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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.12 2004/02/12 22:25:42 dertobi123 Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.37 2006/04/24 21:15:22 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="holler@gentoo.de">Alexander Holler</mail> 8 Alexander Holler
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Translator/Editor"> 10<author title="Translator/Editor">
11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail> 11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Editor"> 13<author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail> 14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15</author> 15</author>
16<author title="Editor"> 16<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail> 17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18</author> 18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="flammie@gentoo.org">Flammie Pirinen</mail>
24</author>
19 25
20<abstract> 26<abstract>
21This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any 27This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
22European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from 28European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
23the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol. 29the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
24</abstract> 30</abstract>
25 31
26<version>1.9</version> 32<version>1.27</version>
27<date>February 12, 2004</date> 33<date>2006-04-24</date>
28 34
29<chapter> 35<chapter>
30<title>Timezone</title> 36<title>Time zone</title>
31<section> 37<section>
32<body> 38<body>
33 39
34<p> 40<p>
35In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to 41In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must contain the
36the correct time zone data file. Look around in 42correct time zone data. Look around in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path>
37<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city. 43and pick your timezone or a near-by big city. Please avoid the
44<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
45indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
38</p> 46</p>
39 47
40<pre caption="setting the timezone"> 48<pre caption="setting the timezone">
41# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i> 49# <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
42# <i>date</i> 50# <i>date</i>
43Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003 51Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
44</pre> 52</pre>
45 53
46<note> 54<note>
47Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET") 55Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
48is correct for your area. 56is correct for your area.
49</note> 57</note>
50 58
51<note> 59<note>
52You can set the value of <i>TZ</i> to be everything after the 60You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
53<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file 61<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
54(<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case 62(<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
55<i>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</i>. 63<c>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</c>.
56</note> 64</note>
57 65
58</body> 66</body>
59</section> 67</section>
60</chapter> 68</chapter>
61 69
62<chapter> 70<chapter>
63<title>System Clock</title> 71<title>Hardware Clock</title>
64<section> 72<section>
65<body> 73<body>
66 74
67<p> 75<p>
68In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to 76In most Gentoo Linux installations, your hardware clock is set to
69UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is 77UTC (or GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
70taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If, 78taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
71for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC, 79for some reason, you need your hardware clock not to be in UTC,
72you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the 80you will need to edit <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> and change the
73value of <i>CLOCK</i>. 81value of <c>CLOCK</c> from <c>UTC</c> to <c>local</c>.
74</p> 82</p>
75 83
76<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock"> 84<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
77<codenote>recommended:</codenote> 85<comment>(recommended:)</comment>
78CLOCK="UTC" 86CLOCK="UTC"
79<codenote>or:</codenote> 87<comment>(or:)</comment>
80CLOCK="local" 88CLOCK="local"
81</pre> 89</pre>
82 90
83</body> 91</body>
84</section> 92</section>
85</chapter> 93</chapter>
86 94
87<chapter> 95<chapter>
88<title>POSIX Locale</title> 96<title>Locale system</title>
97<section>
98<title>What are locales?</title>
99<body>
100
101<p>
102A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining
103country and language specific settings. The locales and their data
104are part of the system library and can be found
105at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally
106named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter
107language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country
108code (as specified in ISO-3166).
109</p>
110
111</body>
89<section> 112</section>
113<section id="variables">
114<title>Environment variables for locales</title>
90<body> 115<body>
91 116
92<p>
93The next step is to set the <i>LANG</i> shell variable, which
94is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
95applications). Valid values can be found in
96<path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
97<i>ab_CD</i>, where <i>ab</i> is your two letter language code
98and <i>CD</i> is your two letter country code. The <i>_CD</i>
99is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
100one country. <i>LANG</i> can be set in
101<path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
102system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
103setting.
104</p> 117<p>
118Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
119set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
120settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
121The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
122are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (ie. those
123that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables
124take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
125</p>
105 126
127<table>
128<tr>
129 <th>Variable name</th>
130 <th>Explanation</th>
131</tr>
132<tr>
133 <ti>LC_ALL</ti>
134 <ti>
135 Define all locale settings at once. This is the top level setting for
136 locales which will override any other setting.
137 </ti>
138</tr>
139<tr>
140 <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
141 <ti>
142 Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects eg. output of sorted
143 directory listing.
144 </ti>
145</tr>
146<tr>
147 <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
148 <ti>
149 Define the character handling properties for the system. This determines
150 which characters are seen as part of alphabet, numeric and so on. This also
151 determines the character set used, if applicable.
152 </ti>
153</tr>
154<tr>
155 <ti>LC_MESSAGES</ti>
156 <ti>
157 Programs' localizations for applications that use message based localization
158 scheme (majority of Gnu programs, see next chapters for closer information
159 which do, and how to get the programs, that don't, to work).
