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#45808 - Add ATA RAID instructions to the tips/tricks

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3    
4     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-tipsntricks.xml">
5     <title>Gentoo/x86 Installation Tips &amp; Tricks</title>
6     <author title="Author">
7     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
8     </author>
9    
10     <abstract>
11     The Gentoo installation allows for very flexible approaches to the various
12     installation methods. As it is almost impossible to insert every single tip or
13     trick in the installation instructions this document tries to deal with all
14     submitted tips and tricks for reference purposes.
15     </abstract>
16    
17     <license/>
18    
19 swift 1.4 <version>1.1</version>
20 swift 1.1 <date>April 11, 2004</date>
21    
22     <chapter>
23     <title>Introduction</title>
24     <section>
25     <title>Preliminary</title>
26     <body>
27    
28     <p>
29     This document contains various tips and tricks for the Gentoo/x86 installation.
30     Most of them are discussed in a dense way - they are meant as an addendum to the
31     installation instructions and not as a replacement.
32     </p>
33    
34     </body>
35     </section>
36     <section>
37     <title>Contents</title>
38     <body>
39    
40 swift 1.2 <p>
41     <b>Advanced Installations</b>
42     </p>
43    
44 swift 1.1 <ul>
45     <li><uri link="#software-raid">Software RAID</uri></li>
46 swift 1.4 <li><uri link="#ata-raid-2.4">ATA RAID using 2.4 kernels</uri></li>
47 swift 1.1 </ul>
48    
49 swift 1.3 <p>
50     <b>Simplifying the Installation</b>
51     </p>
52    
53     <ul>
54     <li><uri link="#leave_terminal">Leaving the Terminal</uri></li>
55     </ul>
56    
57 swift 1.1 </body>
58     </section>
59     </chapter>
60     <chapter>
61     <title>Advanced Installations</title>
62     <section id="software-raid">
63     <title>Software RAID</title>
64     <body>
65    
66     <note>
67     If you are not known to software raid, please read the <uri
68     link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Software-RAID-HOWTO.html">Software-RAID-HOWTO</uri>.
69     </note>
70    
71     <p>
72     Once you are booted from the LiveCD, load the appropriate RAID modules. For
73     instance, if you plan on using RAID-1:
74     </p>
75    
76     <pre caption="Loading the RAID-1 module">
77     # <i>modprobe raid1</i>
78     </pre>
79    
80     <p>
81     When you partition your disks, make sure that your partitions use <c>fd</c>
82     (Linux raid autodetect) as Partition Type instead of <c>83</c> (Linux native).
83     You can alter the partition type using the <c>t</c> command in <c>fdisk</c>.
84     </p>
85    
86     <p>
87     After partitioning, create the <path>/etc/raidtab</path> file (yes, indeed, on
88     the LiveCD environment) and insert the necessary commands for your RAID setup.
89     For instance, to have your boot, swap and root partition mirrored (RAID-1)
90     covering <path>/dev/sda</path> and <path>/dev/sdb</path>, you can use:
91     </p>
92    
93     <pre caption="/etc/raidtab for RAID-1 setup">
94     raiddev /dev/md0
95     raid-level 1
96     nr-raid-disks 2
97     chunk-size 32
98     persistent-superblock 1
99     device /dev/sda1
100     raid-disk 0
101     device /dev/sdb1
102     raid-disk 1
103    
104     raiddev /dev/md1
105     raid-level 1
106     nr-raid-disks 2
107     chunk-size 32
108     persistent-superblock 1
109     device /dev/sda2
110     raid-disk 0
111     device /dev/sdb2
112     raid-disk 1
113    
114     raiddev /dev/md2
115     raid-level 1
116     nr-raid-disks 2
117     chunk-size 32
118     persistent-superblock 1
119     device /dev/sda3
120     raid-disk 0
121     device /dev/sdb3
122     raid-disk 1
123     </pre>
124    
125     <p>
126     Now create the necessary RAID devices for each RAID device you listed in
127     <path>/etc/raidtab</path>:
128     </p>
129    
130     <pre caption="Creating RAID devices">
131     # <i>mkraid /dev/md0</i>
132     # <i>mkraid /dev/md1</i>
133     # <i>mkraid /dev/md2</i>
134     </pre>
135    
136     <p>
137     The Linux Software RAID driver will start creating the metadevices. You can see
138     its progress in <path>/proc/mdstat</path>. Wait until the metadevices are
139     completely finished before proceeding.
140     </p>
141    
142     <p>
143     From now onwards, use <path>/dev/md0</path> for the boot partition,
144     <path>/dev/md1</path> for the swap partition and <path>/dev/md2</path> for the
145     root partition.
146     </p>
147    
148     <p>
149     After mounting <path>/dev/md2</path> on <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, don't forget
150     to copy over <path>/etc/raidtab</path> to <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc</path>.
151     </p>
152    
153     <p>
154     When you're configuring your kernel, make sure you have the appropriate RAID
155     support <e>in</e> your kernel and not as module.
156     </p>
157    
158     <p>
159     When installing extra tools, emerge <c>raidtools</c> as well. Note that this
160     isn't available on all LiveCDs so you might not be able to install Gentoo on a
161     Software RAID when using a networkless installation!
162     </p>
163    
164     <p>
165     When configuring your bootloader, make sure it gets installed in the MBR of
166     <e>both</e> disks if you use mirroring.
167     </p>
168    
169     </body>
170     </section>
171 swift 1.4 <section id="ata-raid-2.4">
172     <title>ATA RAID using 2.4 kernels</title>
173     <body>
174    
175     <p>
176     Make sure you boot your LiveCD using the <c>doataraid</c> option. Once booted,
177     check the contents of <path>/dev/ataraid</path>. It should contain various
178     <path>disc*</path> directories for each harddisk available in the ATA RAID. An
179     entire disk is displayed as <path>disc</path> while partitions are
180     <path>part*</path>.
