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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.16 2004/12/14 00:58:15 pylon Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.58 2009/07/12 01:06:03 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail> 17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18</author> 18</author>
19<author title="Editor"> 19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail> 20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21</author> 21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="flammie@gentoo.org">Flammie Pirinen</mail>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
22 28
23<abstract> 29<abstract>
24This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any 30This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
25European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from 31European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
26the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol. 32the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
27</abstract> 33</abstract>
28 34
29<version>1.11</version> 35<version>1.44</version>
30<date>November 1, 2004</date> 36<date>2009-07-11</date>
31 37
32<chapter> 38<chapter>
33<title>Timezone</title> 39<title>Time zone</title>
34<section> 40<section>
35<body> 41<body>
36 42
38In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
39the correct time zone data file. Look around in
40<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
41</p> 43<p>
44In order to keep time properly, you need to select your timezone so that your
45system knows where it is located. Look for your timezone in
46<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. You then set your timezone in
47<path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>. Please avoid the
48<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
49indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
42 51
43<pre caption="setting the timezone"> 52<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
53# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
54<comment>(Suppose you want to use Brussels)</comment>
55<comment>(First copy the proper zone to localtime)</comment>
44# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i> 56# <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Brussels /etc/localtime</i>
57<comment>(Now specify your timezone)</comment>
58# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
45# <i>date</i> 61# <i>date</i>
46Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003 62Wed Mar 8 00:46:05 CET 2006
47</pre> 63</pre>
48 64
49<note> 65<note>
50Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET") 66Make sure that the timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
51is correct for your area. 67is correct for your area.
52</note> 68</note>
53 69
54<note> 70<note>
55You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the 71You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
61</body> 77</body>
62</section> 78</section>
63</chapter> 79</chapter>
64 80
65<chapter> 81<chapter>
66<title>System Clock</title> 82<title>Hardware Clock</title>
67<section> 83<section>
68<body> 84<body>
69 85
70<p> 86<p>
71In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to 87In most Gentoo Linux installations, your hardware clock is set to
72UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is 88UTC (or GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
73taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If, 89taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
74for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC, 90for some reason, you need your hardware clock not to be in UTC,
75you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the 91you will need to edit <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> and change the
76value of <c>CLOCK</c>. 92value of <c>CLOCK</c> from <c>UTC</c> to <c>local</c>.
77</p> 93</p>
78 94
79<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock"> 95<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
80<codenote>recommended:</codenote> 96<comment>(recommended:)</comment>
82<codenote>or:</codenote> 98<comment>(or:)</comment>
83CLOCK="local" 99CLOCK="local"
84</pre> 100</pre>
85 101
86</body> 102</body>
87</section> 103</section>
88</chapter> 104</chapter>
89 105
90<chapter> 106<chapter>
91<title>POSIX Locale</title> 107<title>Locale system</title>
109<title>What are locales?</title>
113A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining country
114and language specific settings. The locales and their data are part of the
115system library and can be found at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most
116systems. A locale name is generally named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your
117two (or three) letter language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is
118your two letter country code (as specified in ISO-3166). Variants are often
119appended to locale names, e.g. <c>en_GB.UTF-8</c> or <c>de_DE@euro</c>. Please
120explore <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locale">Wikipedia</uri> to read
121more about locales and related articles.
92<section> 125</section>
93<title>Using Existing Locales</title> 126<section id="variables">
127<title>Environment variables for locales</title>
94<body> 128<body>
95 129
97The next step is to set the <c>LANG</c> shell variable, which
98is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
99applications). Valid values can be found in
100<path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
101<c>ab_CD</c>, where <c>ab</c> is your two letter language code
102and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country code. The <c>_CD</c>
103is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
104one country. <c>LANG</c> can be set in
105<path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
106system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
108</p> 130<p>
109 131Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
110<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale"> 132set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
111export LANG="de_DE@euro" 133settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
134The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
135are given in the table below. All of them
136take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
112</pre> 137</p>
141 <th>Variable name</th>
142 <th>Explanation</th>
145 <ti>LANG</ti>
146 <ti>
147 Defines all locale settings at once, while allowing further individual
148 customization via the LC_* settings below.