160 </ti>
161</tr>
162<tr>
163 <ti>LC_MONETARY</ti>
164 <ti>Defines currency units and formatting of currency type numeric values.</ti>
165</tr>
166<tr>
167 <ti>LC_NUMERIC</ti>
168 <ti>
169 Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things
170 such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
171 </ti>
172</tr>
173<tr>
174 <ti>LC_TIME</ti>
175 <ti>Defines formatting of dates and times.</ti>
176</tr>
177<tr>
178 <ti>LC_PAPER</ti>
179 <ti>Defines default paper size.</ti>
180</tr>
181<tr>
182 <ti>LANG</ti>
183 <ti>
184 Defines all locale settings at once. This setting can be overridden by
185 individual LC_* settings above or even by LC_ALL.
186 </ti>
187</tr>
188</table>
189
190<note>
191Even though most programs work with LC_ALL only, some of them misbehave if
192LC_ALL is set but LANG isn't. If you want to play safe, set them <e>both</e>.
193</note>
194
195<p>
196Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable
197on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining
198the environment variable manually from command line:
199</p>
200
106<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale"> 201<pre caption="setting the German locale">
107export LANG="de_DE@euro" 202export LANG="de_DE@euro"
108</pre> 203</pre>
109 204
110<note> 205<note>
111Appended <i>@euro</i> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro 206Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro
112currency symbol (&#8364;) 207currency symbol (&#8364;)
113</note> 208</note>
114 209
210<p>
211For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
212probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
213support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
214library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Gentoo's Portage will
215automatically install it when needed.
216</p>
217
218<p>
219Once you have set the right locale, be sure to update your environment
220variables to make your system aware of the change:
221</p>
222
223<pre caption="Update the environment">
224# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
225</pre>
226
227<p>
228After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
229<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
230</p>
231
232<p>
233Now, verify that the changes have taken effect:
234</p>
235
236<pre caption="Verify env changes">
237$ <i>env | grep -i LC_</i>
238</pre>
239
240<p>
241There is also additional localisation variable called LINGUAS, which affects
242to localisation files that get installed in gettext-based programs, and decides
243used localisation for some specific software packages, such as
244<c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> and <c>app-office/openoffice</c>. The variable
245takes in <e>space</e>-separated list of language codes, and suggested
246place to set it is <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
247</p>
248
249<pre caption="setting LINGUAS in make.conf">
250# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
251<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance,
252for German, Finnish and English:)</comment>
253LINGUAS="de fi en"
254</pre>
255
256
257</body>
258</section>
259<section>
260<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
261<body>
262
263<p>
264If you use a locale that isn't available by default, you should use
265<c>localedef</c> to generate your locale. For instance:
266</p>
267
268<pre caption="Generating a locale using localedef">
269# <i>localedef -c -i en_US -f ISO-8859-15 en_US.ISO-8859-15</i>
270</pre>
271
272<p>
273After having generated the locale, you can export the LANG variable as you see
274fit.
275</p>
276
277<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
278# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
279</pre>
280
281<p>
282Be sure to update the environment after the change:
283</p>
284
285<pre caption="Update the environment">
286# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
287</pre>
288
289<p>
290After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
291<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
292</p>
293
294</body>
295</section>
296<section>
297<title>The userlocales USE flag</title>
298<body>
299
300<p>
301You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
302after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
303created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
304only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
305</p>
306
307<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
308echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
309</pre>
310
311<p>
312Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
313</p>
314
315<pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locales.build">
316en_US/ISO-8859-1
317en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
318de_DE/ISO-8859-1
319de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
320</pre>
321
322<p>
323The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until
324the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available.
325</p>
326
115</body> 327</body>
116</section> 328</section>
117</chapter> 329</chapter>
118 330
119<chapter> 331<chapter>
121<section> 333<section>
122<body> 334<body>
123 335
124<p> 336<p>
125The keyboard layout used by the console is set in 337The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
126<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <i>KEYMAP</i> variable. 338<path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
127Valid values can be found in 339Valid values can be found in
128<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<i>{arch}</i>/</path>. 340<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
129<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout 341<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
130(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some 342(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
131languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment 343languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
132to decide which one fits your needs best. 344to decide which one fits your needs best.
133</p> 345</p>
147<section> 359<section>
148<body> 360<body>
149 361
150<p> 362<p>
151The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified 363The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
152in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <i>XkbLayout</i> 364in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
153option. 365option.
154</p> 366</p>
155 367
156<pre caption="setting the X keymap"> 368<pre caption="setting the X keymap">
157 Section "InputDevice" 369 Section "InputDevice"
158 Identifier "Keyboard1" 370 Identifier "Keyboard1"
159 ... 371 ...
