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33 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo 33 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
34 Linux 1.4_rc2 and 1.4_rc3. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation 34 Linux 1.4_rc2 and 1.4_rc3. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
35 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from 35 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
36 scratch. 36 scratch.
37 </abstract> 37 </abstract>
38<version>2.3.18</version> 38<version>2.3.19</version>
39 <date>26 Feb 2003</date> 39 <date>26 Feb 2003</date>
40 <chapter> 40 <chapter>
41 <title>About the Install</title> 41 <title>About the Install</title>
42 <section> 42 <section>
43 <body> 43 <body>
58The stage1 tarball is used when one wants to bootstrap and build the entire 58The stage1 tarball is used when one wants to bootstrap and build the entire
59system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system 59system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
60from scratch, except for the bootstrap part which is already performed for you. 60from scratch, except for the bootstrap part which is already performed for you.
61And the stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has 61And the stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
62been optimized for your system.</p> 62been optimized for your system.</p>
63 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
64 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
65 and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
66 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. stage2 installs
67 allow you to skip the "bootstrap" process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
68 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
69 go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
70 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Which may not
71 be a bad thing, as major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for
72 various popular processors. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
73 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
74
75
63 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you'll want to decide 76 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you'll want to decide
64which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from 77which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
65<uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</uri>. 78<uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc2/x86/</uri> or <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</uri> .
66In this directory, you'll see several subdirectories such as <c>athlon</c> 79In this directory, you'll see several subdirectories such as <c>athlon</c>
67for each of our various architecture-specific builds. Here's a low-down on 80for each of our various architecture-specific builds. Here's a low-down on
68each arch directory and what it contains:</p> 81each arch directory and what it contains:</p>
69 <table> 82 <table>
70 <tr> 83 <tr>
71 <th>Architecture</th> 84 <th>Architecture</th>
72 <th>Description</th> 85 <th>Description</th>
73 </tr> 86 </tr>
74 <tr> 87 <tr>
75 <ti>x86</ti> 88 <ti>x86</ti>
76 <ti>Stage 1 tarballs and &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; liveCD -- will work on anything.</ti> 89 <ti>Stage 1 tarballs and &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; liveCD -- will work on anything. Some Gentoo Linux
90 "_rc" releases only have these types of stage tarballs.</ti>
77 </tr> 91 </tr>
78 <tr> 92 <tr>
79 <ti>i586</ti> 93 <ti>i586</ti>
80 <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i586+ CPUs</ti> 94 <ti>Stage 2 and 3 tarballs, GRP packages and liveCD for i586+ CPUs</ti>
81 </tr> 95 </tr>
118optimized for a specific architecture. GRP is simply precompiled packages for 132optimized for a specific architecture. GRP is simply precompiled packages for
119very large applications, such as XFree86. KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice, etc. 133very large applications, such as XFree86. KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice, etc.
120Using these LiveCDs, it will be possible 134Using these LiveCDs, it will be possible
121for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly. The 135for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly. The
122downside is that these ISO images are large -- around 600MB -- so they can take 136downside is that these ISO images are large -- around 600MB -- so they can take
123a while to download.</p> 137a while to download. <b>Note that some "_rc" releases of Gentoo Linux may not
124 <info>If for some reason your install gets interrupted at some point, you can 138include GRP package sets or LiveCDs.</b></p>
125reboot and restart. For example, if you have partitioned, installed the stageX
126tarball, and are ready to chroot, you can restart the install if necessary.
