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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml"> 3<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title> 4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc2 Installation Instructions</title>
5 <author title="Chief Architect"> 5 <author title="Chief Architect">
6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail> 6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 </author> 7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author> 8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author"> 9 <author title="Author">
23 </author> 23 </author>
24 <author title="Editor"> 24 <author title="Editor">
25 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail> 25 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26 </author> 26 </author>
27 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo 27 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
28 Linux 1.4_rc1. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation 28 Linux 1.4_rc2. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
29 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from 29 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
30 scratch. 30 scratch.
31 </abstract> 31 </abstract>
32 <version>2.2</version> 32 <version>2.3</version>
33 <date>17 December 2002</date> 33 <date>31 December 2002</date>
34 <chapter> 34 <chapter>
35 <title>About the Install</title> 35 <title>About the Install</title>
36 <section> 36 <section>
37 <body> 37 <body>
38
38 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well 39<p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
39 as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting. 40as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
40 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) 41Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
41 (built-in to the kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as 42kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
42 modules). In addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network 43addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
43 card that Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your 44Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
44 network and establish outbound <c>ssh</c> connections and download files. 45establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and download
45 </p> 46files. </p>
47
46 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and 48<p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
47 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully 49ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully
48 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully 50built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
49 slow under those conditions.) To begin the install process, first grab the 51slow under those conditions.)</p>
50 livecd ISO images from 52
53<p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three "stage" tarball files. The
54one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
55The stage1 tarball is used when one wants to bootstrap and build the entire
56system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
57from scratch, except for the bootstrap part which is already performed for you.
58And the stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
59been optimized for your system.</p>
60
61<p> So, how does one beging the install process? First, you'll want to decide
62which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
51 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc1/</uri>. The three stages make our life 63<uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/livecd/</uri>. These are
52 easy with Gentoo. The stage1 is for building the entire system from scratch. Stage2 is for building 64full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW using CD burning
53 some of the system from scratch, and stage3 saves a lot of time because it is already 65software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first carries the
54 optimized for you specific system. At the moment only the stage1 tarball is 66"gentoo-basic" label, and is approximately 40MB in size. This LiveCD is of
55 stored on the livecd, but you will be able to download a stage2 or 67minimal size to allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1
56 stage3 tarball optimized for your system after booting the livecd. 68tarball that can be found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has
57 </p> 69been booted.</p>
70
71<p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labelled "livecd-grp."
72These CDs contain stage1, 2 and 3 tarballs, and also contain a set of GRP
73packages optimized for a specific architecture. Using these LiveCDs, it will be
74possible for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very
75quickly. The downside is that these ISO images are large -- around 600MB -- so
76they can take a while to download.</p>
77
58 <info>If for some reason your install gets interrupted at some point, you can reboot 78<info>If for some reason your install gets interrupted at some point, you can reboot
59 and restart. For example, if you have partitioned, installed the stageX tarball, and 79and restart. For example, if you have partitioned, installed the stageX tarball, and
60 are ready to chroot, you can restart the install if necessary. Just re-boot with the 80are ready to chroot, you can restart the install if necessary. Just re-boot with the
61 LiveCD, then mount your drives/partitions to <path>/mnt</path> as normal. Basically, you can do 81LiveCD, then mount your drives/partitions to <path>/mnt</path> as normal. Basically, you can do
62 this at about any point during the install, just not before partitioning for obvious reasons. 82this at about any point during the install, just not before partitioning for obvious reasons.
