 devices and loads the appropiate kernel modules to support your 389devices and loads the appropiate kernel modules to support your
376 hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. 390hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job.
377 However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules 391However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules
378 you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you 392you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you
379 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually. 393will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
380 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls 394To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
381 /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module, 395/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
382 type: 396type:
383 </p> 397</p>
398
384<pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration"> 399<pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
385# <c>modprobe pcnet32</c> 400# <i>modprobe pcnet32</i>
386<comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment> 401<comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
387</pre> 402</pre>
403
404<p>
388 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected 405Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't
389 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate 406detected during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to
390 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>: 407load the appropriate modules from <path>/lib/modules</path>, again using
391 </p> 408<c>modprobe</c>:
409</p>
410
392<pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules"> 411<pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
393# <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c> 412# <i>modprobe aic7xxx</i>
394<comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment> 413<comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
395# <c>modprobe sd_mod</c> 414# <i>modprobe sd_mod</i>
396<comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment> 415<comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
397</pre> 416</pre>
417
398 <note> 418<note>
399 Support for SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel. 419Support for SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
400 </note> 420</note>
401 421
422<note>
402 <note><b>Advanced users:</b> The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA 423<b>Advanced users:</b> The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA
403 on your disks so that disk transfers are as fast as possible, but if it did not, 424on your disks so that disk transfers are as fast as possible, but if it did not,
404 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives as follows: 425<c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives as follows:
405 <pre caption="Setting DMA"> 426<pre caption="Setting DMA">
406<comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment> 427<comment>(Replace hdX with your disk device)</comment>
407# hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment> 428# <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX</i>
429<comment>(Enables DMA)</comment>
408# hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX 430# <i>hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX</i>
409<comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment> 431<comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
410# hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX 432# <i>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX</i>
411<comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment> 433<comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
412</pre> 434</pre>
413 </note> 435</note>
414 436
415 437
416 </body> 438</body>
417 </section> 439</section>
418 </chapter> 440</chapter>
419 <chapter> 441<chapter>
420 <title>Optional Networking configuration</title> 442<title>Optional Networking configuration</title>
421 <section> 443<section>
422 <title>Maybe it just works?</title> 444<title>Maybe it just works?</title>
423 <body> 445<body>
446
447<p>
424 <p>If your system is plugged into an Ethernet network, it is very 448If your system is plugged into an Ethernet network, it is very
425 likely that your networking configuration has already been 449likely that your networking configuration has already been
426 set up automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included 450set up automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of
427 network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>, 451the many included network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>,
428 among others.</p> 452<c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>, among
453others.
454</p>
429 455
456<p>
430 <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should 457If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command
431 list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>: 458should list some internet interfaces besides lo, such as eth0:
432 </p> 459</p>
460
433<pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card"> 461<pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
434eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A 462eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
435 inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 463 inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
436 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link 464 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
437 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 465 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
438 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 466 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
439 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 467 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
440 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100 468 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
441 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb) 469 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
442 Interrupt:11 470 Interrupt:11 Base address:0xe800
471</pre>
472
473<p>
474You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in
475<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>) and a Web site of choice, just to make sure
476that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working
477correctly, etc..
443</pre> 478</p>
444 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>), 479
445 and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
446 resolution is working correctly, etc.
447 </p>
448<pre caption="Further Network Testing"> 480<pre caption="Further Network Testing">
449# <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c> 481# <i>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com</i>
450</pre> 482</pre>
483
484<p>
451 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p> 485Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this
452 </body> 486section.
487</p>
488
489</body>
453 </section> 490</section>
454 <section> 491<section>
455 <title> PPPoE configuration</title> 492<title>PPPoE configuration</title>
456 <body> 493<body>
494
495<p>
457 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has 496Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version)
458 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c> 497has made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided
459 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet 498<c>adsl-setup</c> script to configure your connection. You will be prompted
460 device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password, 499for the ethernet device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username
461 the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p> 500and password, the IPs of your DNS servers and if you need a basic firewall
501or not.
502</p>
503
462<pre caption="Configuring PPPoE"> 504<pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
463# <c> adsl-setup </c> 505# <i> adsl-setup </i>
464# <c> adsl-start </c> 506# <i> adsl-start </i>
465</pre> 507</pre>
508
509<p>
466 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed 510If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed your username
467 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or 511and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
468 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p> 512<path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and make sure you are using the right
469 </body> 513ethernet device.
514</p>
515
516</body>
470 </section> 517</section>
518
471 <section> 519<section>
472 <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title> 520<title>Automatic Network Configuration </title>
473 <body> 521<body>
474 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p> 522
523<p>
524The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured
525automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script:
526</p>
527
475<pre caption="Net-Setup Script"> 528<pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
476# <c>net-setup eth0</c> 529# <i>net-setup eth0</i>
477</pre> 530</pre>
531
532<p>
478 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p> 533Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is
479 </body> 534covered next.
535</p>
536
537</body>
480 </section> 538</section>
481 <section> 539<section>
482 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title> 540<title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
483 <body> 541<body>
542
543<p>
484 <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using 544Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
485 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p> 545DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below.
546</p>
547
486<pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP"> 548<pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
487# <c>dhcpcd eth0</c> 549# <i>dhcpcd eth0</i>
488</pre> 550</pre>
551
552<note>
489 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that, 553Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that, add a
490 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above. 554<c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
491 </note> 555</note>
556
557<p>
492 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors 558If you receive <e>dhcpConfig</e> warnings, don't panic; the errors are most
493 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p> 559likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.
494 </body> 560</p>
561
562</body>
495 </section> 563</section>
496 <section> 564<section>
497 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title> 565<title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
498 <body> 566<body>
567
568<p>
499 <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download 569We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download sources for
500 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed information is explained in the next table.</p> 570the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed
571information is explained in the next table.
572</p>
501 573
502<table> 574<table>
503<tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr> 575<tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
504<tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti>192.168.1.2</ti></tr> 576<tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti>192.168.1.2</ti></tr>
505<tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network.</ti><ti>192.168.1.255</ti></tr> 577<tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network</ti><ti>192.168.1.255</ti></tr>
506<tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti>255.255.255.0</ti></tr> 578<tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti>255.255.255.0</ti></tr>
507<tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti>192.168.1.1</ti></tr> 579<tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti>192.168.1.1</ti></tr>
508</table> 580</table>
509 581
510 <p>Type in the following commands, replacing 582<p>
511 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM 583Type in the following commands, replacing <c>$IFACE</c> with your network
512 with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK 584interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), <c>$IPNUM</c> with your IP address,
513 with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace 585<c>$BCAST</c> with your broadcast address and <c>$NMASK</c> with your network
514 $GTWAY with your default gateway. 586mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace <c>$GTWAY</c> with your default
587gateway.
515 </p> 588</p>
589
516<pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration"> 590<pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
517# <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c> 591# <i>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</i>
518# <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1 $IFACE</c> 592# <i>route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1 $IFACE</i>
593</pre>
594
595<p>
596Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file so that name
597resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address)
598will work. You can use <c>nano -w /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create
599<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use
600editor.
519</pre> 601</p>
520 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> 602
521 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather 603<p>
522 than just by IP address) will work. You can use <c>nano -w
523 /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>.
524 <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use editor.</p>
525 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p> 604Here is a template to follow for creating your <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
605file:
606</p>
607
526<pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template"> 608<pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
527domain mydomain.com 609domain mydomain.com
528nameserver 10.0.0.1 610nameserver 10.0.0.1
529nameserver 10.0.0.2 611nameserver 10.0.0.2
530</pre> 612</pre>
613
614<p>
531 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your 615Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
532 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p> 616primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.
533 </body> 617</p>
618
619</body>
534 </section> 620</section>
621
535 <section> 622<section>
536 <title>Proxy Configuration</title> 623<title>Proxy Configuration</title>
537 <body> 624<body>
625
626<p>
538 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy before 627If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy
539 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly. 628before you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy
629accordingly.
540 </p> 630</p>
631
541<pre caption="Setting a Proxy"> 632<pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
542<codenote>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</codenote> 633<comment>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</comment>
543# <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c> 634# <i>export http_proxy="machine.company.com:1234"</i>
544<codenote>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</codenote> 635<comment>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</comment>
545# <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c> 636# <i>export ftp_proxy="machine.company.com"</i>
546<codenote>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</codenote> 637<comment>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</comment>
547# <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c> 638# <i>export RSYNC_PROXY="machine.company.com"</i>
548</pre> 639</pre>
549 </body> 640
641</body>
550 </section> 642</section>
551 <section> 643
644<section>
552 <title>Networking is go!</title> 645<title>Networking is go!</title>
553 <body> 646<body>
647
648<p>
554 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included 649Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the
555 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p> 650included <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c>
556 </body> 651commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.
652</p>
653
654</body>
557 </section> 655</section>
558 </chapter> 656</chapter>
657
559 <chapter> 658<chapter>
560 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title> 659<title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
561 <section> 660<section>
562 <body> 661<body>
563 <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time. 662
564 You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p> 663<p>
664Now you need to set your system's date and time. You can do this using the
665<c>date</c> command.
666</p>
667
565<pre caption="Setting your system's date"> 668<pre caption="Setting your system's date">
566# <c>date</c> 669# <i>date</i>
567Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003 670Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
568<comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment> 671<comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
569# <c>date 022709042003</c> 672# <i>date 022709042003</i>
570<comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment> 673<comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
571</pre> 674</pre>
572 </body> 675
676</body>
573 </section> 677</section>
574 </chapter> 678</chapter>
679
575 <chapter> 680<chapter>
576 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title> 681<title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
577 <section> 682<section>
578 <title>Introduction to block devices</title> 683<title>Introduction to block devices</title>
579 <body> 684<body>
580<p> 685
581In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
582Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
583filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
584install.
585</p> 686<p>
687In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo
688Linux and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block
689devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
690filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
691and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
692</p>
693
586<p> 694<p>
587To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is 695To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
588probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system: 696probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
589</p> 697</p>
698
590<pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system"> 699<pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
591/dev/hda 700/dev/hda
592</pre> 701</pre>
593 702
594<p> 703<p>
597 706
598<pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system"> 707<pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
599/dev/sda 708/dev/sda
600</pre> 709</pre>
601 710
711<p>
602<p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk. 712The block devices above represent an <e>abstract</e> interface to the disk.
603User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without 713User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
604worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The 714worrying about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
605program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous, 715program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
606randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p> 716randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
717</p>
718
607</body> 719</body>
608</section> 720</section>
609<section> 721<section>
610<title>Partitions and fdisk</title> 722<title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
611<body> 723<body>
724
725<p>
612<p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called 726Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
613<c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular 727<c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc.), specifying a particular
614block device as a command-line argument. </p> 728block device as a command-line argument.
729</p>
615 730
731<p>
616<p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block 732However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
617device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or 733device (one that represents the <e>entire</e> disk) like <path>/dev/hda</path>
618<c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in 734or <path>/dev/sda</path> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never
619practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more 735done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller,
620manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a 736more manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created
621tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table 737using a tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the
622that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split 738partition table that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines
623up the full disk. </p> 739exactly how to split up the full disk.
740</p>
624 741
742<p>
625<p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>, 743We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
626specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p> 744specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument:
745</p>
627 746
747<note>
628<note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>, 748Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
629<c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> because it's 749<c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> because it's
630more powerful and well known in the Unix/Linux world.</note> 750more powerful and well known in the Unix/Linux world.
751</note>
631 752
632<pre caption="Starting up fdisk"> 753<pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
633# fdisk /dev/hda 754# <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
634</pre> 755</pre>
756
635<p> 757<p>
636or 758or
637</p> 759</p>
760
638<pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda"> 761<pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
639# fdisk /dev/sda 762# <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
640</pre> 763</pre>
641 764
642<impo> 765<impo>
643<b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's 766Note that you should <e>not</e> save or make any changes to a disk's
644partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or 767partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
645contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be 768contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
646lost.</b> 769lost.
647</impo> 770</impo>
648 771
649<p> 772<p>
650Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this: 773Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
651</p> 774</p>
652 775
653<pre caption="The fdisk prompt"> 776<pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
654Command (m for help): 777Command (m for help):
655</pre> 778</pre>
656 779
657
658<p> 780<p>
659Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration: 781Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
660</p> 782</p>
661 783
662<pre caption="An example partition configuration"> 784<pre caption="An example partition configuration">
663Command (m for help): p 785Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
664 786
665Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders 787Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
666Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes 788Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
667 789
668Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System 790Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
677/dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux 799/dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
678 800
679Command (m for help): 801Command (m for help):
680</pre> 802</pre>
681 803
804<p>
682<p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each 805This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
683with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition 806with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
684(listed as "Linux swap"). </p> 807(listed as "Linux swap").
808</p>
685 809
686<p> 810<p>
687Notice the name of the corresponding partition block 811Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
688devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to 812devices on the left hand side, starting with <path>/dev/hda1</path> and going
689<c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only 813up to <path>/dev/hda9</path>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning
690allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was 814software only allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary"
691too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was 815partitions). This was too limiting, so a workaround called <e>extended
692created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and 816partitioning</e> was created. An extended partition is very similar to a
693counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended 817primary partition and counts towards the primary partition limit of four.
694partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside 818However, extended partitions can hold any number of so-called <e>logical</e>
695them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit. 819partitions inside them, providing an effective means of working around the
696</p> 820four partition limit.
697
698<p> 821</p>
822
823<p>
699All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1 824All partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> and higher are logical partitions.
700through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p> 825The numbers 1 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions.