149 </ti>
152 <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
153 <ti>
154 Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects e.g. output of sorted
155 directory listing.
156 </ti>
159 <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
160 <ti>
161 Define the character handling properties for the system. This determines
162 which characters are seen as part of alphabet, numeric and so on. This also
163 determines the character set used, if applicable.
164 </ti>
167 <ti>LC_MESSAGES</ti>
168 <ti>
169 Programs' localizations for applications that use message based localization
170 scheme (majority of Gnu programs, see next chapters for closer information
171 which do, and how to get the programs, that don't, to work).
172 </ti>
175 <ti>LC_MONETARY</ti>
176 <ti>Defines currency units and formatting of currency type numeric values.</ti>
179 <ti>LC_NUMERIC</ti>
180 <ti>
181 Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things
182 such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
183 </ti>
186 <ti>LC_TIME</ti>
187 <ti>Defines formatting of dates and times.</ti>
190 <ti>LC_PAPER</ti>
191 <ti>Defines default paper size.</ti>
194 <ti>LC_ALL</ti>
195 <ti>
196 A special variable for overriding all other settings.
197 </ti>
113 200
114<note> 201<note>
115Appended <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro 202Some programs are written in such a way that they expect traditional English
116currency symbol (&#8364;) 203ordering of the alphabet, while some locales, most notably the Estonian one, use
204a different ordering. Therefore it's recommended to explicitly set LC_COLLATE to C
205when dealing with system-wide settings.
117</note> 206</note>
209Using LC_ALL is strongly discouraged as it can't be overridden later on. Please
210use it only when testing and <e>never</e> set it in a startup file.
214Most typically users only set the LANG variable on the global basis. This
215example is for a unicode German locale:
218<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
224Use <c>de_DE@euro</c> as your LANG if you want to use the Euro currency symbol
229It's also possible, and pretty common especially in a more traditional UNIX
230environment, to leave the global settings unchanged, i.e. in the "<c>C</c>"
231locale. Users can still specify their preferred locale in their own shell RC
235<pre caption="Setting the user locale in ~/.bashrc">
236export LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
237export LC_COLLATE="C"
241Another way of configuring system is to leave it in the default C locale, but
242enable UTF-8 character representation at the same time. This option is achieved
243using the following settings in <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path>:
246<pre caption="Using traditional C locale while specifying UTF-8">
251Using the above snippet, users will be able to see localized file names
252properly, while not being forced to your preferred language.
256For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
257probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
258support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
259library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Portage will
260automatically install it when needed.
