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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.15 2004/11/01 20:15:44 dertobi123 Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.48 2007/10/04 20:19:59 neysx Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="holler@gentoo.de">Alexander Holler</mail> 8 Alexander Holler
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Translator/Editor"> 10<author title="Translator/Editor">
11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail> 11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Editor"> 13<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail> 17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18</author> 18</author>
19<author title="Editor"> 19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail> 20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21</author> 21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="flammie@gentoo.org">Flammie Pirinen</mail>
22 25
23<abstract> 26<abstract>
24This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any 27This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
25European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from 28European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
26the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol. 29the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
27</abstract> 30</abstract>
28 31
29<version>1.11</version> 32<version>1.36</version>
30<date>November 1, 2004</date> 33<date>2007-10-04</date>
31 34
32<chapter> 35<chapter>
33<title>Timezone</title> 36<title>Time zone</title>
34<section> 37<section>
35<body> 38<body>
36 39
38In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
39the correct time zone data file. Look around in
40<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
41</p> 40<p>
41In order to keep time properly, you need to select your timezone so that your
42system knows where it is located. Look for your timezone in
43<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. You then set your timezone in
44<path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>. Please avoid the
45<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
46indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
42 48
43<pre caption="setting the timezone"> 49<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
44# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i> 50# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
51<comment>(Suppose you want to use Brussels)</comment>
52# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
45# <i>date</i> 55# <i>date</i>
46Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003 56Wed Mar 8 00:46:05 CET 2006
47</pre> 57</pre>
48 58
49<note> 59<note>
50Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET") 60Make sure that the timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
51is correct for your area. 61is correct for your area.
52</note> 62</note>
53 63
54<note> 64<note>
55You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the 65You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
61</body> 71</body>
62</section> 72</section>
63</chapter> 73</chapter>
64 74
65<chapter> 75<chapter>
66<title>System Clock</title> 76<title>Hardware Clock</title>
67<section> 77<section>
68<body> 78<body>
69 79
70<p> 80<p>
71In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to 81In most Gentoo Linux installations, your hardware clock is set to
72UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is 82UTC (or GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
73taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If, 83taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
74for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC, 84for some reason, you need your hardware clock not to be in UTC,
75you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the 85you will need to edit <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> and change the
76value of <c>CLOCK</c>. 86value of <c>CLOCK</c> from <c>UTC</c> to <c>local</c>.
77</p> 87</p>
78 88
79<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock"> 89<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
80<codenote>recommended:</codenote> 90<comment>(recommended:)</comment>
82<codenote>or:</codenote> 92<comment>(or:)</comment>
83CLOCK="local" 93CLOCK="local"
84</pre> 94</pre>
85 95
86</body> 96</body>
87</section> 97</section>
88</chapter> 98</chapter>
89 99
90<chapter> 100<chapter>
91<title>POSIX Locale</title> 101<title>Locale system</title>
103<title>What are locales?</title>
107A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining country
108and language specific settings. The locales and their data are part of the
109system library and can be found at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most
110systems. A locale name is generally named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your
111two (or three) letter language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is
112your two letter country code (as specified in ISO-3166). Variants are often
113appended to locale names, e.g. <c>en_GB.utf8</c> or <c>de_DE@euro</c>. Please
114explore <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locale">Wikipedia</uri> to read
115more about locales and related articles.
92<section> 119</section>
93<title>Using Existing Locales</title> 120<section id="variables">
121<title>Environment variables for locales</title>
94<body> 122<body>
95 123
97The next step is to set the <c>LANG</c> shell variable, which
98is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
99applications). Valid values can be found in
100<path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
101<c>ab_CD</c>, where <c>ab</c> is your two letter language code
102and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country code. The <c>_CD</c>
103is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
104one country. <c>LANG</c> can be set in
105<path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
106system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
108</p> 124<p>
125Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
126set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
127settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
128The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
129are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (i.e. those
130that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables
131take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
109 133
110<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale"> 134<table>
136 <th>Variable name</th>
137 <th>Explanation</th>
140 <ti>LC_ALL</ti>
141 <ti>
142 Define all locale settings at once. This is the top level setting for
143 locales which will override any other setting.
144 </ti>
147 <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
148 <ti>
149 Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects e.g. output of sorted
150 directory listing.
151 </ti>
154 <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
155 <ti>
156 Define the character handling properties for the system. This determines
157 which characters are seen as part of alphabet, numeric and so on. This also
158 determines the character set used, if applicable.
159 </ti>
162 <ti>LC_MESSAGES</ti>
163 <ti>
164 Programs' localizations for applications that use message based localization
165 scheme (majority of Gnu programs, see next chapters for closer information
166 which do, and how to get the programs, that don't, to work).