826</p>
701 827
702<p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions. 828<p>
703<c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions 829So, In our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> through <path>/dev/hda3</path> are
704<c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually 830primary partitions. <path>/dev/hda4</path> is an extended partition that
831contains logical partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
832<path>/dev/hda9</path>. You would never actually <e>use</e>
705<i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply 833<path>/dev/hda4</path> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
706acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p> 834acts as a container for partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
835<path>/dev/hda9</path>.
836</p>
707 837
838<p>
708<p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition 839Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
709type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the 840type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
710partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for 841partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
711partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct 842partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
712partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition 843partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
713type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the 844type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
714<c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type 845<c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
715setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time. 846setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
716</p> 847</p>
848
717</body> 849</body>
718</section> 850</section>
851
719<section> 852<section>
720<title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title> 853<title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
721<body> 854<body>
722 855
856<p>
723<p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is 857Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
724done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk 858done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
725partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the 859partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
726process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will 860process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
727look like this: </p> 861look like this:
862</p>
728 863
729<pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps"> 864<pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
730Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes 865Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
731240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders 866240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
732Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes 867Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
733 868
734 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System 869Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
735/dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux 870/dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
736/dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap 871/dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
737/dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux 872/dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
738 873
739Command (m for help): 874Command (m for help):
740</pre> 875</pre>
741 876
877<p>
742<p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions. 878In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
743The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small 879The first one (<path>/dev/hda1</path>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
744partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all 880partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
745the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you 881the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
746will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives 882will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
747us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal 883us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
748day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e> 884day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
749for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will 885for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
750likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p> 886likely end up being <path>/dev/sda1</path>.
887</p>
751 888
889<p>
752<p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for 890It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
753the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily 891the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
754required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot 892required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
755loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk 893loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
756cylinder 1024. 894cylinder 1024.
757</p> 895</p>
758 896
897<p>
759<p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The 898The second partition (<path>/dev/hda2</path>) is used to for swap space. The
760kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition, 899kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
761relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB. 900relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
762If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up 901If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
763being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p> 902being called <path>/dev/sda2</path>.
903</p>
764 904
905<p>
765<p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest 906The third partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path>) is quite large and takes up the
766of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to 907rest of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be
767store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system, 908used to store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI
768this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p> 909system, this partition would likely end up being <path>/dev/sda3</path>.
910</p>
769 911
770 912<p>
771<p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the 913Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
772suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo 914suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
773Linux:</p> 915Linux:
916</p>
774 917
775<table> 918<table>
776 <tr> 919<tr>
777 <th>Partition</th> 920 <th>Partition</th>
778 <th>Size</th> 921 <th>Size</th>
779 <th>Type</th> 922 <th>Type</th>
780 <th>example device</th> 923 <th>example device</th>
781 </tr> 924</tr>
782 <tr> 925<tr>
783 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti> 926 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
784 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti> 927 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
785 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti> 928 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
786 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti> 929 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
787 </tr> 930</tr>
788 <tr> 931<tr>
789 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti> 932 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
790 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one and two times the size of the physical RAM 933 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one and two times the size of the physical RAM in your system</ti>
791 in your system.</ti>
792 <ti>Linux swap</ti> 934 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
793 <ti>/dev/hda2</ti> 935 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
794 </tr> 936</tr>
795 <tr> 937<tr>
796 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti> 938 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc.)</ti>
797 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti> 939 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
798 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti> 940 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
799 <ti>/dev/hda3</ti> 941 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
800 </tr> 942</tr>
801</table> 943</table>
802 944
945<p>
803<p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First, 946OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
804enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>, 947enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
805depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your 948depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
806current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need 949current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
807to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all 950to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
808existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p> 951existing data on your disk will be erased</b>.
952</p>
809 953
954<impo>
810<impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk 955Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
811to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it 956to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
812is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you 957is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
813<b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data 958<b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
814from the wrong drive.</impo> 959from the wrong drive.
960</impo>
815 961
962<p>
816<p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c> 963Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
817and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like 964and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
818to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p> 965to delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/hda1</path>, you would type:
966</p>
819 967
820<pre caption="Deleting a partition"> 968<pre caption="Deleting a partition">
821Command (m for help): d 969Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
822Partition number (1-4): 1 970Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
823</pre> 971</pre>
824 972
973<p>
825<p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if 974The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
826you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been 975you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
827saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes, 976saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
828type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be 977type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
829deleted.</p> 978deleted.
979</p>
980
981<p>
830<p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your 982Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
831system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type 983system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
832<c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up 984<c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
833with a partition table with nothing in it:</p> 985with a partition table with nothing in it:
986</p>
834 987
835<pre caption="An empty partition table"> 988<pre caption="An empty partition table">
836Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes 989Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
837240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders 990240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
838Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes 991Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
839 992
840 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System 993Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
841 994
842Command (m for help): 995Command (m for help):
843</pre> 996</pre>
844 997
998<p>
845<p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a 999Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
846boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then 1000boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
847<c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to 1001<c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
848create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit 1002create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
849enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a 1003enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
850partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p> 1004partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:
1005</p>
851 1006
852<note> 1007<note>
853Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings 1008Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
854require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefore, if you are using a journaled 1009require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefore, if you are using a journaled
855filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted 1010filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
856for the last cylinder. 1011for the last cylinder.
857</note> 1012</note>
858 1013
859<pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition"> 1014<pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
860Command (m for help): n 1015Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
861Command action 1016Command action
862 e extended 1017e extended
863 p primary partition (1-4) 1018p primary partition (1-4)
864p 1019<i>p</i>
865Partition number (1-4): 1 1020Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
866First cylinder (1-3876, default 1): 1021First cylinder (1-3876, default 1): <comment>(Hit Enter)</comment>
867Using default value 1 1022Using default value 1
868Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +32M 1023Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): <i>+32M</i>
869</pre> 1024</pre>
870 1025
1026<p>
871<p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p> 1027Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition
1028printout:
1029</p>
872 1030
873<pre caption="Our first partition has been created"> 1031<pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
874Command (m for help): p 1032Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
875 1033
876Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes 1034Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
877240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders 1035240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
878Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes 1036Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
879 1037
880 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System 1038Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
881/dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux 1039/dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
882</pre> 1040</pre>
883 1041
1042<p>
884<p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a 1043Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
885new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then 1044new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition.
886type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case. 1045Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
887When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, 1046<path>/dev/hda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
888type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type 1047hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create
1048a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the
889<c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just 1049partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just created and then
890created, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition 1050type in <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing
891type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display 1051these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks
892a partition table that looks similar to this:</p> 1052similar to this:
1053</p>
893 1054
894<pre caption="Our swap partition has been created"> 1055<pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
895Command (m for help): p 1056Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
896 1057
897Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes 1058Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
898240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders 1059240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
899Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes 1060Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
900 1061
901 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System 1062Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
902/dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux 1063/dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
903/dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap 1064/dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
904</pre> 1065</pre>
905 1066
1067<p>
906<p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to 1068Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
907create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary 1069create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
908partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition, 1070partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
909<c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. 1071<path>/dev/hda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
910When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes 1072hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a
911up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps, 1073partition that takes up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After
912typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to 1074completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that
913this:</p> 1075looks similar to this:
1076</p>
914 1077
915<pre caption="Our root partition has been created"> 1078<pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
916Command (m for help): p 1079Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
917 1080
918Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes 1081Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
919240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders 1082240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
920Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes 1083Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
921 1084
922 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System 1085Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
923/dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux 1086/dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
924/dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap 1087/dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
925/dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux 1088/dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
926</pre> 1089</pre>
927 1090
928<p> 1091<p>
929Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write 1092Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
930our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type 1093our changes to disk. To tag <path>/dev/hda1</path> as a "bootable" partition,
931<c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you 1094type <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number.
932type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot" 1095If you type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <path>/dev/hda1</path> has a
933column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit 1096<c>*</c> in the "Boot" column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do
934enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux 1097this, type <c>w</c> and hit enter. Your disk partitions are now properly
935install. 1098configured for a Gentoo Linux install.
936</p> 1099</p>
937 1100
1101<note>
938<note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to 1102If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
939allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note> 1103allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.
1104</note>
1105
940</body> 1106</body>
941</section> 1107</section>
1108
942<section> 1109<section>
943<title>Creating filesystems</title> 1110<title>Creating filesystems</title>
944<body> 1111<body>
1112
1113<p>
945<p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on 1114Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
946the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data. 1115the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store
947We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage. 1116data. We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
1117</p>
1118
948</p> 1119<p>
949
950<p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has 1120Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
951its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently, 1121its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics.
952we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p> 1122Currently, we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS
1123filesystems.
1124</p>
953 1125
1126<p>
954<p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata 1127ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
955journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can 1128journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
956be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation 1129be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
957<i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly 1130<e>journaled</e> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
958and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. 1131and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
959Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your 1132Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
960filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p> 1133filesystem happens to be in an <e>inconsistent</e> state.
1134</p>
961 1135
1136<p>
962<p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata 1137ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
963journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes 1138journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
964like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable 1139like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
965filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions. 1140filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
966Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal 1141Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
967design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for 1142design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
968very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large 1143very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
969files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within 1144files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
970its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p> 1145its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.
1146</p>
971 1147
1148<p>
972<p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall 1149ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
973performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small 1150performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
974files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales 1151files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
975extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is 1152extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
976now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose 1153now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
977filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the 1154filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
978use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of 1155use of many small files, very large files and directories containing tens of
979thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all 1156thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
980non-boot partitions.</p> 1157non-boot partitions.
1158</p>
981 1159
1160<p>
982<p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under 1161XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
983Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust 1162Gentoo Linux's <c>xfs-sources</c> kernel. It comes with a robust
984feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this 1163feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
985filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and 1164filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
986a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data 1165a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
987in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions 1166in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
988when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good 1167when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
989deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p> 1168deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
1169</p>
990 1170
1171<p>
991<p>JFS is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently 1172JFS is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
992become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to 1173become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
993comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this 1174comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
994point.</p> 1175point.
1176</p>
995 1177
1178<p>
996<p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If 1179If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
997you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with 1180you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
998journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature, 1181journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
999refined and recommended for general use.</p> 1182refined and recommended for general use.
1000
1001<!-- Corner case, confusing
1002 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
1003 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
1004 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
1005 a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
1006 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
1007 This can be done as follows:
1008 </p>
1009<pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
1010# <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
1011<comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
1012</pre> 1183</p>
1013 <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
1014 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
1015 If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
1016 </warn>
1017-->
1018 1184
1185<p>
1019<p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize 1186Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
1020all our partitions for use:</p> 1187all our partitions for use:
1188</p>
1021 1189
1022<pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)"> 1190<pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
1023# mke2fs -j /dev/hda1 1191# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda1</i>
1024# mkswap /dev/hda2 1192# <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1025# mkreiserfs /dev/hda3 1193# <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1026</pre> 1194</pre>
1027 1195
1196<p>
1028<p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a 1197We choose ext3 for our <path>/dev/hda1</path> boot partition because it is a
1029robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used 1198robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
1030<c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious 1199<c>mkswap</c> for our <path>/dev/hda2</path> swap partition -- the choice is
1031here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS, 1200obvious here. And for our main root filesystem on <path>/dev/hda3</path> we
1032since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now, 1201choose ReiserFS, since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent
1033go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p> 1202performance. Now, go ahead and initialize your partitions.
1203</p>
1034 1204
1205<p>
1035<p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available 1206For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
1036during the installation process:</p> 1207during the installation process:
1208</p>
1037 1209
1210<p>
1038 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p> 1211<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
1212</p>
1213
1039<pre caption="Initializing Swap"> 1214<pre caption="Initializing Swap">
1040# <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c> 1215# <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1041</pre> 1216</pre>
1217
1218<p>
1042<p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p> 1219You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:
1220</p>
1221
1043<pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem"> 1222<pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
1044# <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i> 1223# <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1045</pre> 1224</pre>
1225
1226<p>
1046<p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using 1227If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
1047 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p> 1228<c>mke2fs -j</c>:
1229</p>
1230
1048<pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem"> 1231<pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
1049# <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c> 1232# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i>
1050</pre> 1233</pre>
1234
1235<note>
1051 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at 1236You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
1052 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note> 1237<uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
1238</note>
1239
1240<p>
1053 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p> 1241To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:
1242</p>
1243
1054<pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem"> 1244<pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
1055# <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c> 1245# <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1056</pre> 1246</pre>
1247
1248<p>
1057 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p> 1249To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:
1250</p>
1251
1058<pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem"> 1252<pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
1059# <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c> 1253# <i>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</i>
1060</pre> 1254</pre>
1255
1256<note>
1061 <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the 1257You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c>
1062 <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>. 1258command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>. The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command
1063 The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups. 1259will lower the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at
1064 XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your 1260least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition, so, for example, if
1065 partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need 1261you have a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5. The
1066 a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the 1262<c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing
1067 journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note> 1263performance.