127Just re-boot with the LiveCD, then mount your drives/partitions to
128<path>/mnt</path> as normal. Basically, you can do this at about any point
129during the install, just not before partitioning for obvious reasons. </info>
130 <warn>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to 139 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
131report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug 140report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
132needs to be moved upstream to the package maintainers (ie KDE) the 141needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (ie the KDE team) the
133<e>developers</e> will take care of that. </warn> 142<e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
143</impo>
134 <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. First, we'll download, burn 144 <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. First, we'll download, burn
135and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we'll create partitions, create 145and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we'll create partitions, create
136our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we 146our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
137are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get 147are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
138our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure them 148our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure them
164 <title>Booting</title> 174 <title>Booting</title>
165 <section> 175 <section>
166 <body> 176 <body>
167 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. If detected properly, you should see a fancy boot screen 177 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. If detected properly, you should see a fancy boot screen
168 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process, 178 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
169 hit F2 for help, or pass kernel boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c>, etc. 179 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c> and then hitting Enter. To see
180 a detailed description of available boot options, press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
181
182 <p>
170 Once you hit Enter, you'll be 183 Once you hit Enter, you'll be
171 greeted with a lot of text output 184 greeted with a lot of text output (kernel and initrd messages)
172 followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence. 185 followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
173 You will be automatically logged in as &quot;root&quot; and the root password will be 186 You will be automatically logged in as &quot;root&quot; and the root password will be
174 set to a random string for security purposes. 187 set to a random string for security purposes.
175 You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt on the current 188 You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt on the current
176 console, and can also open new root consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. 189 console, and can also open new root consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4.
177 Get back to the one you started on by pressing (you guessed it) Alt-F1. 190 Get back to the one you started on by pressing (you guessed it) Alt-F1.
191
178 </p> 192 </p>
179 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text 193 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
180 explaining how to do things like configure your network devices and where you can find 194 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
181 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD. 195 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
182 </p> 196 </p>
183 </body> 197 </body>
184 </section> 198 </section>
185 </chapter> 199 </chapter>
195 </p> 209 </p>
196 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration"> 210 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
197# <c>modprobe pcnet32</c> 211# <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
198<comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment> 212<comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
199 </pre> 213 </pre>
200 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected 214 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
201 during the initial boot autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate 215 during the initial boot autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
202 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>: 216 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
203 </p> 217 </p>
204 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules"> 218 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
205# <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c> 219# <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
226# hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options</comment> 240# hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options</comment>
227# hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX <comment>Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up</comment></pre> 241# hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX <comment>Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up</comment></pre>
228 </body> 242 </body>
229 </section> 243 </section>
230 </chapter> 244 </chapter>
245<!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
231 <chapter> 246 <chapter>
232 <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title> 247 <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
233 <section> 248 <section>
234 <body> 249 <body>
235 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to do some additional 250 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
236 trickery.
237 </p> 251 </p>
238 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot 252 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
239 portion of the install. </warn> 253 portion of the install. </warn>
240 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules"> 254 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
241# <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i> 255# <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
253 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you 267 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
254 remove it). </p> 268 remove it). </p>
255 </body> 269 </body>
256 </section> 270 </section>
257 </chapter> 271 </chapter>
272-->
258 <chapter> 273 <chapter>
259 <title>Configuring Networking</title> 274 <title>Configuring Networking</title>
275 <section>
276 <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
277 <body>
278 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it's possible that your networking has already been
279 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
280 network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
281 among others.</p>
282
283 <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
284 list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
285 </p>
286 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
287eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
288 inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
289 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
290 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
291 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
292 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
293 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
294 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
295 Interrupt:11
296 </pre>
297 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
298 and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
299 resolution is working correctly, etc.
300 </p>
301 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
302# <c>ping www.some_website.com </c>
303 </pre>
304 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
305 </body>
306 </section>
260 <section> 307 <section>
261 <title> PPPoE configuration</title> 308 <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
262 <body> 309 <body>
263 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has 310 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
264 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c> 311 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
265 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet 312 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
266 device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password, 313 device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
267 the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p> 314 the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
268 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE"> 315 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
269# <c> adsl-setup </c> 316# <c> adsl-setup </c>
270# <c> adsl-start </c> 317# <c> adsl-start </c>
271 </pre> 318 </pre>
272 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed 319 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
273 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or 320 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
274 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p> 321 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
275 </body> 322 </body>
276 </section> 323 </section>
277 <section> 324 <section>
278 <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title> 325 <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
279 <body> 326 <body>
280 <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use 327 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
281 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
282 Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
283 Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
284 the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
285 The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
286 script. </p>
287 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script"> 328 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
288# <c>net-setup eth0</c> 329# <c>net-setup eth0</c>
289 </pre> 330 </pre>
290 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. </p> 331 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
291 </body> 332 </body>
292 </section> 333 </section>
293 <section> 334 <section>
294 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title> 335 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
295 <body> 336 <body>
343# <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c> 384# <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
344# <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c> 385# <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
345 </pre> 386 </pre>
346 </body> 387 </body>
347 </section> 388 </section>
348 <section> 389 <section>
349 <title>Network Testing</title>
350 <body>
351 <p>Now that your network has been configured, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig -a</c> command should show
352 that your network card is working (look for <e>UP</e> and <e>RUNNING</e> in the output). </p>
353 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
354eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
355 inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
356 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
357 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
358 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
359 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
360 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
361 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
362 Interrupt:11
363 </pre>
364 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
365 and a website of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
366 resolution is working correctly, etc.
