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379 <section> 379 <section>
380 <title>Introduction to block devices</title> 380 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
381 <body> 381 <body>
382<p> 382<p>
383In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including 383In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
384Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familar with the ins and outs of disks and 384Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
385filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux 385filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
386install. 386install.
387</p> 387</p>
388<p> 388<p>
389To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is 389To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
417 417
418<p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block 418<p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
419device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or 419device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
420<c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in 420<c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
421practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more 421practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
422manageable block devices called "partititons". Partitions are created using a 422manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
423tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table 423tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
424that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split 424that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
425up the full disk. </p> 425up the full disk. </p>
426 426
427<p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>, 427<p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
510type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the 510type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
511partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for 511partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
512partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, and '82' is the correct 512partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, and '82' is the correct
513partition type for Linux swap partitions. You set the partition type using the 513partition type for Linux swap partitions. You set the partition type using the
514<c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type 514<c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
515setting to auto-detect fileystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time. 515setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
516</p> 516</p>
517</body> 517</body>
518</section> 518</section>
519<section> 519<section>
520<title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title> 520<title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
1073 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization 1073 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1074 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result 1074 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1075 is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs. 1075 is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1076 </p> 1076 </p>
1077 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on 1077 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1078 my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. 1078 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1079During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap 1079During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1080as follows:</p> 1080as follows:</p>
1081<pre caption="Bootstrapping"> 1081<pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1082# <c>cd /usr/portage</c> 1082# <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1083# <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c> 1083# <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1483 </chapter> 1483 </chapter>
1484 <chapter> 1484 <chapter>
1485 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title> 1485 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1486 <section> 1486 <section>
1487 <body> 1487 <body>
1488 <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames. 1488 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1489 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses 1489 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1490 of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file: 1490 of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1491 </p> 1491 </p>
1492<pre caption="Hosts Template"> 1492<pre caption="Hosts Template">
1493127.0.0.1 localhost 1493127.0.0.1 localhost
1588 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one. 1588 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1589 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as 1589 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1590 cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives. 1590 cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1591 (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured 1591 (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1592 to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb, 1592 to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1593 a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive 1593 a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hard drive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1594 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>. 1594 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1595 1595
1596 It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub 1596 It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1597 offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having 1597 offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1598 a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the 1598 a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1877 us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly 1877 us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1878 appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>. 1878 appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1879 </p> 1879 </p>
1880 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system. 1880 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1881 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used 1881 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1882 to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or 1882 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
1883 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the 1883 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1884 development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring 1884 development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1885 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program: 1885 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1886 </p> 1886 </p>
1887 <ul> 1887 <ul>

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