1264</note>
1068 1265
1266<p>
1069 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p> 1267To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:
1268</p>
1269
1070<pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem"> 1270<pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
1071# <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c> 1271# <i>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</i>
1072</pre> 1272</pre>
1073 </body> 1273
1274</body>
1074 </section> 1275</section>
1075 </chapter> 1276</chapter>
1277
1076 <chapter> 1278<chapter>
1077 <title>Mount Partitions</title> 1279<title>Mount Partitions</title>
1078 <section> 1280<section>
1079 <body> 1281<body>
1282
1283<p>
1080 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it 1284Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need
1081 provides later: 1285the additional virtual memory that it provides later:
1082 </p> 1286</p>
1287
1083<pre caption="Activating Swap"> 1288<pre caption="Activating Swap">
1084# <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c> 1289# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
1085</pre> 1290</pre>
1086 1291
1292<p>
1087 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points, 1293Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount point,
1088 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are 1294and we will mount our filesystems to the mount points. Once our boot and
1089 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems. 1295root filesystems are mounted, any files we copy or create inside
1296<path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
1090 Note that if you are setting up Gentoo 1297Note that if you are setting up Gentoo Linux with separate
1091 Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to 1298<path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1092 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively. 1299<path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1093 </p> 1300</p>
1094 1301
1302<impo>
1095 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it 1303If your <path>/boot</path> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS,
1096 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure 1304be sure to mount it with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly
1097 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too. 1305installed. Make sure that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new
1306<path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1098 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS, then the <c>-o notail</c> 1307We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS,
1099 is not needed. It's always safe to specify the <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're 1308then the <c>-o notail</c> is not needed. It's always safe to specify the
1100 not sure what to do. 1309<c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're not sure what to do.
1101 </impo> 1310</impo>
1102 1311
1103<pre caption="Creating Mount Points"> 1312<pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1104# <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c> 1313# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
1105# <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c> 1314# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1106# <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c> 1315# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1107</pre> 1316</pre>
1108 1317
1318<impo>
1109 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using 1319If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1110 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo> 1320<c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2</c>
1111 </body> 1321</impo>
1322
1323</body>
1112 </section> 1324</section>
1113 </chapter> 1325</chapter>
1326
1327
1114 <chapter> 1328<chapter>
1115 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title> 1329<title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1116 <section> 1330<section>
1117 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title> 1331<title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1118 <body> 1332<body>
1119 1333
1120<p> 1334<p>
1121Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a 1335Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1122basis for the install if you haven't already. 1336basis for the install if you haven't already. The stages on the Live CD are
1123The stages on the Live CD are
1124in <path>/mnt/cdrom/stages/</path>, and you can type <c>ls 1337in <path>/mnt/cdrom/stages/</path> and you can type <c>ls
1125/mnt/cdrom/stages/</c> 1338/mnt/cdrom/stages/</c> to see what's available on your CD.
1126to see what's available on your CD.</p> 1339</p>
1127 1340
1341<p>
1128<p><b>GRP users</b> should use the <path>stage3-xx-yy.tar.bz2</path> tarball.</p> 1342<b>GRP users</b> should use the <path>stage3-xx-yy.tar.bz2</path> tarball.
1343</p>
1129 1344
1345<p>
1130<p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is 1346If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1131<i>not</i> on your CD (which will likely be the case if you're using our 1347<e>not</e> on your CD (which will likely be the case if you're using our
1132"basic" Live CD), this is still possible, but you'll need to download the 1348"basic" Live CD), this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1133stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage 1349stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1134tarball you want to use (which most users will have), then proceed to the 1350tarball you want to use (which most users will have), then proceed to the
1135"Extracting the stage tarball" section.</p> 1351"Extracting the stage tarball" section.
1352</p>
1136 1353
1137<pre caption="Downloading Required Stages"> 1354<pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1138# <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c> 1355# <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1139<comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment> 1356<comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1140# <c>lynx http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</c> 1357# <i>lynx http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</i>
1141<comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory 1358<comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1142Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download 1359Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1143Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download 1360Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1144Save the file and quit the browser 1361Save the file and quit the browser
1145 1362
1146<b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment> 1363<b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1147# <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c> 1364# <i>wget </i><comment>(insert URL to the required stage tarball here)</comment>
1148</pre> 1365</pre>
1149 </body> 1366
1367</body>
1150 </section> 1368</section>
1151 <section> 1369<section>
1152 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title> 1370<title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1153 <body> 1371<body>
1154 1372
1373<p>
1155<p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to 1374Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1156<path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage 1375<path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1157tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a 1376tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1158stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball. 1377stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1159Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p> 1378Unpack the stage tarball as follows:
1379</p>
1160 1380
1381<impo>
1161<impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will 1382Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1162cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo> 1383cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.
1384</impo>
1163 1385
1164<pre caption="Unpacking the Stages"> 1386<pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1165# <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c> 1387# <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1166<comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment> 1388<comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1167<comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/" 1389<comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1168instead of "/mnt/cdrom/stages/".</comment> 1390instead of "/mnt/cdrom/stages/".</comment>
1169# <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c> 1391# <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
1170</pre> 1392</pre>
1171 1393
1394<p>
1172<p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing 1395If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now
1173<c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p> 1396delete it by typing <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.
1397</p>
1398
1174</body> 1399</body>
1175</section> 1400</section>
1401
1176<section> 1402<section>
1177<title>GRP package/snapshot steps</title> 1403<title>GRP package/snapshot steps</title>
1178<body> 1404<body>
1405
1406<impo>
1179<impo>The following instructions are for GRP users only.</impo> 1407The following instructions are for GRP users only.
1408</impo>
1409
1410<p>
1180<p><b>GRP Users</b>: There is a Portage snapshot on the Live CD. You will 1411<b>GRP Users</b>: There is a Portage snapshot on the Live CD. You will
1181need to use this snapshot so that you can skip the <c>emerge sync</c> step 1412need to use this snapshot so that you can skip the <c>emerge sync</c> step
1182later in this document, since <c>emerge sync</c> requires a network 1413later in this document, since <c>emerge sync</c> requires a network
1183connection. Untar this snapshot as follows:</p> 1414connection. Untar this snapshot as follows:
1415</p>
1416
1184<pre caption="Using Portage snapshot"> 1417<pre caption="Using Portage snapshot">
1185<comment>Replace yyyymmdd with the datestamp in the filename.</comment> 1418<comment>Replace yyyymmdd with the datestamp in the filename.</comment>
1186# <c>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-yyyymmdd.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</c> 1419# <i>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-yyyymmdd.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
1187</pre> 1420</pre>
1421
1422<p>
1188<p>This will extract a snapshot of the Portage tree to your fresh Gentoo 1423This will extract a snapshot of the Portage tree to your fresh Gentoo
1189install. Now you won't need to connect to the Internet and use <c>emerge 1424install. Now you won't need to connect to the Internet and use <c>emerge
1190sync</c> to download a Portage tree. Now, copy distfiles and packages 1425sync</c> to download a Portage tree. Now, copy distfiles and packages
1191from the Live CD into place:</p> 1426from the Live CD into place:
1427</p>
1192 1428
1193<pre caption="Copying GRP files"> 1429<pre caption="Copying GRP files">
1194# <c>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</c> 1430# <i>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
1195# <c>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/ /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages/</c> 1431# <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/ /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages/</i>
1196</pre> 1432</pre>
1197 1433
1434<p>
1198<p>All relevant files are now in place for using GRP. You should now have 1435All relevant files are now in place for using GRP. You should now have
1199everything copied over and unpacked that you'll need to install Gentoo Linux 1436everything copied over and unpacked that you'll need to install Gentoo Linux
1200-- even without a network connection.</p> 1437-- even without a network connection.
1438</p>
1201 1439
1202</body> 1440</body>
1203</section> 1441</section>
1442
1204<section> 1443<section>
1205<title>Entering the chroot</title> 1444<title>Entering the chroot</title>
1206<body> 1445<body>
1446
1207<p> 1447<p>
1208Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new 1448Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to
1209Gentoo Linux system. 1449"enter" the new Gentoo Linux system:
1210</p> 1450</p>
1211 1451
1212<note> 1452<note>
1213You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that 1453You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1214<path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are 1454<path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1215going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document, which will resolve 1455going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document, which will resolve
1216the problem. 1456the problem.
1217</note> 1457</note>
1218 1458
1219<pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment"> 1459<pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1220# <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c> 1460# <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
1221# <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c> 1461# <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
1222# <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c> 1462# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
1223# <c>env-update</c> 1463# <i>env-update</i>
1224Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache... 1464Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1225# <c>source /etc/profile</c> 1465# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
1226<comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries).</comment> 1466<comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries)</comment>
1467</pre>
1468
1469<p>
1470After you execute these commands, you will be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux
1471environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. We can perform the rest of the
1472installation process inside the chroot.
1227</pre> 1473</p>
1228 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. 1474
1229 We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot. 1475</body>
1230 </p>
1231 </body>
1232 </section> 1476</section>
1233 </chapter> 1477</chapter>
1478
1234 <chapter> 1479<chapter>
1235 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title> 1480<title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1236 <section> 1481<section>
1237 <body> 1482<body>
1238 1483
1239<!-- This is not yet implemented. Uncomment when it is! 1484<impo>
1240
1241<p>In order to maximize the downloadspeed, you should now select rsync- and distfiles mirrors. To simplify this task, we have a tool called <c>mirrorselect</c>. Issue the following two commands:</p>
1242
1243<pre caption="Selecting a mirror">
1244<comment>First we have mirrorselect select 5 close mirrors for us.</comment>
1245# <i>mirrorselect -a -s5</i>
1246<comment>Now we select an rsync-mirror ourselves:</comment>
1247# <i>mirrorselect -i -r</i>
1248</pre>
1249
1250-->
1251
1252
1253
1254<impo>If you doing a GRP install you can ignore the following section on 1485If you are doing a GRP install then you can ignore the following section on
1255<c>emerge sync</c>.</impo> 1486<c>emerge sync</c>.
1487</impo>
1256 1488
1489<p>
1257<p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage 1490Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage
1258to download the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree from the 1491to download the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree from the
1259Internet. If you extracted a Portage tree snapshot from "CD 1" earlier, you 1492Internet. If you extracted a Portage tree snapshot from <e>CD 1</e> earlier,
1260can safely skip this step. The Portage tree contains all the scripts 1493you can safely skip this step. The Portage tree contains all the scripts
1261(called ebuilds) used to build every package under Gentoo Linux. Currently, 1494(called ebuilds) used to build every package under Gentoo Linux. Currently,
1262we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c> 1495we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1263completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in 1496completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in
1264<path>/usr/portage</path>.</p> 1497<path>/usr/portage</path>:
1498</p>
1265 1499
1266<pre caption="Updating Using sync"> 1500<pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1267# <c>emerge sync</c> 1501# <i>emerge sync</i>
1268</pre> 1502</pre>
1269 1503
1270 </body> 1504</body>
1271 </section> 1505</section>
1272 </chapter> 1506</chapter>
1507
1273 <chapter> 1508<chapter>
1274 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title> 1509<title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1275 <section> 1510<section>
1276 <body> 1511<body>
1277 1512
1513<p>
1278<p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to 1514Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1279customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your 1515customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1280Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any 1516Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1281programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In 1517programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1282this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional 1518this file, you should set your USE flags, which specify optional
1283functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available; 1519functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1284generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are 1520generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset USE variable) are
1285fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri 1521fine. More information on USE flags can be found <uri
1286link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list 1522link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1287of current USE flags can be found <uri 1523of current USE flags can be found <uri
1288link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p> 1524link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
1525</p>
1289 1526
1527<p>
1290<p>If you are starting from a stage1 tarball, You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and 1528If you are starting from a stage1 tarball, You also should set appropriate
1291<c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating 1529CHOST, CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings for the kind of system that you are
1292(commented examples can be found further down in the file). If you are using 1530creating (commented examples can be found further down in the file). If you
1293a stage2 or stage3 tarball, these settings will already be configured 1531are using a stage2 or stage3 tarball, these settings will already be configured
1294optimally and should not require any modification.</p> 1532optimally and should not require any modification.
1533</p>
1295 1534
1296<impo><b>Advanced users:</b> The <c>CFLAGS</c> and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings 1535<impo>
1297settings 1536<b>Advanced users:</b> The CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings are used to tell the
1298are used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that 1537C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that is generated on your system.
1299is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors 1538It is common for users with Athlon XP processors to specify a
1300to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings 1539"-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings so that all
1301so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and 1540packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and performance
1302performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path> 1541characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1303file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS. 1542file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
1304</impo> 1543</impo>
1305 1544
1306<!-- needs qa 1545<!-- needs qa
1546<note>
1307<note><b>Advanced users:</b>If you are building from a stage1 and don't want 1547<b>Advanced users:</b>If you are building from a stage1 and don't want
1308to manually configure CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, you can use the <c>genflags</c> 1548to manually configure CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, you can use the <c>genflags</c>
1309utility, which will try to guess accurate flags for your CPU architecture. 1549utility, which will try to guess accurate flags for your CPU architecture.
1310Simply type <c>emerge -O genflags</c> and then execute 1550Simply type <c>emerge -O genflags</c> and then execute
1311<c>info2flags</c>. <c>info2flags</c> will suggest CHOST, CFLAGS, and 1551<c>info2flags</c>. <c>info2flags</c> will suggest CHOST, CFLAGS and
1312CXXFLAGS settings, which you can then add to 1552CXXFLAGS settings, which you can then add to
1313<path>/etc/make.conf</path>.</note> 1553<path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
1554</note>
1314--> 1555-->
1315 1556
1557<p>
1316<p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a 1558If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1317firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>, 1559firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1318a simple visual editor. 1560using <c>nano</c>, a simple visual editor:
1319</p> 1561</p>
1562
1320<pre caption="Setting make.conf Options"> 1563<pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1321# <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> 1564# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
1322</pre> 1565</pre>
1323 <note> 1566
1567<note>
1324 <b>Advanced users:</b> People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at 1568<b>Advanced users:</b> People who need to substantially customize the build
1325 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and 1569process should take a look at the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This
1326 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should 1570file comprises gentoo defaults and should never be touched. If the defaults
1327 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path> 1571do not suffice, then new values should be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>,
1328 <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're 1572as entries in <path>make.conf</path> <e>override</e> the entries
1573in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're interested in customizing USE
1329 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. 1574settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1330 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c> 1575If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate
1331 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default 1576<c>USE="-foo"</c> in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c>
1332 in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. 1577USE setting enabled by default in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or
1578<path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1333 </note> 1579</note>
1580
1581<warn>
1334 <warn>Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your <c>USE</c> variables until after stage1.</warn> 1582Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your USE variables until after
1335 </body> 1583stage1.