160 Option "XkbLayout" "de" 372 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
161 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" 373 #Option "XkbModel" "pc105" <comment>## this is for international keyboards.</comment>
374 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" <comment>## this would be used for xterm input</comment>
162 ... 375 ...
163</pre> 376</pre>
164 377
378<p>
379If you have an international keyboard layout, you should set the option
380<c>XkbModel</c> to <c>pc102</c> or <c>pc105</c>, as this will allow mapping of the
381additional keys specific to your keyboard.
382</p>
383
384<p>
385Deadkeys allow you to press keys that will not show immediately but will be
386combined with another letter to produce a single character such as é,è,á,à,
387etc. Setting <c>XkbVariant</c> to <c>nodeadkeys</c> allows input these special
388characters into X terminals.
389</p>
390
391<p>
392If you would like to switch between more than one keyboard layout (for example
393English and Russian), all you have to do is add a few lines to
394<path>xorg.conf</path> that specify the desired layouts and the shortcut
395command.
396</p>
397
398<pre caption="Switching between two keyboard layouts">
399 Section "InputDevice"
400 Identifier "Keyboard1"
401 ...
402 Option "XkbLayout" "us,ru"
403 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll"
404</pre>
405
406<p>
407Here, <c>XkbOptions</c> allows you to toggle between keyboard layouts by simply
408pressing <c>Alt-Shift</c>. This will also toggle the Scroll Lock light on or
409off, thanks to the <c>grp_led:scroll</c> option. This is a handy visual
410indicator of which keyboard layout you are using at the moment.
411</p>
412
165</body> 413</body>
166</section> 414</section>
167</chapter> 415</chapter>
168 416
169<chapter> 417<chapter>
170<title>KDE</title> 418<title>KDE</title>
171<section> 419<section>
172<body> 420<body>
173 421
174<p> 422<p>
175For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate 423For KDE you have to install the <c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> package. Kde-i18n
176LINGUAS environment variable set:</p> 424respects <uri link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> described earlier.
177
178<pre caption="Install localized KDE">
179# <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
180</pre> 425</p>
181 426
182</body> 427</body>
183</section> 428</section>
184</chapter> 429</chapter>
185 430
188<section> 433<section>
189<body> 434<body>
190 435
191<p> 436<p>
192In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you 437In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
193will need to set <i>CONSOLEFONT</i> in 438will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
194<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in 439<path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> to a file found in
195<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the 440<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
196<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol. 441<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
197</p> 442</p>
198 443
199<pre caption="setting the console font"> 444<pre caption="setting the console font">
200CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16" 445CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
201</pre> 446</pre>
202 447
448<p>
449You should verify that <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> is in the boot runlevel:
450</p>
451
452<pre caption="Verify the proper runlevel">
453# <i>rc-update show | grep -i consolefont</i>
454</pre>
455
456<p>
457If no runlevel is displayed for <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>, then add it to the proper level:
458</p>
459
460<pre caption="Add consolefont to boot">
461# <i>rc-update add consolefont boot</i>
462</pre>
463
203</body> 464</body>
204</section> 465</section>
205</chapter> 466</chapter>
206 467
207<chapter> 468<chapter>
210<title>Most Applications</title> 471<title>Most Applications</title>
211<body> 472<body>
212 473
213<p> 474<p>
214Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little 475Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
215bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <i> 476bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c>
216fixed</i> and <i>variable</i> definitions in 477and <c>variable</c> definitions in
217<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end 478<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
218in <i>iso8859-15</i> instead of <i>iso8859-1</i>. 479in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
219</p> 480</p>
220 481
221<pre caption="setting default X fonts"> 482<pre caption="setting default X fonts">
222fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15 483fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
223variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 484variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
235rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for 496rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
236instance: 497instance:
237</p> 498</p>
238 499
239<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm"> 500<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
240<codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote> 501<comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
241# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i> 502# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
242# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i> 503# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
243</pre> 504</pre>
244 505
245</body> 506</body>
271</note> 532</note>
272 533
273</body> 534</body>
274</section> 535</section>
275<section> 536<section>
276<title>Language for OpenOffice</title> 537<title>OpenOffice.Org</title>
277<body> 538<body>
278 539
279<note>
280Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
281default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
282</note>
283
284<p>
285The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
286change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
287default language code.
288</p> 540<p>
289 541The current stable <c>app-office/openoffice</c> and
290<pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language"> 542<c>app-office/openoffice-bin</c> ebuilds support the <uri
291# <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i> 543link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> for selecting installed GUI language
292<comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment> 544packs. To see the status of GUI translation, hyphenation, spell checking and
545other localisations on your language, please refer to <uri
546link="http://l10n.openoffice.org/languages.html">OpenOffice.Org localisation
547web site</uri>.
293</pre> 548</p>
294 549
295</body> 550</body>
296</section> 551</section>
297</chapter> 552</chapter>
298 553

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