63 </info> 83</info>
84
64 <warn>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish 85<warn>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
65 to report it as a bug, report it to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug needs to be 86report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
66 moved upstream to the package maintainers (ie KDE) the <e>developers</e> will take care 87needs to be moved upstream to the package maintainers (ie KDE) the
67 of that. 88<e>developers</e> will take care of that. </warn>
68 </warn> 89
69 <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. We'll create partitions, 90<p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. First, we'll download, burn
91and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we'll create partitions, create
70 create our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. 92our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
71 If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps 93are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
72 to get our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure 94our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure them
73 them (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and 95(tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and have a
74 have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build 96fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
75 process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation: 97process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation: </p>
76 </p> 98
77 <table> 99<table>
78 <tr> 100 <tr>
79 <th>stage tarball</th> 101 <th>stage tarball</th>
80 <th>requirements for installation</th> 102 <th>requirements for installation</th>
81 </tr> 103 </tr>
82 <tr> 104 <tr>
97 </chapter> 119 </chapter>
98 <chapter> 120 <chapter>
99 <title>Booting</title> 121 <title>Booting</title>
100 <section> 122 <section>
101 <body> 123 <body>
102 <p>Start by booting the livecd. You'll be 124 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. If detected properly, you should see a fancy boot screen
125 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
126 hit F2 for help, or pass kernel boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c>, etc.
127 Once you hit Enter, you'll be
103 greeted with a lot of text output 128 greeted with a lot of text output
104 followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence. 129 followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
105 Login as &quot;root&quot; (just hit &lt;enter&gt; for the password), 130 You will be automatically logged in as &quot;root&quot; and the root password will be
106 and then use the <c>passwd</c> command to change the root 131 set to a random string for security purposes.
107 password. (This root password is only for this installation session.
108 The reason for changing the password is that you will have to connect
109 to the net to complete the installation. Connecting to the internet with
110 the default root password is a <i>really</i> bad idea!)
111 You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt on the current 132 You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt on the current
112 console, and can also open new consoles by typing alt-f2, alt-f3, etc and then
113 hitting enter.
114 </p>
115 <p>Next, you will be greeted with instructions for setting up your network,
116 and optional PCI autodetection. The PCI autodetection process will automatically
117 load the appropriate kernel modules for many popular PCI SCSI and ethernet
118 devices. After this, you should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt on the current
119 console, and can also open new consoles by typing Alt-F2, Alt-F3, etc and then 133 console, and can also open new root consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4.
120 hitting enter. 134 Get back to the one you started on by pressing (you guessed it) Alt-F1.
135 </p>
136
137 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
138 explaining how to do things like configure your network devices and where you can find
139 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
121 </p> 140 </p>
122 </body> 141 </body>
123 </section> 142 </section>
124 </chapter> 143 </chapter>
125 <chapter> 144 <chapter>
126 <title>Load Kernel Modules</title> 145 <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
127 <section> 146 <section>
128 <body> 147 <body>
129 <p>Hopefully you need only type <c>pci-setup</c> at the root prompt to
130 autodetect the hardware on your system and to load the appropriate
131 kernel modules.
132 </p>
133 <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you 148 <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
134 will have to load the appropriate modules manually. 149 will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
135 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls 150 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
136 /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module, 151 /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
137 type: 152 type:
139 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration"> 154 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
140# <c>modprobe pcnet32</c> 155# <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
141<comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment> 156<comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
142 </pre> 157 </pre>
143 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected 158 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
144 during the PCI autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate 159 during the initial boot autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
145 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>: 160 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
146 </p> 161 </p>
147 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules"> 162 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
148# <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c> 163# <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
149# <c>modprobe sd_mod</c> 164# <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
150 </pre> 165 </pre>
151 <p><c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks. 166 <p><c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks.