1584</warn>
1585
1586</body>
1336 </section> 1587</section>
1337 </chapter> 1588</chapter>
1589
1338 <chapter> 1590<chapter>
1339 <title>Starting from Stage1</title> 1591<title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1340 <section> 1592<section>
1341 <body> 1593<body>
1342 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note> 1594
1595<note>
1596If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.
1597</note>
1598
1599<p>
1343 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball, 1600The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you
1344 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date 1601have picked this tarball, you are most likely looking to have an
1345 system. Have fun! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result 1602uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun! Installing from a stage1
1346 is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs. 1603takes a lot of time, but the result is a system that has been optimized
1604from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1347 </p> 1605</p>
1606
1607<p>
1348 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on 1608Now, it is time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes
1349 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system. 1609about two hours on a 1200MHz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the GNU
1350During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap 1610C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start
1351as follows:</p> 1611the bootstrap as follows:
1612</p>
1613
1352<pre caption="Bootstrapping"> 1614<pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1353# <c>cd /usr/portage</c> 1615# <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
1354# <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c> 1616# <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
1617</pre>
1618
1619<p>
1620The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
1355</pre> 1621</p>
1356 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.</p> 1622
1357 <note><c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related files in one go for later compilation. <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more information.</note> 1623<note>
1358 <note> 1624<c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up
1625users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related
1626files in one go for later compilation. See <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more
1627information.
1628</note>
1629
1630<note>
1359 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often 1631Portage by default uses <path>/var/tmp</path> during package building,
1360 using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to 1632often using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would
1361 change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e> 1633like to change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new
1362 starting the bootstrap process, as follows: 1634PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e> starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1363 </note>
1364<pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path"> 1635<pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1365# <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c> 1636# <i>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</i>
1366</pre> 1637</pre>
1638</note>
1639
1640<p>
1367 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>, 1641<c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1368 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c> 1642and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c> after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to
1369 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while. 1643say, this process takes a while. Once this process completes, your system
1370 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system, 1644will be equivalent to a "stage2" system, which means you can now move on to
1371 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions. 1645the stage2 instructions.
1372 </p> 1646</p>
1373 </body> 1647
1648</body>
1374 </section> 1649</section>
1375 </chapter> 1650</chapter>
1651
1376 <chapter> 1652<chapter>
1377 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title> 1653<title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1378 <section> 1654<section>
1379 <body> 1655<body>
1380 1656
1657<note>
1381 <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If 1658This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1382 this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3), then skip this section. 1659this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3), then skip this section.
1383 </note> 1660</note>
1384 1661
1385 <warn> 1662<warn>
1386 If you start from stage2, don't change the CHOST variable in 1663If you start from stage2, don't change the CHOST variable in
1387 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so results in strange and 1664<path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so results in strange and
1388 broad compilation failures. We are working on fixing this 1665broad compilation failures.
1389 of course. 1666</warn>
1390 </warn>
1391 1667
1668<p>
1392 <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have 1669The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you
1393 to do is install the rest of the system. 1670have to do is install the rest of the system:
1394 </p> 1671</p>
1672
1673<note>
1395 <note>If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure 1674If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1396 that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c> 1675that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1397 option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's 1676option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1398 safe to skip this suggestion.</note> 1677safe to skip this suggestion.
1678</note>
1399 1679
1400<pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System"> 1680<pre caption="Installing the rest of the system">
1401# <c>emerge -p system</c> 1681# <i>emerge -p system</i>
1402<comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment> 1682<comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1403# <c>emerge system</c> 1683# <i>emerge system</i>
1684</pre>
1685
1686<p>
1687It is going to take a while to finish building the entire base system.
1688Your reward is that it will be thoroughly optimized for your system.
1689The drawback is that you have to find a way to keep yourself occupied for
1690some time to come. The author suggests "Star Wars - Super Bombad Racing"
1691for the PS2.
1404</pre> 1692</p>
1405 <p>It is going to take a while 1693
1406 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be 1694<p>
1407 thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1408 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1409 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1410 </p>
1411 <p>
1412 Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting 1695Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1413 your time zone" section. 1696your time zone" section.
1414 </p> 1697</p>
1415 </body> 1698
1699</body>
1416 </section> 1700</section>
1417 </chapter> 1701</chapter>
1702
1703
1418 <chapter> 1704<chapter>
1419 <title>Starting from Stage3</title> 1705<title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1420 <section> 1706<section>
1421 <body> 1707<body>
1708
1709<note>
1422 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started 1710This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3 and not for those who
1423 with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section. GRP users should skip ahead to the next section.</note> 1711have started with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section. GRP users
1712should skip ahead to the next section.
1713</note>
1714
1715<warn>
1716Remember, if you start from stage3, don't change the CHOST variable in
1717<path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so can result in compilation failures.
1718</warn>
1719
1720<p>
1721The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system,
1722so no building is required.
1723</p>
1724
1725<note>
1726<b>Advanced users:</b> However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it
1727may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern for you, you can
1728automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date
1729versions of all system packages by typing <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*
1730/etc/make.conf" emerge -u system</c> (this requires a network connection).
1731Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1732otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit
1733from the very latest Gentoo updates and fixes. In any case, feel free to skip
1734these steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1735</note>
1424 1736
1425 <warn> 1737</body>
1426 Remember, if you start from stage3, don't change the CHOST variable in
1427 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so can result in compilation failures.
1428 </warn>
1429
1430 <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system,
1431 so no building is required.</p>
1432
1433 <note><b>Advanced users:</b>
1434 However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1435 for you, you can automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1436 by typing <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-* /etc/make.conf" emerge -u
1437 system</c> (this requires a network connection). Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1438 otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1439 Gentoo updates and fixes.
1440 In any case, feel free to skip these
1441 steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1442 </note>
1443
1444 </body>
1445 </section> 1738</section>
1446 </chapter> 1739</chapter>
1740
1741
1447 <chapter> 1742<chapter>
1448 <title>Setting your time zone</title> 1743<title>Setting your time zone</title>
1449 <section> 1744<section>
1450 <body> 1745<body>
1746
1747<p>
1451 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p> 1748Now you need to set your time zone.
1749</p>
1750
1751<p>
1452 <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time) 1752Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1453 in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to 1753in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1454 /etc/localtime by typing:</p> 1754<path>/etc/localtime</path> by typing:
1755</p>
1756
1455<pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone"> 1757<pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1456# <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c> 1758# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</i>
1457</pre> 1759</pre>
1458 </body> 1760
1761</body>
1459 </section> 1762</section>
1460 </chapter> 1763</chapter>
1764
1461 <chapter> 1765<chapter>
1462 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title> 1766<title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1463 <section> 1767<section>
1464 <body> 1768<body>
1465 <impo> 1769
1770<impo>
1466 To edit files, remember to use <c>nano -w "filename"</c>. 1771To edit files, remember to use <c>nano -w "filename"</c>.
1467 </impo> 1772</impo>
1773
1774<p>
1468 <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure 1775Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is
1469 a few important system files and install the boot loader. 1776configure a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1470 The first file we need to 1777The first file we need to configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember
1471 configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use 1778that you should use the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if
1472 the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it. 1779you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it. Remember to specify
1473 Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate. 1780<c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1474 </p> 1781</p>
1782
1783<p>
1475 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;, 1784Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be
1476 &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p> 1785sure to replace "BOOT", "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices you
1786are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.):
1787</p>
1788
1477<pre caption="Editing fstab"> 1789<pre caption="Editing fstab">
1478<comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information. 1790<comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1479# 1791#
1480# noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't 1792# noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1481# needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage 1793# needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1490/dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1 1802/dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1491/dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0 1803/dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1492/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0 1804/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1493proc /proc proc defaults 0 0 1805proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1494</pre> 1806</pre>
1495 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time. 1807
1496 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from 1808<warn>
1497 corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it! 1809Please notice that <path>/boot</path> is <e>not</e> mounted at boot time. This
1810is to protect the data in <path>/boot</path> from corruption. If you need to
1811access <path>/boot</path>, please mount it!
1498 </warn> 1812</warn>
1499 </body> 1813
1814</body>
1500 </section> 1815</section>
1501 </chapter> 1816</chapter>
1817
1818
1502 <chapter> 1819<chapter>
1503 <title>Installing the kernel and system logger</title> 1820<title>Installing the kernel and system logger</title>
1504 <section> 1821<section>
1505 <title>Kernel selections</title> 1822<title>Kernel selections</title>
1506 <body> 1823<body>
1507 1824
1825<p>
1508 <p>There are two options for installing a kernel. You can either configure your own kernel or use the <c>genkernel</c> 1826There are two options for installing a kernel. You can either configure your
1509 utility to configure and compile your kernel automatically.</p> 1827own kernel or use the <c>genkernel</c> utility to configure and compile your
1828kernel automatically.
1829</p>
1510 1830
1511 1831<p>
1512 <p>Whether configuring a kernel by hand or using <c>genkernel</c>, 1832Whether configuring a kernel by hand or using <c>genkernel</c>,
1513 you'll need to merge the Linux kernel sources you'd like to use. 1833you'll need to merge the Linux kernel sources you'd like to use.
1514 Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found 1834Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1515 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain 1835<uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1516 which kernel sources to choose, we advise using <c>gentoo-sources</c>. 1836which kernel sources to choose, we advise using <c>gentoo-sources</c>.
1517 <!--or <c>vanilla-sources</c>.(2.4.21-vanilla has sound issues)--> If you want XFS support, you should choose 1837If you want XFS support, you should choose <c>xfs-sources</c> or
1518 <c>xfs-sources</c> or <c>gs-sources</c>. Gentoo's LiveCD uses 1838<c>gs-sources</c>. Gentoo's LiveCD uses <c>gs-sources</c> and
1519 <c>gs-sources</c> and <c>xfs-sources</c>. There is also a 1839<c>xfs-sources</c>. There is also a <c>gaming-sources</c> kernel optimized
1520 <c>gaming-sources</c> kernel optimized for game-playing
1521 responsiveness that works wonderfully for this purpose when the 1840for game-playing responsiveness that works wonderfully for this purpose when
1522 "Preemptible kernel" option is enabled. 1841the "Preemptible kernel" option is enabled.
1523 </p> 1842</p>
1524 1843
1525 1844<p>
1526<p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p> 1845Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:
1846</p>
1847
1527<pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources"> 1848<pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1528# <c>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c> 1849# <i>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</i>
1529</pre> 1850</pre>
1530 1851
1531 <p>The 1852<p>
1532 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link will point to your 1853The <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link will point to your
1533 newly-installed kernel source tree. Portage uses the 1854newly-installed kernel source tree. Portage uses the
1534 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link for a special purpose. Any 1855<path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link for a special purpose. Any ebuilds
1535 ebuilds you install that contain kernel modules will be configured 1856you install that contain kernel modules will be configured to work with the
1536 to work with the kernel source tree pointed to by 1857kernel source tree pointed to by <path>/usr/src/linux</path>.
1537 <path>/usr/src/linux</path>. <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is created 1858<path>/usr/src/linux</path> is created when you emerge your first kernel
1538 when you emerge your first kernel source package, but after it 1859source package, but after it exists, Portage does not modify this symbolic
1539 exists, Portage does not modify this symbolic link.</p> 1860link.
1861</p>
1862
1540</body> 1863</body>
1541</section>
1542<section> 1864</section>
1865<section>
1543 <title>Using genkernel to compile your kernel</title> 1866<title>Using genkernel to compile your kernel</title>
1544<body> 1867<body>
1545 1868
1869<p>
1546 <p>Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to 1870Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
1547 compile your kernel. There are two ways to do this. The first way is 1871kernel. There are two ways to do this. The first way is to use our new
1548 to use our new <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel 1872<c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for you.
1549 for you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly 1873<c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the way
1550 identically to the way our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means 1874our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use <c>genkernel</c>
1551 that when you use <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system 1875to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all your hardware at
1552 will generally detect all your hardware at boot-time, just like our Live 1876boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any
1553 CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel
1554 configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may not 1877manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may
1555 be comfortable compiling their own kernels.</p> 1878not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
1879</p>
1556 1880
1881<p>
1557 <p>Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel 1882Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
1558 ebuild:</p> 1883</p>
1559 1884
1560<pre caption="Emerging genkernel"> 1885<pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
1561# <c>emerge -k genkernel</c> 1886# <i>emerge -k genkernel</i>
1562</pre> 1887</pre>
1563 1888
1889<p>
1564 <p>Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>:</p> 1890Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>:
1891</p>
1565 1892
1893<note>
1566 <note><b>Advanced users:</b> you can type <c>genkernel --config</c> instead, 1894<b>Advanced users:</b> you can type <c>genkernel --config</c> instead,
1567which will cause genkernel to allow you to tweak the default kernel configuration before 1895which will cause genkernel to allow you to tweak the default kernel
1568building begins.</note> 1896configuration before building begins.