264Once you have set the right locale, be sure to update your environment
265variables to make your system aware of the change:
268<pre caption="Update the environment">
269<comment>(For system-wide default locale:)</comment>
270# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
272<comment>(For user-specific locale:)</comment>
273$ <i>source ~/.bashrc</i>
277After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
278<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
282Now, verify that the changes have taken effect:
285<pre caption="Verify env changes">
286$ <i>locale</i>
290There is also additional localisation variable called LINGUAS, which affects
291to localisation files that get installed in gettext-based programs, and decides
292used localisation for some specific software packages, such as
293<c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> and <c>app-office/openoffice</c>. The variable
294takes in <e>space</e>-separated list of language codes, and suggested
295place to set it is <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
298<pre caption="Setting LINGUAS in make.conf">
299# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
300<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance,
301for German, Finnish and English:)</comment>
302LINGUAS="de fi en"
118 305
119</body> 306</body>
120</section> 307</section>
121<section> 308<section>
122<title>Generating Specific Locales</title> 309<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
138 325
139<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable"> 326<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
140# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i> 327# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
141</pre> 328</pre>
142 329
331Be sure to update the environment after the change:
334<pre caption="Update the environment">
335# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
339After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
340<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
143</body> 343</body>
145<section> 344</section>
146<title>The userlocales USE flag</title> 345<section>
346<title>Generating locales for glibc</title>
147<body> 347<body>
148 348
149<p> 349<p>
150You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now 350You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
151after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
152created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag und specify
153only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. 351specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
156<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
157echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
160<p> 352</p>
161Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
163 353
164<pre caption="nano -w /etc/locales.build"> 354<pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locale.gen">
165en_US/ISO-8859-1 355en_GB ISO-8859-1
166en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8 356en_GB.UTF-8 UTF-8
167de_DE/ISO-8859-1 357de_DE ISO-8859-1
168de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15 358de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
169</pre> 359</pre>
170 360
362The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
363have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
171<p> 364</p>
172The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until 365
173the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available. 366<note>
367<c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
368an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
372You can verify that your selected locales are available by running <c>locale
174</p> 374</p>
175 375
176</body> 376</body>
177</section> 377</section>
178</chapter> 378</chapter>
182<section> 382<section>
183<body> 383<body>
184 384
185<p> 385<p>
186The keyboard layout used by the console is set in 386The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
187<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. 387<path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
188Valid values can be found in 388Valid values can be found in
189<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>. 389<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
190<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout 390<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
191(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some 391(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
192languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment 392languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
193to decide which one fits your needs best. 393to decide which one fits your needs best.
194</p> 394</p>
195 395
196<pre caption="setting the console keymap"> 396<pre caption="Setting the console keymap">
197KEYMAP="de" 397KEYMAP="de"
198KEYMAP="de-latin1" 398KEYMAP="de-latin1"
199KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys" 399KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
200</pre> 400</pre>
201 401
208<section> 408<section>
209<body> 409<body>
210 410
211<p> 411<p>
212The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified 412The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
213in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c> 413in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
214option. 414option.
215</p> 415</p>
216 416
217<pre caption="setting the X keymap"> 417<pre caption="Setting the X keymap">
218 Section "InputDevice" 418 Section "InputDevice"
219 Identifier "Keyboard1" 419 Identifier "Keyboard1"
220 ... 420 ...
221 Option "XkbLayout" "de" 421 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
222 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" 422 #Option "XkbModel" "pc105" <comment>## this is for international keyboards.</comment>
423 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" <comment>## this would be used for xterm input</comment>
223 ... 424 ...
224</pre> 425</pre>
225 426
428If you have an international keyboard layout, you should set the option
429<c>XkbModel</c> to <c>pc102</c> or <c>pc105</c>, as this will allow mapping of the
430additional keys specific to your keyboard.
434Deadkeys allow you to press keys that will not show immediately but will be
435combined with another letter to produce a single character such as é,è,á,à,
436etc. Setting <c>XkbVariant</c> to <c>nodeadkeys</c> allows input these special
437characters into X terminals.
441If you would like to switch between more than one keyboard layout (for example
442English and Russian), all you have to do is add a few lines to
443<path>xorg.conf</path> that specify the desired layouts and the shortcut
447<pre caption="Switching between two keyboard layouts">
448 Section "InputDevice"
449 Identifier "Keyboard1"
450 ...
451 Option "XkbLayout" "us,ru"
452 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll"
456Here, <c>XkbOptions</c> allows you to toggle between keyboard layouts by simply
457pressing <c>Alt-Shift</c>. This will also toggle the Scroll Lock light on or
458off, thanks to the <c>grp_led:scroll</c> option. This is a handy visual
459indicator of which keyboard layout you are using at the moment.
226</body> 462</body>
227</section> 463</section>
228</chapter> 464</chapter>
229 465
230<chapter> 466<chapter>
231<title>KDE</title> 467<title>KDE</title>
232<section> 468<section>
233<body> 469<body>
234 470
235<p> 471<p>
236For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate 472For KDE you have to install the <c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> package. Kde-i18n
237LINGUAS environment variable set:</p> 473respects <uri link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> described earlier.