152 <note> 167 <note>
153 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs in build-in in the kernel. 168 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
154 </note></p> 169 </note></p>
155 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you need to load the 170 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you'll need to load the
156 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller. 171 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
157 </p> 172 </p>
158 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules"> 173 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
159# <c>insmod ataraid</c> 174# <c>insmod ataraid</c>
160# <c>insmod pdcraid</c> 175# <c>insmod pdcraid</c>
162# <c>insmod hptraid</c> 177# <c>insmod hptraid</c>
163 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment> 178 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
164 </pre> 179 </pre>
165 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not, 180 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
166 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p> 181 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
167 <pre caption="Setting DMA"><comment>Replace hdX with your disk device. </comment> 182<pre caption="Setting DMA"><comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
168# <c>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX </c><comment>Enables DMA </comment> 183# hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
169# <c>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX </c><comment>Enables Ultra-DMA </comment></pre> 184# hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 <comment>Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options</comment>
185# hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX <comment>Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up</comment>
186</pre>
170 </body> 187 </body>
171 </section> 188 </section>
172 </chapter> 189 </chapter>
173 <chapter> 190 <chapter>
174 <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title> 191 <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
183# <i>insmod pcmcia_core</i> 200# <i>insmod pcmcia_core</i>
184# <i>insmod i82365</i> 201# <i>insmod i82365</i>
185# <i>insmod ds</i> 202# <i>insmod ds</i>
186# <i>cardmgr -f</i> 203# <i>cardmgr -f</i>
187 </pre> 204 </pre>
188 <p>As cardmgr detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a 205 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
189 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can 206 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
190 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading cardmgr too, if that's 207 of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that's
191 preferable. (Technically, you need not run 208 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
192 <i>cardmgr</i> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires. 209 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
193 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work, 210 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
194 as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to 211 as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
195 drop by. <i>cardmgr</i> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you 212 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
196 remove it). </p> 213 remove it). </p>
197 </body> 214 </body>
198 </section> 215 </section>
199 </chapter> 216 </chapter>
200 <chapter> 217 <chapter>
201 <title>Configuring Networking</title> 218 <title>Configuring Networking</title>
202 <section> 219 <section>
203 <title> PPPoE configuration</title> 220 <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
204 <body> 221 <body>
205 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has 222 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has
206 made things easy for you by including <i>rp-pppoe</i>. Use the provided <i>adsl-setup </i> 223 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
207 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet 224 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
208 device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password, 225 device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
209 the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p> 226 the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
210 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE"> 227 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
211# <c> adsl-setup </c> 228# <c> adsl-setup </c>
218 </section> 235 </section>
219 <section> 236 <section>
220 <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title> 237 <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
221 <body> 238 <body>
222 <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use 239 <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use
223 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process. 240 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
224 Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now. 241 Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
225 Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside 242 Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
226 the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux). 243 the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
227 The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c> 244 The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
228 script. </p> 245 script. </p>
314 </section> 331 </section>
315 <section> 332 <section>
316 <title>Networking is go!</title> 333 <title>Networking is go!</title>
317 <body> 334 <body>
318 <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included 335 <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
319 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p> 336 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
320 </body> 337 </body>
321 </section> 338 </section>
322 </chapter> 339 </chapter>
323 <chapter> 340 <chapter>
324 <title>Partition Configuration</title> 341 <title>Partition Configuration</title>
347 that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and 364 that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
348 ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 365 ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
349 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling. 366 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
350 As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended. 367 As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
351 XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that 368 XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
352 is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but be warned that it 369 is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but
353 is highly unstable at this time. 370 is generally not recommended due to its tendency to lose recently-modified
371 data if your system locks up or unexpectedly reboots (due to a power failure, for instance.)
354 </p> 372 </p>
355 <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking 373 <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
356 for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a 374 for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
357 high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are 375 high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
358 mature and refined. Please be careful with XFS; this filesystem has a tendency to fry lots of data 376 mature and refined.
359 if the system crashes or you lose power. Originally, it seemed like a promising filesystem but it
360 now appears that this tendency to lose data is a major achilles' heel.
361 Here are our basic recommended filesystem 377 Here are our basic recommended filesystem
362 sizes and types: 378 sizes and types:
363 </p> 379 </p>
364 <table> 380 <table>
365 <tr> 381 <tr>
385 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti> 401 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
386 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti> 402 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
387 <ti>/dev/hda3</ti> 403 <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
388 </tr> 404 </tr>
389 </table> 405 </table>
390 <p>Before creating your partitions, it is a <e>very</e> good idea to initialize the 406 <p>Before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
391 beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that you have no issues with 407 beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
392 mounting previously <i>fat32</i> partitions, like <path>/boot</path> 408 will not be mis-indentified by Linux's mounting code.