1569 1897</note>
1570 1898
1571<pre caption="Running genkernel"> 1899<pre caption="Running genkernel">
1572<comment>If you're using genkernel 1.2 (included in the 1.4-20030803 x86/i686 GRP set), use the following:</comment> 1900<comment>If you're using genkernel 1.2 (included in the 1.4-20030803 x86/i686 GRP set), use the following:</comment>
1573# <c>genkernel gentoo-sources</c> 1901# <i>genkernel gentoo-sources</i>
1574<comment>If you're using genkernel 1.4 or newer, there's no need to specify a kernel:</comment> 1902<comment>If you're using genkernel 1.4 or newer, there's no need to specify a kernel:</comment>
1575# <c>genkernel</c> 1903# <i>genkernel</i>
1576Gentoo Linux genkernel, version 1.4 1904Gentoo Linux genkernel, version 1.4
1577 Copyright 2003 Gentoo Technologies, Inc., Bob Johnson, Daniel Robbins 1905Copyright 2003 Gentoo Technologies, Inc., Bob Johnson, Daniel Robbins
1578 Distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2 1906Distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2
1579 1907
1580Settings: 1908Settings:
1581 compile optimization: 1 processor(s) 1909compile optimization: 1 processor(s)
1582 source tree: /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-gaming-r3 1910source tree: /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1583 config: gentoo (customized) 1911config: gentoo (customized)
1584 config loc: /etc/kernels/config-2.4.20-gaming-r3 1912config loc: /etc/kernels/config-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1585 initrd config: (default) /etc/kernels/settings 1913initrd config: (default) /etc/kernels/settings
1586 1914
1587 * Running "make oldconfig"... [ ok ] 1915* Running "make oldconfig"... [ ok ]
1588 * Logging to /var/log/genkernel.log... [ ok ] 1916* Logging to /var/log/genkernel.log... [ ok ]
1589 * Starting 2.4.20-gaming-r3 build... [ ok ] 1917* Starting 2.4.20-gaming-r3 build... [ ok ]
1590 * Running "make dep"... [ ok ] 1918* Running "make dep"... [ ok ]
1591 * Running "make bzImage"... [ ok ] 1919* Running "make bzImage"... [ ok ]
1592 * Running "make modules"... [ ok ] 1920* Running "make modules"... [ ok ]
1593 * Running "make modules_install"... [ ok ] 1921* Running "make modules_install"... [ ok ]
1594 * Moving bzImage to /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3... [ ok ] 1922* Moving bzImage to /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3... [ ok ]
1595 * Building busybox... [ ok ] 1923* Building busybox... [ ok ]
1596 * Creating initrd... [ ok ] 1924* Creating initrd... [ ok ]
1597 1925
1598 * Build completed successfully! 1926* Build completed successfully!
1599 1927
1600 * Please specify /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3 and /boot/initrd-2.4.20-gaming-r3 1928* Please specify /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3 and /boot/initrd-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1601 * when customizing your boot loader configuration files. 1929* when customizing your boot loader configuration files.
1930</pre>
1602 1931
1603# 1932<p>
1933Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
1934<e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
1935and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. The
1936initrd will be started immediately after booting to perform hardware
1937autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before your "real" system starts
1938up.
1604</pre> 1939</p>
1605 1940
1606 <p>Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and <i>initial root disk</i> (initrd) will 1941<p>
1607 be created. We will use the kernel and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. The
1608 initrd will be started immediately after booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD)
1609 before your "real" system starts up.</p>
1610
1611 <p>Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live CD -- let's emerge hotplug. 1942Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
1612 While the initrd autodetects hardware that is needed to boot your system, hotplug autodetects everything else. 1943CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
1944is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
1613 To emerge and enable hotplug, type the following:</p> 1945To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
1946</p>
1614 1947
1615<pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug"> 1948<pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
1616# <c>emerge -k hotplug</c> 1949# <i>emerge -k hotplug</i>
1617# <c>rc-update add hotplug default</c> 1950# <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
1618</pre> 1951</pre>
1619 1952
1953<p>
1620 <p>Finally, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is on your system. Here is a list of 1954Finally, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is on
1621 kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:</p> 1955your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
1956</p>
1622 1957
1623 <table> 1958<table>
1624 <tr> 1959<tr>
1625 <th>ebuild</th> 1960 <th>Ebuild</th>
1626 <th>purpose</th> 1961 <th>Purpose</th>
1627 <th>command</th> 1962 <th>Command</th>
1628 </tr> 1963</tr>
1629 <tr> 1964<tr>
1630 <ti>nvidia-kernel</ti> 1965 <ti>nvidia-kernel</ti>
1631 <ti>Accelerated NVIDIA graphics for XFree86</ti> 1966 <ti>Accelerated NVIDIA graphics for XFree86</ti>
1632 <ti><c>emerge -k nvidia-kernel</c></ti> 1967 <ti><c>emerge -k nvidia-kernel</c></ti>
1633 </tr> 1968</tr>
1634 <tr> 1969<tr>
1635 <ti>nforce-net</ti> 1970 <ti>nforce-net</ti>
1636 <ti>On-board ethernet controller on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti> 1971 <ti>On-board ethernet controller on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
1637 <ti><c>emerge nforce-net</c></ti> 1972 <ti><c>emerge nforce-net</c></ti>
1638 </tr> 1973</tr>
1639 <tr> 1974<tr>
1640 <ti>nforce-audio</ti> 1975 <ti>nforce-audio</ti>
1641 <ti>On-board audio on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti> 1976 <ti>On-board audio on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
1642 <ti><c>emerge nforce-audio</c></ti> 1977 <ti><c>emerge nforce-audio</c></ti>
1643 </tr> 1978</tr>
1644 <tr> 1979<tr>
1645 <ti>e100</ti> 1980 <ti>e100</ti>
1646 <ti>Intel e100 Fast Ethernet Adapters</ti> 1981 <ti>Intel e100 Fast Ethernet Adapters</ti>
1647 <ti><c>emerge e100</c></ti> 1982 <ti><c>emerge e100</c></ti>
1648 </tr> 1983</tr>
1649 <tr> 1984<tr>
1650 <ti>e1000</ti> 1985 <ti>e1000</ti>
1651 <ti>Intel e1000 Gigabit Ethernet Adapters</ti> 1986 <ti>Intel e1000 Gigabit Ethernet Adapters</ti>
1652 <ti><c>emerge e1000</c></ti> 1987 <ti><c>emerge e1000</c></ti>
1653 </tr> 1988</tr>
1654 <tr> 1989<tr>
1655 <ti>emu10k1</ti> 1990 <ti>emu10k1</ti>
1656 <ti>Creative Sound Blaster Live!/Audigy support</ti> 1991 <ti>Creative Sound Blaster Live!/Audigy support</ti>
1657 <ti><c>emerge emu10k1</c></ti> 1992 <ti><c>emerge emu10k1</c></ti>
1658 </tr> 1993</tr>
1659 <tr> 1994<tr>
1660 <ti>ati-drivers</ti> 1995 <ti>ati-drivers</ti>
1661 <ti>Accelerated ATI Radeon 8500+/FireGL graphics for XFree86</ti> 1996 <ti>Accelerated ATI Radeon 8500+/FireGL graphics for XFree86</ti>
1662 <ti><c>emerge ati-drivers</c></ti> 1997 <ti><c>emerge ati-drivers</c></ti>
1663 </tr> 1998</tr>
1664 <tr> 1999<tr>
1665 <ti>xfree-drm</ti> 2000 <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
1666 <ti>Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, 2001 <ti>Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and other cards for XFree86</ti>
1667 Matrox, Voodoo and other cards for XFree86</ti>
1668 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti> 2002 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
1669 </tr> 2003</tr>
1670</table> 2004</table>
1671 <p>The nvidia-kernel, ati-drivers and xfree-drm packages will require additional configuration to be enabled. 2005
2006<p>
2007The <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, <c>ati-drivers</c> and <c>xfree-drm</c> packages
2008will require additional configuration to be enabled. All other ebuilds listed
1672 All other ebuilds listed above should be auto-detected at boot-time by the hotplug package.</p> 2009above should be auto-detected at boot-time by the <c>hotplug</c> package.
2010</p>
1673 2011
1674 <p>Now that you've run and configured your system to use genkernel, you can skip the "manual kernel configuration" 2012<p>
1675section below.</p> 2013Now that you've run and configured your system to use <c>genkernel</c>, you
2014can skip the "manual kernel configuration" section below.
2015</p>
2016
1676</body> 2017</body>
1677</section> 2018</section>
1678<section> 2019<section>
1679<title>Manual kernel configuration</title> 2020<title>Manual kernel configuration</title>
1680<body> 2021<body>
1681 2022
2023<p>
1682 <p>If you opted not to use genkernel to compile your kernel, this section 2024If you opted not to use genkernel to compile your kernel, this section
1683will guide you through the process of configuring and compiling a kernel by 2025will guide you through the process of configuring and compiling a kernel by
1684hand. Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your 2026hand. Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your
1685current emerged kernel source package, and is set automatically by Portage at 2027current emerged kernel source package and is set automatically by Portage at
1686emerge time. If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to 2028emerge time. If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to
1687set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink to the correct one before 2029set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink to the correct one before
1688proceeding. </p> 2030proceeding.
2031</p>
1689 2032
1690<warn> 2033<warn>
1691If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your 2034If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i>
2035option. Being too aggressive with your security settings can cause certain
1692security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out. 2036programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1693</warn> 2037</warn>
1694 2038
1695<note> 2039<note>
1696 If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base 2040If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
1697 your configuration on it, you should execute
1698 <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>. 2041your configuration on it, you should execute <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
1699 If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions 2042If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
1700 about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>. 2043about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
1701 </note> 2044</note>
2045
1702<pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel"> 2046<pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
1703# <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c> 2047# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
1704# <c>make menuconfig</c> 2048# <i>make menuconfig</i>
1705</pre> 2049</pre>
2050
2051<warn>
1706 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will 2052For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1707 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not 2053need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <e>be enabled
1708 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have 2054and not compiled as modules</e>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you
1709 any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the 2055have any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're
1710 &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2 2056using XFS, enable the &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's
1711 enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn> 2057always a good idea to leave ext2 enabled whether you are using it or not.
2058</warn>
2059
2060<p>
2061Below are some common options that you will need:
2062</p>
2063
1712<pre caption="make menuconfig options"> 2064<pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1713Code maturity level options ---&gt; 2065Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1714 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot; 2066[*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1715<comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment> 2067<comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below)</comment>
1716 ... 2068...
1717 2069
1718File systems ---&gt; 2070File systems ---&gt;
1719 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support 2071&lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1720<comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment> 2072<comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs)</comment>
1721 ... 2073...
1722 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support 2074&lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1723<comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment> 2075<comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3)</comment>
1724 ... 2076...
1725 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs) 2077[*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1726<comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment> 2078<comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
1727 ... 2079...
1728 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support 2080&lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1729<comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment> 2081<comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS)</comment>
1730 ... 2082...
1731 [*] /proc file system support 2083[*] /proc file system support
1732<comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment> 2084<comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
1733 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL) 2085[*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1734 [*] Automatically mount at boot 2086[*] Automatically mount at boot
1735<comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment> 2087<comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
1736 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs 2088[ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1737<comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment> 2089<comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed)</comment>
1738 ... 2090...
1739 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support 2091&lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1740<comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment> 2092<comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2)</comment>
1741 ... 2093...
1742 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support 2094&lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1743<comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment> 2095<comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS)</comment>
1744</pre> 2096</pre>
2097
2098<p>
1745 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following 2099If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1746 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) : 2100options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) : &quot;PPP
1747 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;, 2101(point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial
1748 &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but 2102ports&quot;, &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression
1749 are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option, 2103options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP
1750 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE. 2104over Ethernet&quot; option, that might only be used by <c>rp-pppoe</c> when
1751 </p> 2105configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
2106</p>
2107
2108<p>
1752 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the 2109If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1753 kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block 2110kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA
1754 devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then 2111and ATAPI Block devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot;
1755 under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and 2112(I usually make it a module), then under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable
2113&quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and &quot;SCSI
1756 &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you 2114generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1757 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot; 2115also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1758 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time. 2116&gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot
1759 </p> 2117time.
2118</p>
2119
2120<p>
1760 <p>If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card.</p> 2121If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
1761 <note> 2122ethernet card.
1762 For those who prefer it, 2123</p>
1763 it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel. 2124
1764 However, doing this comes at a price: 2125<note>
1765 you will lose many of the nifty features that 2126For those who prefer it, it is possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2
2127kernel. However, doing this comes at a price: you will lose many of the nifty
1766 are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs 2128features that are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1767 filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be 2129filesystems, iptables and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1768 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support. 2130patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1769 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so 2131Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the
1770 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module). 2132kernel, so 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled
1771 It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel 2133in (ie, not a module). It is <comment>vital</comment> that a
1772 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so 2134<e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel line in
2135<path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in
2136<path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
1773 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then 2137for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1774 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead. 2138<e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1775 </note> 2139</note>
1776 2140
1777<pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel"> 2141<pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
1778# <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c> 2142# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</i>
1779# <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c> 2143# <i>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
1780</pre> 2144</pre>
2145
1781</body> 2146</body>
1782</section> 2147</section>
1783<section> 2148<section>
1784<title>Installing a system logger</title> 2149<title>Installing a system logger</title>
1785<body> 2150<body>
2151
2152<p>
1786 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system 2153Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose
1787 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set 2154a system logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is
1788 of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem 2155the traditional set of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and
1789 to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the 2156syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem to gravitate away from
1790 newer alternatives. 2157sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the newer alternatives.