167 </ti>
170 <ti>LC_MONETARY</ti>
171 <ti>Defines currency units and formatting of currency type numeric values.</ti>
174 <ti>LC_NUMERIC</ti>
175 <ti>
176 Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things
177 such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
178 </ti>
181 <ti>LC_TIME</ti>
182 <ti>Defines formatting of dates and times.</ti>
185 <ti>LC_PAPER</ti>
186 <ti>Defines default paper size.</ti>
189 <ti>LANG</ti>
190 <ti>
191 Defines all locale settings at once. This setting can be overridden by
192 individual LC_* settings above or even by LC_ALL.
193 </ti>
198Even though most programs work with LC_ALL only, some of them misbehave if
199LC_ALL is set but LANG isn't. If you want to play safe, set them <e>both</e>.
203Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable
204on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining
205the environment variable manually from command line:
208<pre caption="Setting the user locale in ~/.bashrc">
111export LANG="de_DE@euro" 209export LANG="de_DE@euro"
112</pre> 210</pre>
113 211
114<note> 212<note>
115Appended <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro 213Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro
116currency symbol (&#8364;) 214currency symbol ()
117</note> 215</note>
218It is also possible to set a system-wide locale for all users and programs:
221<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
227A common practice is to use only per user locale settings and leave the
228default system locale unset. In this case system locale defaults to a
229special value <c>"C"</c>, which for historical reasons maps to the English
234For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
235probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
236support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
237library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Portage will
238automatically install it when needed.
242Once you have set the right locale, be sure to update your environment
243variables to make your system aware of the change:
246<pre caption="Update the environment">
247<comment>(For system-wide default locale:)</comment>
248# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
250<comment>(For user-specific locale:)</comment>
251$ <i>source ~/.bashrc</i>
255After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
256<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
260Now, verify that the changes have taken effect:
263<pre caption="Verify env changes">
264$ <i>env | grep -i LC_</i>
268There is also additional localisation variable called LINGUAS, which affects
269to localisation files that get installed in gettext-based programs, and decides
270used localisation for some specific software packages, such as
271<c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> and <c>app-office/openoffice</c>. The variable
272takes in <e>space</e>-separated list of language codes, and suggested
273place to set it is <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
276<pre caption="Setting LINGUAS in make.conf">
277# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
278<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance,
279for German, Finnish and English:)</comment>
280LINGUAS="de fi en"
118 283
119</body> 284</body>
120</section> 285</section>
121<section> 286<section>
122<title>Generating Specific Locales</title> 287<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
138 303
139<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable"> 304<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
140# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i> 305# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
141</pre> 306</pre>
142 307
309Be sure to update the environment after the change:
312<pre caption="Update the environment">
313# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
317After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
318<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
143</body> 321</body>
145<section> 322</section>
146<title>The userlocales USE flag</title> 323<section>
324<title>Generating locales for glibc</title>
147<body> 325<body>
148 326
149<p> 327<p>
150You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now 328You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
151after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
152created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag und specify
153only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. 329specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
156<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
157echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
160<p> 330</p>
161Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
163 331
164<pre caption="nano -w /etc/locales.build"> 332<pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locale.gen">
165en_US/ISO-8859-1 333en_GB ISO-8859-1
166en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8 334en_GB.UTF-8 UTF-8
167de_DE/ISO-8859-1 335de_DE ISO-8859-1
168de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15 336de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
169</pre> 337</pre>
170 338
340The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
341have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
171<p> 342</p>
172The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until 343
173the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available. 344<note>
345<c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
346an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
350You can verify that your selected locales are available by running <c>locale
174</p> 352</p>
175 353
176</body> 354</body>
177</section> 355</section>
178</chapter> 356</chapter>
182<section> 360<section>
183<body> 361<body>
184 362
185<p> 363<p>
186The keyboard layout used by the console is set in 364The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
187<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. 365<path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
188Valid values can be found in 366Valid values can be found in
189<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>. 367<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
190<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout 368<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
191(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some 369(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
192languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment 370languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
193to decide which one fits your needs best. 371to decide which one fits your needs best.
194</p> 372</p>
195 373
196<pre caption="setting the console keymap"> 374<pre caption="Setting the console keymap">
197KEYMAP="de" 375KEYMAP="de"
198KEYMAP="de-latin1" 376KEYMAP="de-latin1"
199KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys" 377KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
200</pre> 378</pre>
201 379
208<section> 386<section>
209<body> 387<body>
210 388
211<p> 389<p>
212The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified 390The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
213in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c> 391in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
214option. 392option.
215</p> 393</p>
216 394
217<pre caption="setting the X keymap"> 395<pre caption="Setting the X keymap">
218 Section "InputDevice" 396 Section "InputDevice"
219 Identifier "Keyboard1" 397 Identifier "Keyboard1"
220 ... 398 ...
221 Option "XkbLayout" "de" 399 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
222 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" 400 #Option "XkbModel" "pc105" <comment>## this is for international keyboards.</comment>
401 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" <comment>## this would be used for xterm input</comment>
223 ... 402 ...
224</pre> 403</pre>
225 404
406If you have an international keyboard layout, you should set the option
407<c>XkbModel</c> to <c>pc102</c> or <c>pc105</c>, as this will allow mapping of the
408additional keys specific to your keyboard.