367 </p>
368 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
369# <c>ping www.some_website.com </c>
370 </pre>
371 </body>
372 </section>
373 <section>
374 <title>Networking is go!</title> 390 <title>Networking is go!</title>
375 <body> 391 <body>
376 <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included 392 <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
377 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p> 393 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
378 </body> 394 </body>
383 <section> 399 <section>
384 <body> 400 <body>
385 <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time 401 <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
386 to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux. 402 to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
387 </p> 403 </p>
404
388 <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout. 405 <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
389 We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root 406 We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
390 partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition. 407 partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
391 The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as 408 The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
392 your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store 409 your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
393 everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, 410 everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
430 <ti>100 Megabytes</ti> 447 <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
431 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti> 448 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
432 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti> 449 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
433 </tr> 450 </tr>
434 <tr> 451 <tr>
435 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit)</ti> 452 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
436 <ti>Generally, unless you are running a server, swapspace can be pretty flexible. Please consult the 453 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that's between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
437 below table for some loose guidelines on swap space.</ti> 454 in your system.</ti>
438 <ti>Linux swap</ti> 455 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
439 <ti>/dev/hda2</ti> 456 <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
440 </tr> 457 </tr>
441 <tr> 458 <tr>
442 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti> 459 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
444 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti> 461 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
445 <ti>/dev/hda3</ti> 462 <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
446 </tr> 463 </tr>
447 </table> 464 </table>
448 465
449 <table> 466
450 <tr>
451 <th>Physical RAM</th>
452 <th>Swapspace Size</th>
453 </tr>
454 <tr>
455 <ti>0-48MB RAM</ti>
456 <ti>048-064MB RAM</ti>
457 <ti>064MB-128MB RAM</ti>
458 <ti>128-256MB RAM</ti>
459 <ti>256-512MB RAM</ti>
460 </tr>
461 <tr>
462 <ti>720MB</ti>
463 <ti>702MB</ti>
464 <ti>640MB</ti>
465 <ti>256MB</ti>
466 </tr>
467 </table>
468
469 <p>Before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
470 beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
471 will not be mis-indentified by Linux's mounting code.
472 This can be done as follows:
473 </p>
474 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
475# <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdxy bs=1K count=1</c>
476<comment>Replace /dev/hdxy with the device you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;</comment>
477 </pre>
478 <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hdxy</path>.
479 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
480 If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
481 </warn>
482 <p>At this point, create your partitions using <c>fdisk</c>. Note that your partitions 467 <p>At this point, create your partitions using <c>fdisk</c>. Note that your partitions
483 should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS, ext2/3 or other). </p> 468 should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS, ext2/3 or other). </p>
484 <note><c>cfdisk</c> is included on the install CD, and it is <i>considerably</i> easier to use than 469 <note><c>cfdisk</c> is included on the install CD, and it is <i>considerably</i> easier to use than
485 <c>fdisk</c>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it; by default, cfdisk will work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not the hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note> 470 <c>fdisk</c>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it; by default, cfdisk will work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not the hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note>
486 <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to allow your system to detect the 471 <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to allow your system to detect the
487new partition configuration.</note> 472new partition configuration.</note>
488 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You 473 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
489will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X is 474will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X is
490the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be 475the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
491disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note> 476disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
492 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize 477 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
493 the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p> 478 the filesystems that will be used to house our data.</p>
479
480 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
481 beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
482 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
483 a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
484 will not be mis-indentified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
485 This can be done as follows:
486 </p>
487 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
488# <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdxy bs=1K count=1</c>
489<comment>Replace /dev/hdxy with the device you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;</comment>
490 </pre>
491 <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hdxy</path>.