1791 If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular. 2158If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1792 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four 2159To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four command
1793lines. </p> 2160sets:
2161</p>
2162
1794<pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice"> 2163<pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1795# <c>emerge -k app-admin/sysklogd</c> 2164# <i>emerge -k app-admin/sysklogd</i>
1796# <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c> 2165# <i>rc-update add sysklogd default</i>
1797<comment>or</comment> 2166<comment>or</comment>
1798# <c>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng</c> 2167# <i>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng</i>
1799# <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c> 2168# <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
1800<comment>or</comment> 2169<comment>or</comment>
1801# <c>emerge -k app-admin/metalog</c> 2170# <i>emerge -k app-admin/metalog</i>
1802# <c>rc-update add metalog default</c> 2171# <i>rc-update add metalog default</i>
1803<comment>or</comment> 2172<comment>or</comment>
1804# <c>emerge -k app-admin/msyslog</c> 2173# <i>emerge -k app-admin/msyslog</i>
1805# <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c> 2174# <i>rc-update add msyslog default</i>
1806</pre> 2175</pre>
1807 <impo> 2176
2177<impo>
1808 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into 2178Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
1809 the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior 2179recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
1810 is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send 2180performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
1811 metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that 2181system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
2182turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
1812 <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work 2183<path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
1813 in real time, as expected), 2184expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
1814 and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on 2185disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
1815 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1816 in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>. 2186METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1817 </impo>
1818<pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off"> 2187<pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
1819<codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote> 2188<codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
1820# <c>killall -USR1 metalog</c> 2189# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
1821<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote> 2190<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
1822# <c>killall -USR2 metalog</c> 2191# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
1823</pre> 2192</pre>
2193</impo>
2194
2195<p>
1824 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use. 2196Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1825 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose, 2197Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to
1826 you might as well grab vcron. 2198choose, you might as well grab vcron.
1827 </p> 2199</p>
2200
1828<pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon"> 2201<pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1829# <c>emerge -k sys-apps/dcron</c> 2202# <i>emerge -k sys-apps/dcron</i>
1830# <c>rc-update add dcron default</c> 2203# <i>rc-update add dcron default</i>
1831# <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> 2204# <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
1832<comment>or</comment> 2205<comment>or</comment>
1833# <c>emerge -k sys-apps/fcron</c> 2206# <i>emerge -k sys-apps/fcron</i>
1834# <c>rc-update add fcron default</c> 2207# <i>rc-update add fcron default</i>
1835# <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> 2208# <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
1836<comment>or</comment> 2209<comment>or</comment>
1837# <c>emerge -k sys-apps/vcron</c> 2210# <i>emerge -k sys-apps/vcron</i>
1838# <c>rc-update add vcron default</c> 2211# <i>rc-update add vcron default</i>
1839<comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment> 2212<comment>You do not need to run <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i> if using vcron.</comment>
1840</pre> 2213</pre>
2214
2215<p>
1841 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the 2216For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1842 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>. 2217<uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1843 </p> 2218</p>
1844 </body> 2219
2220</body>
1845 </section> 2221</section>
1846 </chapter> 2222</chapter>
2223
1847 <chapter> 2224<chapter>
1848 <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title> 2225<title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
1849 <section> 2226<section>
1850 <body> 2227<body>
2228
2229<p>
1851 <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point 2230If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1852 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p> 2231it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it:
2232</p>
2233
1853<pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe"> 2234<pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1854# <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c> 2235# <i>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</i>
1855<comment>GRP users should type the following:</comment> 2236<comment>GRP users should type the following:</comment>
1856# <c>USE="-X bindist" emerge -K rp-pppoe</c> 2237# <i>USE="-X bindist" emerge -K rp-pppoe</i>
1857</pre> 2238</pre>
1858 2239
2240<note>
1859 <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing, 2241The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface,
1860 because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with 2242which is a good thing, because X and its dependencies would also be emerged.
1861 X support later. 2243You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with X support later.
1862 </note> 2244</note>
2245
2246<note>
1863 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured. 2247Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured. You will have to
1864 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system 2248do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1865 for the first time. 2249for the first time.
1866 </note> 2250</note>
2251
2252<p>
1867 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree 2253You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1868 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're 2254if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1869 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package: 2255using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1870 </p> 2256</p>
2257
1871<pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools"> 2258<pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1872# <c>emerge -k sys-apps/xfsprogs</c> 2259# <i>emerge -k sys-apps/xfsprogs</i>
1873<comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment> 2260<comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1874# <c>emerge -k sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c> 2261# <i>emerge -k sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</i>
1875<comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment> 2262<comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1876# <c>emerge -k jfsutils</c> 2263# <i>emerge -k jfsutils</i>
1877<comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment> 2264<comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1878# <c>emerge -k sys-apps/lvm-user</c> 2265# <i>emerge -k sys-apps/lvm-user</i>
1879</pre> 2266</pre>
2267
2268<p>
1880 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first 2269If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1881 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package. 2270real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i>
1882 </p> 2271package.
2272</p>
2273
1883<pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs"> 2274<pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1884# <c>emerge -k sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c> 2275# <i>emerge -k sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</i>
1885</pre> 2276</pre>
2277
1886 <!-- fix the bug or fix the docs, don't send the user in circles 2278<!-- fix the bug or fix the docs, don't send the user in circles
1887(drobbins) 2279(drobbins)
1888 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA 2280 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1889 to work. 2281 to work.
1890 </warn> 2282 </warn>
1891 --> 2283 -->
2284
1892 </body> 2285</body>
1893 </section> 2286</section>
1894 </chapter> 2287</chapter>
2288
1895 <chapter> 2289<chapter>
1896 <title>User Management</title> 2290<title>User Management</title>
1897 <section> 2291<section>
1898 <title>Setting a root password</title> 2292<title>Setting a root password</title>
1899 <body> 2293<body>
2294
2295<p>
1900 <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p> 2296Before you forget, set the root password by typing:
2297</p>
2298
1901<pre caption="Setting the root Password"> 2299<pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1902# <c>passwd</c> 2300# <i>passwd</i>
1903</pre> 2301</pre>
1904 </body> 2302
2303</body>
1905 </section> 2304</section>
1906 <section> 2305<section>
1907 <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title> 2306<title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
1908 <body> 2307<body>
2308
2309<p>
1909 <p>Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and 2310Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
1910 should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e> 2311should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
1911 recommended to add a user for day-to-day use.</p> 2312recommended to add a user for day-to-day use:
2313</p>
2314
1912 <pre caption = "Adding a user"> 2315<pre caption = "Adding a user">
1913# <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i> 2316# <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
1914# <i>passwd your_user</i></pre> 2317# <i>passwd your_user</i>
2318</pre>
2319
2320<p>
1915 <p>Substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.</p> 2321Substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.
2322</p>
2323
2324<p>
1916 <p>Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle, 2325Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
1917 use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take 2326use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
1918 a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.</p> 2327a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.
1919 </body> 2328</p>
2329
2330</body>
1920 </section> 2331</section>
1921 </chapter> 2332</chapter>
2333
1922 <chapter> 2334<chapter>
1923 <title>Setting your Hostname</title> 2335<title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1924 <section> 2336<section>
1925 <body> 2337<body>
1926 <p> 2338
2339<p>
1927 Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname 2340Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
1928 on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>. 2341on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
1929 </p> 2342</p>
2343
1930<pre caption="Configuring Hostname"> 2344<pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1931# <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 2345# <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
1932</pre> 2346</pre>
1933 <p> 2347
2348<p>
1934 Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS 2349Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
1935 domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>. 2350domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
1936 </p> 2351</p>
2352
1937<pre caption="Configuring Domainname"> 2353<pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
1938# <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 2354# <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
1939</pre> 2355</pre>
1940 <p> 2356
2357<p>
1941 If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in 2358If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
1942 <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>. 2359<path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
1943 </p> 2360</p>
2361
1944<pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname"> 2362<pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
1945# <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 2363# <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
1946</pre> 2364</pre>
1947 </body> 2365
2366</body>
1948 </section> 2367</section>
1949 </chapter> 2368</chapter>
2369
2370
1950 <chapter> 2371<chapter>
1951 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title> 2372<title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1952 <section> 2373<section>
1953 <body> 2374<body>
2375
2376<p>
1954 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames. 2377This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1955 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses 2378It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses of any hostnames that
1956 of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file: 2379may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1957 </p> 2380</p>
2381
1958<pre caption="Hosts Template"> 2382<pre caption="Hosts Template">
1959127.0.0.1 localhost 2383127.0.0.1 localhost
1960<comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment> 2384<comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN and your associated machine name</comment>
1961192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine 2385192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1962</pre> 2386</pre>
2387
2388<note>
1963 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your 2389If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
1964 machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help 2390machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
1965 GNOME and many other programs in name resolution. 2391GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1966 </note> 2392</note>
1967 </body> 2393
2394</body>
1968 </section> 2395</section>
1969 </chapter> 2396</chapter>
2397
2398
1970 <chapter> 2399<chapter>
1971 <title>Final Network Configuration</title> 2400<title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1972 <section> 2401<section>
1973 <body> 2402<body>
2403
2404<p>
1974 <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to 2405Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of
1975 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you 2406your system to <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any
1976 need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically 2407options you need to the same line). When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules
1977 loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile 2408will be automatically loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet
1978 it as a module: 2409card module, if you happened to compile it as a module:
1979 </p> 2410</p>
2411
2412<pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload">
1980<pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card. 2413<comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1981Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment> 2414Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
19823c59x 24153c59x
1983</pre> 2416</pre>
2417
2418<p>
1984 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your 2419Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured
1985 first boot: </p> 2420for your first boot:
2421</p>
2422
1986<pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration"> 2423<pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1987# <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c> 2424# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
1988# <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c> 2425# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
2426</pre>
2427
2428<p>
2429If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create
2430additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or
2431<path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path> scripts respectively for each one
2432(<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...):
1989</pre> 2433</p>
1990 <p>If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path> 2434
1991 scripts respectively for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1992<pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces"> 2435<pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1993# <c>cd /etc/init.d</c> 2436# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
1994# <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c> 2437# <i>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></i>
1995# <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c> 2438# <i>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</i>
1996</pre> 2439</pre>
2440
2441<p>
1997 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into 2442If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1998 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup, 2443<path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for
1999 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>: 2444your setup, then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
2000 </p> 2445</p>
2446
2001<pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx"> 2447<pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
2002depend() { 2448depend() {
2003 need pcmcia 2449 need pcmcia
2004} 2450}
2005</pre> 2451</pre>
2452
2453<p>
2006 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded. 2454This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network
2007 </p> 2455is loaded.
2008 </body> 2456</p>
2457
2458</body>
2009 </section> 2459</section>
2010 </chapter> 2460</chapter>
2461
2011 <chapter> 2462<chapter>
2012 <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title> 2463<title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
2013 <section> 2464<section>
2014 <body> 2465<body>
2466
2015<pre caption="Basic Configuration"> 2467<pre caption="Basic Configuration">
2016# <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c> 2468# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
2017</pre> 2469</pre>
2470
2471<p>
2018 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings. 2472Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings. All users
2019 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her 2473will want to make sure that CLOCK is set to his/her liking. International
2020 liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c> 2474keyboard users will want to set the KEYMAP variable (browse
2021 variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various 2475<path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various possibilities).
2022 possibilities). 2476</p>
2023 </p> 2477
2024 </body> 2478</body>
2025 </section> 2479</section>
2026 </chapter> 2480</chapter>
2481
2027 <chapter> 2482<chapter>
2028 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title> 2483<title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
2029 <section> 2484<section>
2030 <title>Notes</title> 2485<title>Notes</title>
2031 <body> 2486<body>
2487
2488<p>
2032 <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from. 2489In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose
2033 Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and 2490from. Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between
2034 LILO as their bootloaders. 2491both GRUB and LILO as their bootloaders.
2035 </p> 2492</p>
2493
2494<p>
2036 <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary. 2495Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
2037 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one. 2496In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
2038 </p> 2497</p>
2498
2499<p>
2039 <p>In addition, you will need to configure our bootloader differently depending upon 2500In addition, you will need to configure our bootloader differently depending
2040whether you are using <c>genkernel</c> (with kernel and initrd) or a kernel you 2501upon whether you are using <c>genkernel</c> (with kernel and initrd) or a
2041compiled by hand. Be sure to take note of the important differences.</p> 2502kernel you compiled by hand. Be sure to take note of the important
2503differences.
2504</p>
2042 2505
2506<impo>
2043 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset 2507If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or
2044 with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board 2508nForce2 chipset with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use
2045 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low 2509LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board video enabled, the low memory area of your
2510RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low memory at boot time,
2046 memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce 2511it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
2047 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video 2512or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using
2048 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a 2513off-board video right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics
2049 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo> 2514card and use the on-board video in a pinch, wouldn't it? :)
2515</impo>
2516
2050 </body> 2517</body>
2051 </section> 2518</section>
2052 <section> 2519<section>
2053 <title>Configuring GRUB</title> 2520<title>Configuring GRUB</title>
2054 <body> 2521<body>
2522
2523<p>
2055 <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB 2524The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how
2056 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called 2525GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition
2057 <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required. 2526<path>/dev/hda1</path> is called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the
2058 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one. 2527parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required. Hard drives count from zero
2528rather than "a" and partitions start at zero rather than one. Be aware too
2059 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only hard drives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as 2529that with the hd devices, only hard drives are counted, not atapi-ide devices
2060 cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives. 2530such as cdrom players, burners and that the same construct can be used with
2061 (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured 2531scsi drives. (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the
2062 to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a hard drive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb, 2532bios is configured to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a hard drive
2063 a burner on /dev/hdc, a second hard drive on /dev/hdd and no SCSI hard drive, 2533on <path>/dev/hda</path>, a cdrom player on <path>/dev/hdb</path>, a burner on
2064 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>. 2534<path>/dev/hdc</path>, a second hard drive on <path>/dev/hdd</path> and no
2065 2535SCSI hard drive, <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to
2066 It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, GRUB 2536<path>(hd1,6)</path>. It might sound tricky and tricky it is indeed, but as
2067 offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having 2537we will see, GRUB offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for
2068 a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a little lost in the 2538those of you having a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a little
2069 GRUB numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that, 2539lost in the GRUB numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that, it is
2070 it is time to install GRUB. 2540time to install GRUB.