412Deadkeys allow you to press keys that will not show immediately but will be
413combined with another letter to produce a single character such as é,è,á,à,
414etc. Setting <c>XkbVariant</c> to <c>nodeadkeys</c> allows input these special
415characters into X terminals.
419If you would like to switch between more than one keyboard layout (for example
420English and Russian), all you have to do is add a few lines to
421<path>xorg.conf</path> that specify the desired layouts and the shortcut
425<pre caption="Switching between two keyboard layouts">
426 Section "InputDevice"
427 Identifier "Keyboard1"
428 ...
429 Option "XkbLayout" "us,ru"
430 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll"
434Here, <c>XkbOptions</c> allows you to toggle between keyboard layouts by simply
435pressing <c>Alt-Shift</c>. This will also toggle the Scroll Lock light on or
436off, thanks to the <c>grp_led:scroll</c> option. This is a handy visual
437indicator of which keyboard layout you are using at the moment.
226</body> 440</body>
227</section> 441</section>
228</chapter> 442</chapter>
229 443
230<chapter> 444<chapter>
231<title>KDE</title> 445<title>KDE</title>
232<section> 446<section>
233<body> 447<body>
234 448
235<p> 449<p>
236For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate 450For KDE you have to install the <c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> package. Kde-i18n
237LINGUAS environment variable set:</p> 451respects <uri link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> described earlier.
239<pre caption="Install localized KDE">
240# <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
241</pre> 452</p>
242 453
243</body> 454</body>
244</section> 455</section>
245</chapter> 456</chapter>
246 457
250<body> 461<body>
251 462
252<p> 463<p>
253In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you 464In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
254will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in 465will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
255<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in 466<path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> to a file found in
256<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the 467<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
257<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol. 468<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
258</p> 469</p>
259 470
260<pre caption="setting the console font"> 471<pre caption="Setting the console font">
261CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16" 472CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
262</pre> 473</pre>
263 474
476You should verify that <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> is in the boot runlevel:
479<pre caption="Verify the proper runlevel">
480# <i>rc-update -v show | grep -i consolefont</i>
484If no runlevel is displayed for <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>, then add it to the proper level:
487<pre caption="Add consolefont to boot">
488# <i>rc-update add consolefont boot</i>
264</body> 491</body>
265</section> 492</section>
266</chapter> 493</chapter>
267 494
268<chapter> 495<chapter>
270<section> 497<section>
271<title>Most Applications</title> 498<title>Most Applications</title>
272<body> 499<body>
273 500
274<p> 501<p>
275Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little 502Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little bit tougher. The
276bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c> 503first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c> and <c>variable</c>
277and <c>variable</c> definitions in 504definitions in <path>/usr/share/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end in
278<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
279in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>. 505<c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
280</p> 506</p>
281 507
282<pre caption="setting default X fonts"> 508<pre caption="Setting default X fonts">
283fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15 509fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
284variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 510variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
285</pre> 511</pre>
286 512
287<p> 513<p>
288Some applications use their own font, and you will have to 514Some applications use their own font, and you will have to tell them separately
289tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You 515to use a font with the Euro symbol. You can do this at a user-specific level in
290can do this at a user-specific level in
291<path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to 516<path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to <path>/etc/skel/</path> for
292<path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global 517use by new users), or at a global level for any application with a resource file
293level for any application with a resource file in
294<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In 518in <path>/usr/share/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In these files you
295these files you generally have to change an existing line, 519generally have to change an existing line, rather than adding a new one. To
296rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for 520change our xterm font, for instance:
298</p> 521</p>
299 522
300<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm"> 523<pre caption="Setting fonts for xterm">
301<codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote> 524<comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
302# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i> 525$ <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
303# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i> 526$ <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
304</pre> 527</pre>
305 528
306</body> 529</body>
307</section> 530</section>
308<section> 531<section>
322For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little 545For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
323more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add: 546more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
324</p> 547</p>
325 548
326<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs"> 549<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
327(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;]) 550(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[])
328</pre> 551</pre>
329 552
330<note> 553<note>
331The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol. 554The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
332</note> 555</note>
333 556
334</body> 557</body>
335</section> 558</section>
336<section> 559<section>
337<title>Language for OpenOffice</title> 560<title>OpenOffice.Org</title>
338<body> 561<body>
339 562
341Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
342default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
346The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
347change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
348default language code.
349</p> 563<p>
350 564The current stable <c>app-office/openoffice</c> and
351<pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language"> 565<c>app-office/openoffice-bin</c> ebuilds support the <uri
352# <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i> 566link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> for selecting installed GUI language
353<comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment> 567packs. To see the status of GUI translation, hyphenation, spell checking and
568other localisations on your language, please refer to <uri
569link="http://l10n.openoffice.org/languages.html">OpenOffice.Org localisation
570web site</uri>.
354</pre> 571</p>
355 572
356</body> 573</body>
357</section> 574</section>
358</chapter> 575</chapter>
359 576

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