492 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
493 If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
494 </warn>
495 <p>Now, initialize your swap partition as follows:</p>
494 <pre caption="Initializing Swap"> 496 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
495# <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c> 497# <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
496 </pre> 498 </pre>
497 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p> 499 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
498 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem"> 500 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
499# <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i> 501# <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
507 The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower 509 The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
508 the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition, 510 the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
509 so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5. 511 so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5.
510 The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance. 512 The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
511 </note> 513 </note>
512 <warn>
513 If you are installing an XFS partition over a previous ReiserFS partition,
514 later attempts to mount may fail without an explicit <c>mount -t xfs</c>.
515 The solution is to zero out the partition before creating the XFS filesystem:
516 <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hd<comment>x</comment> bs=1k</c>.
517 </warn>
518 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p> 514 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
519 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem"> 515 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
520# <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c> 516# <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
521 </pre> 517 </pre>
522 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at 518 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
537 </chapter> 533 </chapter>
538 <chapter> 534 <chapter>
539 <title>Mount Partitions</title> 535 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
540 <section> 536 <section>
541 <body> 537 <body>
542 <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that 538 <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
543 provides later: 539 provides later:
544 </p> 540 </p>
545 <pre caption="Activating Swap"> 541 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
546# <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c> 542# <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
547 </pre> 543 </pre>
670 </chapter> 666 </chapter>
671 <chapter> 667 <chapter>
672 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title> 668 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
673 <section> 669 <section>
674 <body> 670 <body>
675 <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, people using stage1 to 671 <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree,
676 install will need to bootstrap their Gentoo Linux system as follows. First 672 it's time to customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use
673 on your Gentoo Linux system. First
677 edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your 674 edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
678 <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would 675 <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
679 like to be built into packages; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> 676 like to be built into packages if available; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
680 or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine. 677 or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
681 More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found 678 More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
682 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. 679 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
683 A complete list of current USE flags can be found 680 A complete list of current USE flags can be found
684 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. 681 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
685 </p> 682 </p>
686 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and 683 <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
687 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating 684 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
688 (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) Your best friend 685 (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
689 is <path>man gcc</path> to figure out what additional <c>CFLAGS</c> and 686 will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
690 <code>CXXFLAGS</code> are available. Search for 'Optimization'. 687 is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
691 </p> 688 to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
689 so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
690 performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
691 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
692
692 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a 693 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
693 firewall. 694 firewall.
694 </p> 695 </p>
695 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options"> 696 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
696# <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment> 697# <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
697 </pre> 698 </pre>
698 <note> 699 <note>
699 People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at 700 People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
700 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and 701 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
701 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should 702 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
702 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path> 703 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
703 <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're 704 <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
704 interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. 705 interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
705 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c> 706 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
706 in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.) 707 in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
712 <title>Starting from Stage1</title> 713 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
713 <section> 714 <section>
714 <body> 715 <body>
715 <p>The stage1 tarball is for ultimate tweakage. If you have picked this tarball, 716 <p>The stage1 tarball is for ultimate tweakage. If you have picked this tarball,
716 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized system. Have fun, because optimization 717 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized system. Have fun, because optimization
717 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! 718 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
719 is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
718 </p> 720 </p>
719 <p>Now, it's time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on 721 <p>Now, it's time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
720 my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped 722 my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped
721 for compiling the rest of the system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library. 723 for compiling the rest of the system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
722 These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process. 724 These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process.
1225 <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary. 1227 <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1226 In fact, it can be a hinderance, so please only choose one. 1228 In fact, it can be a hinderance, so please only choose one.
1227 </p> 1229 </p>
1228 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset 1230 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1229 with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board 1231 with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1230 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM is used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low 1232 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1231 memory at boot time, it will experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce 1233 memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1232 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video 1234 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1233 right now, it'd be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a 1235 right now, it'd be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1234 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo> 1236 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1235 1237
1236 </body> 1238 </body>

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