2071 </p> 2541</p>
2542
2543<p>
2072 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p> 2544The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted
2545shell prompt:
2546</p>
2547
2073<pre caption="Installing GRUB"> 2548<pre caption="Installing GRUB">
2074# <c>emerge -k grub</c> 2549# <i>emerge -k grub</i>
2075# <c>grub</c> 2550# <i>grub</i>
2076</pre> 2551</pre>
2077 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub 2552
2078 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the 2553<p>
2079 right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration, 2554You will be presented with the <e>grub&gt;</e> grub command-line prompt.
2555Now, you need to type in the right commands to install the GRUB boot record
2556onto your hard drive. In my example configuration, I want to install the GRUB
2080 I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that 2557boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that the first
2081 the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands 2558thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the
2082 I want to type are: 2559commands I want to type are:
2083 </p> 2560</p>
2084 2561
2085<pre caption="GRUB on the MBR"> 2562<pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
2086grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote> 2563grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2087grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote> 2564grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here, it is the MBR)</comment>
2088</pre> 2565</pre>
2089 2566
2090<pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR"> 2567<pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
2091<comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment> 2568<comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR:</comment>
2092grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote> 2569grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2093grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote> 2570grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0,4)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here it is /dev/hda5)</comment>
2094grub&gt; <c>quit</c> 2571grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2095</pre> 2572</pre>
2096 2573
2574<p>
2097 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB 2575Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells
2098 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or 2576GRUB the location of your boot partition (in our example,
2099 <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( ) 2577<path>/dev/hda1</path> or <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the
2100 </c> command tells GRUB where to install the 2578second <c>setup ( )</c> command tells GRUB where to install the boot record -
2101 boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root 2579it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root ( )</c>
2102 ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the 2580location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the MBR
2103 MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>). 2581of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as
2104 If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I 2582<path>(hd0)</path>). If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up
2105 could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case, 2583GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I could install GRUB to the boot record of
2106 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB 2584a particular partition. In that case, I would specify a particular partition
2107 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB. 2585rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB boot record has been successfully
2108 </p> 2586installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
2587</p>
2109 2588
2589<note>
2110 <note> The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB, 2590The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB,
2111 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would 2591assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
2112 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only hard drives), 2592be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only hard drives),
2113 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, GRUB would print the 2593hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, GRUB would print the
2114 available hard drives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c> 2594available hard drives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
2115 would make GRUB print the list of partitions on the first hard drive. 2595would make GRUB print the list of partitions on the first hard drive.
2116
2117 Checking the syntax of the GRUB location with completion should really help 2596Checking the syntax of the GRUB location with completion should really help
2118 to make the right choice. 2597to make the right choice.
2119 </note> 2598</note>
2120 2599
2121 <p> 2600<p>
2122 Gentoo Linux is now 2601Gentoo Linux is now installed, but we need to create the
2123 installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that 2602<path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that we get a nice GRUB boot menu
2124 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it. 2603when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
2125 </p> 2604</p>
2605
2606<impo>
2126 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from 2607To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
2127 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing 2608<path>grub.conf</path> to <path>menu.lst</path>. You can do this by typing
2128 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst</c>. </impo> 2609<c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst</c>.
2129 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it: 2610</impo>
2130 </p> 2611
2612<p>
2613Now, create the <path>grub.conf</path> file (<c>nano -w
2614/boot/grub/grub.conf</c>) and add the following to it:
2615</p>
2616
2131<pre caption="grub.conf for GRUB"> 2617<pre caption="grub.conf for GRUB">
2132default 0 2618default 0
2133timeout 30 2619timeout 30
2134splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz 2620splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
2135 2621
2136<comment>#if you compiled your own kernel, use something like this:</comment> 2622<comment># If you compiled your own kernel, use something like this:</comment>
2137title=My example Gentoo Linux 2623title=My example Gentoo Linux
2138root (hd0,0) 2624root (hd0,0)
2139kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3 2625kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
2140 2626
2141<comment>#if you're using genkernel, use something like this instead:</comment> 2627<comment># If you're using genkernel, use something like this instead:</comment>
2142title=My example Gentoo Linux (genkernel) 2628title=My example Gentoo Linux (genkernel)
2143root (hd0,0) 2629root (hd0,0)
2144kernel (hd0,0)/boot/kernel-KV root=/dev/hda3 2630kernel (hd0,0)/boot/kernel-KV root=/dev/hda3
2145initrd (hd0,0)/boot/initrd-KV 2631initrd (hd0,0)/boot/initrd-KV
2146 2632
2147<comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment> 2633<comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
2148title=Windows XP 2634title=Windows XP
2149root (hd0,5) 2635root (hd0,5)
2150chainloader (hd0,5)+1 2636chainloader (hd0,5)+1
2151</pre> 2637</pre>
2152 <note> 2638
2639<note>
2153 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses. 2640(hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
2154 </note> 2641</note>
2155 <impo> 2642
2643<impo>
2156 If you set up SCSI emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to 2644If you set up SCSI emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
2157 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel 2645actually work you need to add an <c>hdx=ide-scsi</c> fragment to the kernel
2158 line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner). 2646line in <path>grub.conf</path> (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd
2647burner).
2159 </impo> 2648</impo>
2649
2650<p>
2160 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will 2651After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the
2161 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional, 2652first option will tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second
2653part of the <path>grub.conf</path> file is optional and shows you how to use
2162 and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition. 2654GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
2163 </p> 2655</p>
2656
2657<note>
2164 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition 2658Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
2165 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to 2659(<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path>
2166 your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot 2660should point to your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT
2167 loader. 2661boot loader.
2168 </note> 2662</note>
2169 <note> 2663
2170 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>. 2664<note>
2665The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for
2666example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root
2667partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the <path>grub.conf</path> file
2668above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
2171 </note> 2669</note>
2670
2671<p>
2172 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply 2672If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply add them to
2173 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option 2673the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
2174 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can 2674(<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you
2175 turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by 2675can turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're
2176 adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command. 2676doing) by adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c>
2177 </p> 2677command.
2678</p>
2679
2680<note>
2178 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add 2681Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
2179 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. 2682<c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs.
2180 Now devfs is enabled by default. 2683Now devfs is enabled by default.
2181 </note> 2684</note>
2182 </body> 2685
2686</body>
2183 </section> 2687</section>
2184 <section> 2688<section>
2185 <title>Configuring LILO</title> 2689<title>Configuring LILO</title>
2186 <body> 2690<body>
2691
2692<p>
2187 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice. 2693While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the
2188 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install 2694best choice. LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux
2189 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB: 2695bootloaders. Here is how to install LILO if you would like to use it instead
2696of GRUB.
2190 </p> 2697</p>
2698
2699<p>
2191 <p>The first step is to emerge LILO: 2700The first step is to emerge LILO:
2192 </p> 2701</p>
2702
2193<pre caption="Emerging LILO"> 2703<pre caption="Emerging LILO">
2194# <c>emerge -k lilo</c> 2704# <i>emerge -k lilo</i>
2195</pre> 2705</pre>
2706
2707<p>
2196 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> 2708Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file
2709<path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>:
2197 </p> 2710</p>
2711
2198<pre caption="Example lilo.conf"> 2712<pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
2199boot=/dev/hda 2713boot=/dev/hda
2200map=/boot/map 2714map=/boot/map
2201install=/boot/boot.b 2715install=/boot/boot.b
2202prompt 2716prompt
2203timeout=50 2717timeout=50
2204lba32 2718lba32
2205default=linux 2719default=linux
2206 2720
2207#use something like the following 4 lines if you compiled your kernel yourself 2721<comment># Use something like the following 4 lines if you compiled your kernel yourself</comment>
2208image=/boot/bzImage 2722image=/boot/bzImage
2209 label=linux 2723 label=linux
2210 read-only 2724 read-only
2211 root=/dev/hda3 2725 root=/dev/hda3
2212 2726
2213#if you used genkernel, use something like this: 2727<comment># If you used genkernel, use something like this:</comment>
2214image=/boot/kernel-KV 2728image=/boot/kernel-KV
2215 label=gk_linux 2729 label=gk_linux
2216 root=/dev/hda3 2730 root=/dev/hda3
2217 initrd=/boot/initrd-KV 2731 initrd=/boot/initrd-KV
2218 append="root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc" 2732 append="root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc"
2219 2733
2220 2734
2221#For dual booting windows/other OS 2735<comment># For dual booting windows/other OS</comment>
2222other=/dev/hda1 2736other=/dev/hda1
2223 label=dos 2737 label=dos
2224</pre> 2738</pre>
2739
2225 <ul> 2740<ul>
2226 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li> 2741<li><c>boot=/dev/hda</c> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller.</li>
2227 <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li> 2742<li><c>map=/boot/map</c> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
2228 <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector. 2743<li><c>install=/boot/boot.b</c> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector. In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will assume a default of <path>/boot/boot.b</path> as the file to be used. </li>
2229 In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will 2744<li>The existence of <c>prompt</c> tells LILO to display the classic <e>lilo:</e> prompt at bootup. While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
2230 assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li> 2745<li><c>timeout=50</c> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
2231 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup. 2746<li><c>lba32</c> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put your system in an unbootable state. </li>
2232 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still 2747<li><c>default=linux</c> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
2233 get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
2234 <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
2235 with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
2236 <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
2237 not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
2238 your system in an unbootable state. </li>
2239 <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
2240 options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
2241 <li><i>image=/boot/bzImage</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li> 2748<li><c>image=/boot/bzImage</c> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
2242 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case, 2749<li><c>label=linux</c> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case, it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
2243 it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
2244 <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be 2750<li><c>read-only</c> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be altered during the boot process. </li>
2245 altered during the boot process. </li>
2246 <li><i>root=/dev/hda3</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li> 2751<li><c>root=/dev/hda3</c> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
2247 </ul> 2752</ul>
2753
2754<p>
2248 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information 2755After you have edited your <path>lilo.conf</path> file, it is time to run LILO
2249 into the MBR: 2756to load the information into the MBR:
2250 </p> 2757</p>
2758
2251<pre caption="Running LILO"> 2759<pre caption="Running LILO">
2252# <c>/sbin/lilo</c> 2760# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
2253</pre> 2761</pre>
2762
2763<p>
2254 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux! 2764LILO is configured and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
2255 </p> 2765</p>
2256 </body> 2766
2767</body>
2257 </section> 2768</section>
2769
2258 <section> 2770<section>
2259 <title>Using framebuffer</title> 2771<title>Using framebuffer</title>
2260 <body> 2772<body>
2261 <p> 2773
2262 People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c> to their bootloader configuration file. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the following table: 2774<p>
2263 </p> 2775People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c>
2776to their bootloader configuration file. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the
2777following table:
2778</p>
2779
2264<table> 2780<table>
2265<tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr> 2781<tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
2266<tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr> 2782<tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
2267<tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr> 2783<tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
2268<tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr> 2784<tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
2269</table> 2785</table>
2786
2270<p> 2787<p>
2271LILO-users will have to add <c>vga=xxx</c> on top of their configuration 2788LILO-users will have to add <c>vga=xxx</c> on top of their configuration
2272file. 2789file.
2273</p> 2790</p>
2791
2274<p> 2792<p>
2275GRUB-users will have to append <c>vga=xxx</c> to the <c>kernel 2793GRUB-users will have to append <c>vga=xxx</c> to the <c>kernel
2276(hd0,0)...</c> line. 2794(hd0,0)...</c> line.
2277</p> 2795</p>
2796
2278</body> 2797</body>
2798</section>
2799</chapter>
2800
2801<chapter>
2802<title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
2279</section> 2803<section>
2280 </chapter>
2281 <chapter>
2282 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
2283 <section>
2284 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title> 2804<title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
2285 <body> 2805<body>
2286 <impo> 2806
2807<impo>
2287 Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive 2808Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2288 before proceeding. 2809</impo>
2289 </impo> 2810
2811<p>
2290 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first 2812It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
2291 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security 2813time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
2292 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't 2814blanket and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
2293 let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment, 2815let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
2294 you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk. 2816you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
2295 If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk, and when you reboot 2817If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk and when you reboot
2296 the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks 2818the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
2297 like this: 2819like this:
2298 </p> 2820</p>
2821
2299<pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk"> 2822<pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
2300# <c>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</c> 2823# <i>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</i>
2301# <c>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</c> 2824# <i>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</i>
2825</pre>
2826
2827<p>
2828Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you
2829can now execute the necessary <c>root</c> and <c>setup</c> commands.