393 for example. To do this you would do: 409 This can be done as follows:
394 </p> 410 </p>
395 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD"> 411 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
396# <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdaBOOT bs=1024 count=1024 </c> 412# <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdxy bs=1024 count=1024 </c>
397<comment>BOOT is the partition that holds your <path>/boot</path>.</comment> 413<comment>Replace /dev/hdxy with the device you wish to "clean."</comment>
398 </pre> 414 </pre>
399 <p>At this point, create your partitions using fdisk. Note that your partitions 415 <p>At this point, create your partitions using <c>fdisk</c>. Note that your partitions
400 should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS <e>or</e> ext2/3). </p> 416 should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS, ext2/3 or other). </p>
401 <note><i>cfdisk</i> is included on the install CD, and it is *considerably* easier to use than 417 <note><c>cfdisk</c> is included on the install CD, and it is <i>considerably</i> easier to use than
402 <i>fdisk</i>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it. By default cfdisk work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note> 418 <c>fdisk</c>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it; by default, cfdisk will work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not the hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note>
403 <note>Changes to the partitions don't reflect on-the-fly, so please reboot after using fdisk or cfdisk.</note> 419
420
421<note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to allow your system to detect the
422new partition configuration.</note>
423
424
404 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little 425<note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
405 different. 426will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X is
406 You will have the partitions like this:
407 <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path>
408 X is the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 427the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
409 array, then it will
410 be disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> 428disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
411 </note> 429
430
431
412 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize 432<p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
413 the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p> 433 the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p>
414 <pre caption="Initializing Swap"> 434 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
415# <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c> 435# <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
416 </pre> 436 </pre>
417 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p> 437 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
465# <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c> 485# <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
466# <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c> 486# <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
467# <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c> 487# <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
468# <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c> 488# <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
469 </pre> 489 </pre>
470 <p> 490 <p>
471 If you are setting up Gentoo 491 If you are setting up Gentoo
472 Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to 492 Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
473 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively. 493 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
474 </p> 494 </p>
495 <p>Additionally, perform the following steps if you'd like to take advantage of your CD's set of pre-built
496"GRP" packages for openoffice, KDE, GNOME and Xfree86. First, ensure that you're using the required "gentoo-grp"
497CD. Then, type:</p>
498<pre caption="Getting ready for GRP">
499# install -d /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages
500# mount --bind /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/packages /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages
501</pre>
475 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it 502 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
476 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure 503 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
477 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too. 504 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
478 We'll get to that in a bit. 505 We'll get to that in a bit.
479 </impo> 506 </impo>
480 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using 507 <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
485 <chapter> 512 <chapter>
486 <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title> 513 <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
487 <section> 514 <section>
488 <body> 515 <body>
489 <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set 516 <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set
490 to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/cdroot/nocompress</path>. 517 to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path>.
491 On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3 518 On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3
492 tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it 519 tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it
493 (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest) 520 (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest)
494 from one of the Gentoo mirror sites. </p> 521 from one of the Gentoo mirror sites. </p>
495 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages"> 522 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
496# <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c> 523# <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
497<comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball</comment> 524<comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball</comment>
498# <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc1/x86/</c> 525# <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</c>
499# <c>wget <comment>insert required stage tarball here.</comment></c> 526# <c>wget <comment>insert required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
500 </pre> 527 </pre>
501 </body> 528 </body>
502 </section> 529 </section>
503 </chapter> 530 </chapter>
504 <chapter> 531 <chapter>
505 <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title> 532 <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
506 <section> 533 <section>
507 <body> 534 <body>
508 <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. 535 <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
509 Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation. 536 Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to "enter" the new
537 Gentoo Linux system.
510 </p> 538 </p>
511 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will 539 <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
512 cause certain files to contain incorrect permissions.</impo> 540 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
513 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install method, 541 <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install method,
514 you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image. 542 you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
515 If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. 543 If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
516 These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen 544 These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
517 compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.) 545 compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.)