181     </p>
182    
183     <p>
184     Write down the various <path>/dev/ataraid/disc*/*</path> device files that you
185     use to install Gentoo on. You will need to substitute the <path>/dev/hda</path>
186     examples in the installation with this path.
187     </p>
188    
189     <p>
190     Before chrooting, bind-mount the <path>/dev</path> structure in the new
191     environment:
192     </p>
193    
194     <pre caption="Bind-mounting /dev">
195     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
196     </pre>
197    
198     <p>
199     When configuring your kernel, make sure you enable support for your ATA RAID
200     chipset and options. For instance, a popular ATA RAID system is a <e>Promise
201     FastTrack built-in RAID</e> in which case you definitely need <c>Promise
202     FastTrack Options</c> built in into your kernel.
203     </p>
204    
205     <p>
206     When configuring GRUB, you first have to create a GRUB bootdisk. This is not as
207     hard as you think. First install GRUB as you would, but when you come to the
208     part where GRUB is getting installed in the MBR, follow the following
209     instructions:
210     </p>
211    
212     <pre caption="Creating a GRUB bootdisk">
213     # <i>cd /boot/grub</i>
214     # <i>dd if=stage1 of=/dev/fd0 bs=512 count=1</i>
215     # <i>dd if=stage2 of=/dev/fd0 bs=512 seek=1</i>
216     </pre>
217    
218     <p>
219     You still need to write your <path>grub.conf</path> file. This is no different
220     from the installation instructions, just make sure that your <c>root=</c> points
221     to the ATA RAID device.
222     </p>
223    
224     <p>
225     After finishing the installation, boot with your GRUB bootdisk. You will be
226     greeted by a GRUB prompt. Now configure GRUB to boot from the ATA RAID device:
227     </p>
228    
229     <pre caption="Installing GRUB on the ATA RAID">
230     grub&gt; root (hd0,x)
231     grub&gt; setup (hd0)
232     grub&gt; quit
233     </pre>
234    
235     <p>
236     Now reboot (with the GRUB bootfloppy removed).
237     </p>
238    
239     <p>
240     LILO users can safely use the instructions mentioned in the installation
241     instructions.
242     </p>
243    
244     </body>
245     </section>
246 swift 1.1 </chapter>
247 swift 1.3
248     <chapter>
249     <title>Simplifying the Installation</title>
250     <section id="leave_terminal">
251     <title>Leaving your Terminal</title>
252     <body>
253    
254     <p>
255     Many people want to leave their system when it's compiling. In certain cases
256     this is rather difficult as the installation is done in a public environment
257     where you cannot trust everyone. If this is the case, you want to be able to
258     perform the compilation in the background and log out from all terminals.
259     </p>
260    
261     <p>
262     There are several possible solutions for this. The first one is to use
263     <c>screen</c>. After booting the LiveCD, set your root password and start a
264     screen session:
265     </p>
266    
267     <note>
268     Not all LiveCDs provide screen. If this is the case, you will have to use one of
269     the other methods described in this section.
270     </note>
271    
272     <pre caption="Starting a screen session">
273     # <i>screen -S gentoo</i>
274     </pre>
275    
276     <p>
277     Once inside the screen session you can perform the entire installation. When you
278     want to leave your terminal, press <c>Ctrl-a, d</c> (that is, control and a at
279     the same time, then followed by a d) to <e>detach</e> your screen session. You
280     can now safely log out of your system.
281     </p>
282    
283     <p>
284     To regain access to your terminal, log in as root again and <e>attach</e> to
285     the running screen session:
286     </p>
287    
288     <pre caption="Attaching to a screen session">
289     # <i>screen -x gentoo</i>
290     </pre>
291    
292     <p>
293     If you can't use screen, there is still a way to leave your terminal. Follow the
294     installation instructions, but when you come to the point where a long-term
295     compilation would be started (for instance the <c>./scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
296     step), use <c>nohup</c> which allows for a process to continue even when you log
297     out. Don't forget the trailing "&amp;", otherwise the process won't be placed in
298     the background! Remember where you are (the <c>pwd</c> command will show you
299     that) as you will need to know this later on.
300     </p>
301    
302     <pre caption="Using nohup">
303     # <i>pwd</i>
304     /usr/portage
305     # <i>nohup ./scripts/bootstrap.sh &amp;</i>
306     </pre>
307    
308     <p>
309     Now exit the chrooted environment (<c>exit</c>) and the LiveCD session. Your
310     compilation will continue in the background.
311     </p>
312    
313     <p>
314     When you want to check the compilation, log in as root (on the LiveCD) and
315     chroot back into your environment and go to the directory where you left off:
316     </p>
317    
318     <pre caption="Chrooting back">
319     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
320     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
321     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
322     </pre>
323    
324     <p>
325     Now use the <c>less</c> command on the <path>nohup.out</path> file that is
326     situated inside that directory. The compilation will append its output to that
327     file, so if you want to follow the compilation progress, run <c>less
328     nohup.out</c> and press <c>F</c> to follow the changes. When the compilation is
329     finished, you can continue with the next step of the installation instructions.
330     </p>
331    
332     <p>
333     If you ever get tired of following the changes, press <c>Ctrl-C</c> followed by
334     a <c>q</c>. This won't stop the compilation process, only the <c>less</c>
335     process.
336     </p>
337    
338     </body>
339     </section>
340     </chapter>
341    
342 swift 1.1 </guide>

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