2302</pre> 2830</p>
2303 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c> 2831
2304 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p> 2832</body>
2305 </body>
2306 </section> 2833</section>
2307 <section> 2834<section>
2308 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title> 2835<title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
2309 <body> 2836<body>
2310 <impo> 2837
2838<impo>
2311 Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive 2839Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2312 before proceeding. 2840</impo>
2313 </impo>
2314 2841
2842<p>
2315 <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk: 2843If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
2316 </p> 2844</p>
2845
2317<pre caption="Making a Bootdisk"> 2846<pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
2318# <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c> 2847# <i>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </i>
2319<comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment> 2848<comment>(This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB)</comment>
2320</pre> 2849</pre>
2321 </body> 2850
2851</body>
2322 </section> 2852</section>
2323 </chapter> 2853</chapter>
2324 2854
2325 <chapter> 2855<chapter>
2326 <title>Using GRP</title> 2856<title>Using GRP</title>
2327 <section> 2857<section>
2328 <body> 2858<body>
2329 2859
2860<p>
2330 <p>GRP users can, at this point, install binary packages:</p> 2861GRP users can, at this point, install binary packages:
2862</p>
2331 2863
2332<pre caption="Installing from GRP"> 2864<pre caption="Installing from GRP">
2333# <c>USE="bindist" emerge -k xfree</c> 2865# <i>USE="bindist" emerge -k xfree</i>
2334<codenote>USE="bindist" must be set while installing GRP packages that use XFree86.</codenote> 2866<codenote>(USE="bindist" must be set while installing GRP packages that use XFree86)</codenote>
2335</pre> 2867</pre>
2336 2868
2869<p>
2337 <p>CD 1 contains enough applications to install a working system with XFree86. 2870CD 1 contains enough applications to install a working system with XFree86.
2338 Additionally, CD2 of the 2-CD GRP set contains other applications including KDE, GNOME, Mozilla, and others. 2871Additionally, CD2 of the 2-CD GRP set contains other applications including
2339 To install these packages, you will need to reboot into your new Gentoo 2872KDE, GNOME, Mozilla and others. To install these packages, you will need to
2340system first (covered in the "Installation complete!" section near the end of this document.) After you are running your basic Gentoo system from the hard 2873reboot into your new Gentoo system first (covered in the "Installation
2341drive, you can mount the second CD and copy files:</p> 2874complete!" section near the end of this document). After you are running your
2875basic Gentoo system from the hard drive, you can mount the second CD and copy
2876files:
2877</p>
2342 2878
2343 <pre caption="Loading binary packages from CD2"> 2879<pre caption="Loading binary packages from CD2">
2344# <c>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</c> 2880# <i>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</i>
2345# <c>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/* /usr/portage/packages/</c> 2881# <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/ /usr/portage/packages/</i>
2346</pre> 2882</pre>
2347 2883
2884<p>
2348 <p>Now various other applications can be installed the same way. For example:</p> 2885Now various other applications can be installed the same way. For example:
2886</p>
2349 2887
2350 <pre caption="Installing KDE from GRP"> 2888<pre caption="Installing KDE from GRP">
2351# <c>USE="bindist" emerge -k kde</c> 2889# <i>USE="bindist" emerge -k kde</i>
2352</pre> 2890</pre>
2353 2891
2354 </body> 2892</body>
2355 </section> 2893</section>
2356 </chapter> 2894</chapter>
2895
2357 <chapter> 2896<chapter>
2358 <title>Installation Complete!</title> 2897<title>Installation Complete!</title>
2359 <section> 2898<section>
2360 <body> 2899<body>
2361 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
2362 2900
2363 safely unmount your partitions 2901<p>
2902Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary
2903configuration files, exit the chrooted shell, safely unmount your partitions
2364 and reboot the system: 2904and reboot the system:
2365 </p> 2905</p>
2906
2366<warn> 2907<warn>
2367<c>etc-update</c> can provide you with a list of configuration files 2908<c>etc-update</c> can provide you with a list of configuration files
2368that have newer versions at your disposal. Verify that none of the 2909that have newer versions at your disposal. Verify that none of the
2369configuration files have a big impact (such as <path>/etc/fstab</path>, 2910configuration files have a big impact (such as <path>/etc/fstab</path>,
2370<path>/etc/make.conf</path>, <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, ...). Merge the 2911<path>/etc/make.conf</path>, <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, ...). Merge the
2371files that don't have such a big impact, remove the updates of the 2912files that don't have such a big impact, remove the updates of the
2372others or view the diff and manually update the configuration file. 2913others or view the diff and manually update the configuration file.
2373</warn> 2914</warn>
2915
2374<pre caption="Rebooting the System"> 2916<pre caption="Rebooting the System">
2375# <c>etc-update</c> 2917# <i>etc-update</i>
2376# <c>exit</c> 2918# <i>exit</i>
2377<comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment> 2919<comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <i>^D</i>)</comment>
2378# <c>cd / </c> 2920# <i>cd / </i>
2379# <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c> 2921# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
2380# <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c> 2922# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
2381# <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c> 2923# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo</i>
2382# <c>reboot</c> 2924# <i>reboot</i>
2383<comment>(Don't forget to remove the bootable CD)</comment> 2925<comment>(Don't forget to remove the bootable CD)</comment>
2384</pre> 2926</pre>
2385 <note> 2927
2928<note>
2386 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create 2929After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to
2387 the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should 2930create the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this
2388 generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>. 2931file directly, you should generally make changes to the files in
2932<path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
2389 </note> 2933</note>
2934
2935<p>
2390 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development, 2936If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux
2391 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists 2937evelopment, consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
2938(more information on our <uri
2392 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page). 2939link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
2940We also have a handy <uri
2393 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri> 2941link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration
2394 that will 2942guide</uri> that will help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux
2395 help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful 2943system and a useful <uri
2396 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri> 2944link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
2397 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation 2945to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the
2946Gentoo Documentation <uri
2398 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions 2947link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any
2399 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux 2948other questions involving installation or anything for that matter, please
2949check the Gentoo Linux <uri
2400 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>. 2950link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>. Enjoy and welcome to
2401 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux! 2951Gentoo Linux!
2402 </p> 2952</p>
2403 </body> 2953
2954</body>
2404 </section> 2955</section>
2405 </chapter> 2956</chapter>
2957
2406 <chapter> 2958<chapter>
2407 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title> 2959<title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
2408 <section> 2960<section>
2409 <body> 2961<body>
2962
2963<p>
2410 <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers 2964The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give
2411 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help 2965the developers a way to find out about their user base. It collects information
2412 us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly 2966about Gentoo Linux usage to help us in set priorities our development.
2413 appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>. 2967Installing it is completely optional and it would be greatly appreciated if
2968you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at
2969<uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
2414 </p> 2970</p>
2971
2972<p>
2415 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system. 2973The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
2416 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used 2974This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID
2417 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or 2975will not be used to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched
2418 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the 2976against an IP address or other personal information. Every precaution has been
2419 development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring 2977taken to assure your privacy in the development of this system. The following
2420 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program: 2978are the things that we are monitoring right now through our "gentoo-stats"
2979program:
2421 </p> 2980</p>
2422 <ul> 2981
2982<ul>
2423 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li> 2983<li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
2424 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li> 2984<li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx" or "3dnow")</li>
2425 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li> 2985<li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
2426 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li> 2986<li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
2427 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li> 2987<li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> link is pointing to).</li>
2428 </ul> 2988</ul>
2989
2990<p>
2429 <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users 2991We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most
2430 (just as it is to the developers). 2992Gentoo Linux users (just as it is to the developers).
2431 </p> 2993</p>
2432 <ul> 2994
2433 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive 2995<ul>
2434 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li> 2996<li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
2435 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li> 2997<li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
2436 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged 2998<li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID" pairs.</li>
2437 in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li> 2999</ul>
2438 </ul> 3000
3001<p>
2439 <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands: 3002The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
2440 </p> 3003</p>
3004
2441<pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats"> 3005<pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
2442# <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote> 3006# <i>emerge gentoo-stats</i> <comment>(Installs gentoo-stats)</comment>
2443# <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote> 3007# <i>gentoo-stats --new</i> <comment>(Obtains a new system ID)</comment>
2444</pre> 3008</pre>
3009
3010<p>
2445 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into 3011The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
2446 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file 3012<path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view
2447 to see additional configuration options. 3013this file to see additional configuration options.
2448 </p> 3014</p>
3015
3016<p>
2449 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule 3017After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule (gentoo-stats does
2450 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>: 3018not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
2451 </p> 3019</p>
3020
2452<pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron"> 3021<pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
2453<c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c> 30220 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null
2454</pre> 3023</pre>
3024
3025<p>
2455 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be 3026The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
2456 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p> 3027viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>.
2457 </body> 3028</p>
3029
3030</body>
2458 </section> 3031</section>
2459 </chapter> 3032</chapter>
3033
2460 <chapter> 3034<chapter>
2461 <title>Gentoo On Less-Common Hardware</title> 3035<title>Gentoo On Less-Common Hardware</title>
2462 <section> 3036<section>
2463 <title>Hardware ATA RAID</title> 3037<title>Hardware ATA RAID</title>
2464 <body> 3038<body>
2465 <p> 3039
3040<p>
2466 Users who want to install Gentoo on Hardware ATA RAID must pay 3041Users who want to install Gentoo on Hardware ATA RAID must pay
2467 attention to the next steps in order for them to succesfully 3042attention to the next steps in order for them to succesfully
2468 install Gentoo Linux: 3043install Gentoo Linux:
2469 </p> 3044</p>
2470 <ul> 3045
3046<ul>
2471 <li>Be sure to start the LiveCD with the <c>doataraid</c> 3047<li>Be sure to start the LiveCD with the <c>doataraid</c> kerneloption.</li>
2472 kerneloption.</li> 3048<li>If you've forgotten to select <c>doataraid</c> during bootup, or the modules mysteriously didn't load, load them as needed:
2473 <li>If you've forgotten to select <c>doataraid</c> during bootup,
2474 or the modules mysteriously didn't load, load them as needed:
2475 <pre caption = "Loading RAID modules"> 3049<pre caption = "Loading RAID modules">
2476# <i>modprobe ataraid</i> 3050# <i>modprobe ataraid</i>
2477<comment>For Promise Raid Controllers:</comment> 3051<comment>For Promise Raid Controllers:</comment>
2478# <i>modprobe pdcraid</i> 3052# <i>modprobe pdcraid</i>
2479<comment>For Highpoint Raid Controllers:</comment> 3053<comment>For Highpoint Raid Controllers:</comment>
2480# <i>modprobe hptraid</i> 3054# <i>modprobe hptraid</i>
2481 </pre> 3055</pre></li>
2482 </li> 3056<li>Some ATA RAID Controllers require you to reboot after partitioning; formatting will otherwise fail.</li>
2483 <li>Some ATA RAID Controllers require you to reboot after
2484 partitioning; formatting will otherwise fail.</li>
2485 <li>Before chrooting, mount the devicetree into the new 3057<li>Before chrooting, mount the devicetree into the new environment:
2486 environment:
2487 <pre caption = "Mounting /dev into /mnt/gentoo/dev"> 3058<pre caption = "Mounting /dev into /mnt/gentoo/dev">
2488# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i> 3059# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
2489 </pre> 3060</pre></li>
2490 </li>
2491 <li>During kernel configuration, select the required RAID options: 3061<li>During kernel configuration, select the required RAID options:
2492 <pre caption = "RAID in the Linux Kernel Configuration"> 3062<pre caption = "RAID in the Linux Kernel Configuration">
2493<comment>For Highpoint RAID controllers:</comment> 3063<comment>For Highpoint RAID controllers:</comment>
2494ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt; 3064ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
2495 [*] HPT36X/37X chipset support 3065[*] HPT36X/37X chipset support
2496 [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers 3066[*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
2497 [*] Highpoint 370 software RAID 3067[*] Highpoint 370 software RAID
2498<comment>For Promise RAID controllers:</comment> 3068<comment>For Promise RAID controllers:</comment>
2499ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt; 3069ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
2500 [*] PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67} support 3070[*] PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67} support
2501 <comment>and/or</comment> 3071<comment>and/or</comment>
2502 [*] PROMISE PDC202{68|69|70|71|75|76|77} support 3072[*] PROMISE PDC202{68|69|70|71|75|76|77} support
2503 [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers 3073[*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
2504 [*] Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm)) 3074[*] Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
2505 </pre></li> 3075</pre></li>
2506 <li>When using GRUB add <c>--stage2=/boot/grub/stage2</c> when 3076<li>When using GRUB add <c>--stage2=/boot/grub/stage2</c> when running <c>grub</c> to the <c>setup</c> command:
2507 running <c>grub</c> to the <c>setup</c> command:
2508 <pre caption = "Installing GRUB for Hardware RAID systems"> 3077<pre caption = "Installing GRUB for Hardware RAID systems">
2509grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> 3078grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
2510grub&gt; <i>setup --stage2=/boot/grub/stage2 (hd0)</i> 3079grub&gt; <i>setup --stage2=/boot/grub/stage2 (hd0)</i>
2511grub&gt; <i>quit</i> 3080grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2512 </pre> 3081</pre>
2513 Also, in the GRUB configuration be sure to point the <c>root</c> 3082Also, in the GRUB configuration be sure to point the <c>root</c>
2514 to the appropriate RAID device: 3083to the appropriate RAID device:
2515 <pre caption = "grub.conf for RAID"> 3084<pre caption = "grub.conf for RAID">
2516title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID 3085title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
2517root (hd0,0) 3086root (hd0,0)
2518kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY 3087kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
2519 </pre></li> 3088</pre></li>
2520 <li>LILO users should set the <c>root</c> option to the 3089<li>LILO users should set the <c>root</c> option to the appropriate RAID device:
2521 appropriate RAID device:
2522 <pre caption = "lilo.conf for RAID"> 3090<pre caption = "lilo.conf for RAID">
2523image=/boot/bzImage 3091image=/boot/bzImage
2524 label=linux 3092label=linux
2525 read-only 3093read-only
2526 root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY 3094root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
2527 </pre></li> 3095</pre></li>
2528 </ul> 3096</ul>
3097
2529 </body> 3098</body>
2530 </section> 3099</section>
2531</chapter> 3100</chapter>
2532</guide> 3101</guide>

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