518 </p> 546 </p>
519 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages"> 547 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
520# <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c> 548# <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
521# <c>tar -xvjpf /path/to/stage?-*.tbz2</c> 549# <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
522# <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c> 550# <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
523# <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c> 551# <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
524 </pre> 552 </pre>
525 <pre caption="Entering the chroot Environment"> 553 <pre caption="Entering the chroot Environment">
526# <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c> 554# <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
668 </pre> 696 </pre>
669 </body> 697 </body>
670 </section> 698 </section>
671 </chapter> 699 </chapter>
672 <chapter> 700 <chapter>
701 <title>Using GRP</title>
702 <section>
703 <body>
704
705<p>If you bind mounted <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/packages</path> previously, you can take advantage of pre-built GRP package sets
706to avoid compiling certain popular and large packages. Currently, we provide full builds of everything you need for <c>openoffice-bin</c>,
707<c>gnome</c>, <c>kde</c> and <c>xfree</c>. To merge these pre-built packages, type:</p>
708<pre caption="Using GRP">
709# emerge --usepkgonly kde
710</pre>
711<p>Optionally, you can use pre-built packages combined with any updates available in your new Portage tree by typing:</p>
712<pre caption="Using GRP with updates">
713# emerge --usepkg openoffice-bin
714</pre>
715 </body>
716 </section>
717</chapter>
718
719 <chapter>
673 <title>Final Steps: Timezone</title> 720 <title>Final Steps: Timezone</title>
674 <section> 721 <section>
675 <body> 722 <body>
676 <p>At this point, you should have system that's ready for final configuration. 723 <p>At this point, you should have system that's ready for final configuration.
677 We'll start the configuration process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building 724 We'll start the configuration process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building
706 </tr> 753 </tr>
707 <tr> 754 <tr>
708 <ti> 755 <ti>
709 <path>gentoo-sources</path> 756 <path>gentoo-sources</path>
710 </ti> 757 </ti>
711 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel based on -ac.</ti> 758 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
712 </tr> 759 </tr>
713 <tr> 760 <tr>
714 <ti> 761 <ti>
715 <path>xfs-sources</path> 762 <path>xfs-sources</path>
716 </ti> 763 </ti>
717 <ti>A snapshot of the SGI XFS CVS Linux source tree; this is the kernel to run if you want bleeding edge(cvs) xfs support.</ti> 764 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
718 </tr> 765 </tr>
719 <tr> 766 <tr>
720 <ti> 767 <ti>
721 <path>openmosix-sources</path> 768 <path>openmosix-sources</path>
722 </ti> 769 </ti>
733 <path>vanilla-sources</path> 780 <path>vanilla-sources</path>
734 </ti> 781 </ti>
735 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti> 782 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti>
736 </tr> 783 </tr>
737 </table> 784 </table>
738 <warn>Please note that <i>gentoo-sources</i> is heavily patched and may not be stable. 785 <warn>
739 Using <i>vanilla-sources</i> might be a better idea if you encounter numerous problems. If you are using 786 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
740 <i>gentoo-sources</i> beware of <i>grsecurity</i>, especially with <i>X</i>. 787 security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
741 It is best to disable <i>grsecurity</i>unless you are absolutely sure that you need it.
742 </warn> 788 </warn>
743 <p>Choose one and then merge as follows:</p> 789 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
744 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources"> 790 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
745# <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c> 791# <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
746 </pre> 792 </pre>
747 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel. 793 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel.