239<pre caption="Install localized KDE">
240# <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
241</pre> 474</p>
242 475
243</body> 476</body>
244</section> 477</section>
245</chapter> 478</chapter>
246 479
248<title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title> 481<title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
249<section> 482<section>
250<body> 483<body>
251 484
252<p> 485<p>
253In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you 486In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you will need to set
254will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in 487<c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> to a file found in
255<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
256<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the 488<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the <c>.psfu.gz</c>).
257<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol. 489<c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
258</p> 490</p>
259 491
260<pre caption="setting the console font"> 492<pre caption="Setting the console font">
261CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16" 493CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
262</pre> 494</pre>
263 495
497You should verify that <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> is in the boot runlevel:
500<pre caption="Verify the proper runlevel">
501# <i>rc-update -v show | grep -i consolefont</i>
505If no runlevel is displayed for <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>, then add it to the proper level:
508<pre caption="Add consolefont to boot">
509# <i>rc-update add consolefont boot</i>
264</body> 512</body>
265</section> 513</section>
266</chapter> 514</chapter>
267 515
268<chapter> 516<chapter>
270<section> 518<section>
271<title>Most Applications</title> 519<title>Most Applications</title>
272<body> 520<body>
273 521
274<p> 522<p>
275Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little 523Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little bit tougher. The
276bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c> 524first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c> and <c>variable</c>
277and <c>variable</c> definitions in 525definitions in <path>/usr/share/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end in
278<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
279in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>. 526<c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
280</p> 527</p>
281 528
282<pre caption="setting default X fonts"> 529<pre caption="Setting default X fonts">
283fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15 530fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
284variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 531variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
285</pre> 532</pre>
286 533
287<p> 534<p>
288Some applications use their own font, and you will have to 535Some applications use their own font, and you will have to tell them separately
289tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You 536to use a font with the Euro symbol. You can do this at a user-specific level in
290can do this at a user-specific level in
291<path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to 537<path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to <path>/etc/skel/</path> for
292<path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global 538use by new users), or at a global level for any application with a resource file
293level for any application with a resource file in
294<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In 539in <path>/usr/share/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In these files you
295these files you generally have to change an existing line, 540generally have to change an existing line, rather than adding a new one. To
296rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for 541change our xterm font, for instance:
298</p> 542</p>
299 543
300<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm"> 544<pre caption="Setting fonts for xterm">
301<codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote> 545<comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
302# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i> 546$ <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
303# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i> 547$ <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
304</pre> 548</pre>
305 549
306</body> 550</body>
307</section> 551</section>
308<section> 552<section>
322For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little 566For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
323more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add: 567more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
324</p> 568</p>
325 569
326<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs"> 570<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
327(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;]) 571(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[])
328</pre> 572</pre>
329 573
330<note> 574<note>
331The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol. 575The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
332</note> 576</note>
333 577
334</body> 578</body>
335</section> 579</section>
336<section> 580<section>
337<title>Language for OpenOffice</title> 581<title>OpenOffice.Org</title>
338<body> 582<body>
339 583
341Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
342default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
346The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
347change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
348default language code.
349</p> 584<p>
350 585The current stable <c>app-office/openoffice</c> and
351<pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language"> 586<c>app-office/openoffice-bin</c> ebuilds support the <uri
352# <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i> 587link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> for selecting installed GUI language
353<comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment> 588packs. To see the status of GUI translation, hyphenation, spell checking and
589other localisations on your language, please refer to <uri
590link="http://l10n.openoffice.org/languages.html">OpenOffice.Org localisation
591web site</uri>.
354</pre> 592</p>
355 593
356</body> 594</body>
357</section> 595</section>
358</chapter> 596</chapter>
359 597

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