748 </p> 794 </p>
792 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time. 838 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
793 </p> 839 </p>
794 <note> 840 <note>
795 For those who prefer it, 841 For those who prefer it,
796 it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel. 842 it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
797 Such stability will come at a price: 843 However, doing this comes at a price:
798 you will lose many of the nifty features that 844 you will lose many of the nifty features that
799 are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs 845 are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
800 filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be 846 filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
801 patched with Reiserfs and devfs support. 847 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
802 Gentoo linux bootscripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so 848 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
803 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module). 849 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
804 It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel 850 It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
805 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted 851 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
806 for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then 852 for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
807 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead. 853 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
857# <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c> 903# <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
858<comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment> 904<comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
859<comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment> 905<comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
860# <c>rc-update add *cron default </c> 906# <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
861 </pre> 907 </pre>
862 <p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux, 908 <!--<p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux,
863 see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p> 909 see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>-->
864 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the 910 <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
865 <uri link="/doc/rc-scripts.html">rc-script guide</uri>. 911 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
866 </p> 912 </p>
867 </body> 913 </body>
868 </section> 914 </section>
869 </chapter> 915 </chapter>
870 <chapter> 916 <chapter>
887 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools"> 933 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
888# <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c> 934# <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
889<comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment> 935<comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
890# <c> emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c> 936# <c> emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
891<comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment> 937<comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
892# <c>emerge --usepkg sys-apps/lvm-user</c> 938# <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
893 </pre> 939 </pre>
894 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first 940 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
895 real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package. 941 real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
896 </p> 942 </p>
897 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs"> 943 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1169 </chapter> 1215 </chapter>
1170 <chapter> 1216 <chapter>
1171 <title>Final steps: Configure LILO</title> 1217 <title>Final steps: Configure LILO</title>
1172 <section> 1218 <section>
1173 <body> 1219 <body>
1174 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the most stable. 1220 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1175 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. If you want stability 1221 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here's how to install
1176 and semi-ease of configure, give LILO a try. 1222 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1177 </p> 1223 </p>
1178 <p>The first step is to emerge LILO: 1224 <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1179 </p> 1225 </p>
1180 <pre caption="Emerging LILO"> 1226 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1181# <c>emerge lilo</c> 1227# <c>emerge lilo</c>
1247 <chapter> 1293 <chapter>
1248 <title>Final steps: Bootdisks</title> 1294 <title>Final steps: Bootdisks</title>
1249 <section> 1295 <section>
1250 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title> 1296 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1251 <body> 1297 <body>
1252 <p>It is always a good idea to make a bootdisk the first 1298 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1253 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security 1299 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1254 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using hardware RAID, you <e>must</e> make a GRUB boot 1300 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1255 disk. With hardware RAID 1301 disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1256 if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. So we 1302 if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1257 will make a GRUB 1303 make a GRUB
1258 boot disk, and when you reboot the first time we will install GRUB 1304 boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1259 to the MBR. Make your 1305 to the MBR. Make your
1260 bootdisk like this: 1306 bootdisk like this:
1261 </p> 1307 </p>
1262 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk"> 1308 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1263# <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c> 1309# <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1270 1316
1271grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c> 1317grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1272grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c> 1318grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1273grub&gt; <c>quit</c> 1319grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1274 </pre> 1320 </pre>
1321 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1322 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1275 </body> 1323 </body>
1276 </section> 1324 </section>
1277 <section> 1325 <section>
1278 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title> 1326 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1279 <body> 1327 <body>
1311 generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>. 1359 generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1312 </note> 1360 </note>
1313 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must 1361 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1314 use the bootdisk for the first reboot. 1362 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1315 then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first 1363 then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1316 time. You are done, congratulations</impo> 1364 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1317 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development, 1365 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1318 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists 1366 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1319 (there's a &quot;click to subscribe&quot; link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>). 1367 (there's a &quot;click to subscribe&quot; link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1320 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri> 1368 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1321 that will 1369 that will

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