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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.13 2004/04/11 10:52:16 cam Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.24 2005/05/25 17:16:13 swift Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="holler@gentoo.de">Alexander Holler</mail> 8 Alexander Holler
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Translator/Editor"> 10<author title="Translator/Editor">
11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail> 11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Editor"> 13<author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail> 14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15</author> 15</author>
16<author title="Editor"> 16<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail> 17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="flammie@gentoo.org">Flammie Pirinen</mail>
18</author> 24</author>
19 25
20<abstract> 26<abstract>
21This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any 27This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
22European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from 28European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
23the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol. 29the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
24</abstract> 30</abstract>
25 31
26<version>1.9</version> 32<version>1.15</version>
27<date>February 12, 2004</date> 33<date>2005-05-25</date>
28 34
29<chapter> 35<chapter>
30<title>Timezone</title> 36<title>Time zone</title>
31<section> 37<section>
32<body> 38<body>
33 39
34<p> 40<p>
35In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to 41In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
64<section> 70<section>
65<body> 71<body>
66 72
67<p> 73<p>
68In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to 74In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to
69UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is 75UTC (or GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
70taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If, 76taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
71for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC, 77for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC,
72you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the 78you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
73value of <c>CLOCK</c>. 79value of <c>CLOCK</c>.
74</p> 80</p>
75 81
76<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock"> 82<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
77<codenote>recommended:</codenote> 83<comment>(recommended:)</comment>
78CLOCK="UTC" 84CLOCK="UTC"
79<codenote>or:</codenote> 85<comment>(or:)</comment>
80CLOCK="local" 86CLOCK="local"
81</pre> 87</pre>
82 88
83</body> 89</body>
84</section> 90</section>
85</chapter> 91</chapter>
86 92
87<chapter> 93<chapter>
88<title>POSIX Locale</title> 94<title>Locale system</title>
95<section>
96<title>What are locales?</title>
97<body>
98
99<p>
100A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining
101country and language specific settings. The locales and their data
102are part of the system library and can be found
103at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally
104named <c>ab_CD</c >where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter
105language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country
106code (as specified in ISO-3199).
107</p>
108
109</body>
89<section> 110</section>
111<section>
112<title>Environment variables for locales</title>
90<body> 113<body>
91 114
92<p>
93The next step is to set the <c>LANG</c> shell variable, which
94is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
95applications). Valid values can be found in
96<path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
97<c>ab_CD</c>, where <c>ab</c> is your two letter language code
98and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country code. The <c>_CD</c>
99is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
100one country. <c>LANG</c> can be set in
101<path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
102system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
103setting.
104</p> 115<p>
116Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
117set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
118settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
119The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
120are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (ie. those
121that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables
122take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
123</p>
105 124
125<table>
126<tr>
127 <th>Variable name</th>
128 <th>Explanation</th>
129</tr>
130<tr>
131 <ti>LC_ALL</ti>
132 <ti>
133 Define all locale settings at once. This is the top level setting for
134 locales which will override any other setting.
135 </ti>
136</tr>
137<tr>
138 <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
139 <ti>
140 Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects eg. output of sorted
141 directory listing.
142 </ti>
143</tr>
144<tr>
145 <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
146 <ti>
147 Define the character handling properties for the system. This determines
148 which characters are seen as part of alphabet, numeric and so on. This also
149 determines the character set used, if applicable.
150 </ti>
151</tr>
152<tr>
153 <ti>LC_MESSAGES</ti>
154 <ti>
155 Programs' localizations for applications that use message based localization
156 scheme (majority of Gnu programs, see next chapters for closer information
157 which do, and how to get the programs, that don't, to work).
158 </ti>
159</tr>
160<tr>
161 <ti>LC_MONETARY</ti>
162 <ti>Defines currency units and formatting of currency type numeric values.</ti>
163</tr>
164<tr>
165 <ti>LC_NUMERIC</ti>
166 <ti>
167 Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things
168 such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
169 </ti>
170</tr>
171<tr>
172 <ti>LC_TIME</ti>
173 <ti>Defines formatting of dates and times.</ti>
174</tr>
175<tr>
176 <ti>LC_PAPER</ti>
177 <ti>Defines default paper size.</ti>
178</tr>
179<tr>
180 <ti>LANG</ti>
181 <ti>
182 Defines all locale settings at once. This setting can be overridden by
183 individual LC_* settings above or even by LC_ALL.
184 </ti>
185</tr>
186</table>
187
188<p>
189Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable
190on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining
191the environment variable manually from command line:
192</p>
193
106<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale"> 194<pre caption="setting the German locale">
107export LANG="de_DE@euro" 195export LANG="de_DE@euro"
108</pre> 196</pre>
109 197
110<note> 198<note>
111Appended <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro 199Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro
112currency symbol (&#8364;) 200currency symbol (&#8364;)
113</note> 201</note>
202
203<p>
204For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
205probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
206support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
207library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Gentoo's Portage will
208automatically install it when needed.
209</p>
210
211</body>
212</section>
213<section>
214<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
215<body>
216
217<p>
218If you use a locale that isn't available by default, you should use
219<c>localedef</c> to generate your locale. For instance:
220</p>
221
222<pre caption="Generating a locale using localedef">
223# <i>localedef -c -i en_US -f ISO-8859-15 en_US.ISO-8859-15</i>
224</pre>
225
226<p>
227After having generated the locale, you can export the LANG variable as you see
228fit.
229</p>
230
231<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
232# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
233</pre>
234
235</body>
236</section>
237<section>
238<title>The userlocales USE flag</title>
239<body>
240
241<p>
242You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
243after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
244created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
245only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
246</p>
247
248<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
249echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
250</pre>
251
252<p>
253Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
254</p>
255
256<pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locales.build">
257en_US/ISO-8859-1
258en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
259de_DE/ISO-8859-1
260de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
261</pre>
262
263<p>
264The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until
265the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available.
266</p>
114 267
115</body> 268</body>
116</section> 269</section>
117</chapter> 270</chapter>
118 271
147<section> 300<section>
148<body> 301<body>
149 302
150<p> 303<p>
151The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified 304The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
152in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c> 305in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
153option. 306option.
154</p> 307</p>
155 308
156<pre caption="setting the X keymap"> 309<pre caption="setting the X keymap">
157 Section "InputDevice" 310 Section "InputDevice"
171<section> 324<section>
172<body> 325<body>
173 326
174<p> 327<p>
175For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate 328For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate
176LINGUAS environment variable set:</p> 329LINGUAS variable set:
330</p>
177 331
178<pre caption="Install localized KDE"> 332<pre caption="Install localized KDE">
333# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
334<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance, for the German language:)</comment>
335LINGUAS="de"
336
337<comment>(Now install kde-i18n)</comment>
179# <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i> 338# <i>emerge kde-i18n</i>
180</pre> 339</pre>
181 340
182</body> 341</body>
183</section> 342</section>
184</chapter> 343</chapter>
235rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for 394rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
236instance: 395instance:
237</p> 396</p>
238 397
239<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm"> 398<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
240<codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote> 399<comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
241# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i> 400# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
242# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i> 401# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
243</pre> 402</pre>
244 403
245</body> 404</body>
271</note> 430</note>
272 431
273</body> 432</body>
274</section> 433</section>
275<section> 434<section>
276<title>Language for OpenOffice</title> 435<title>Language for OpenOffice.org</title>
277<body> 436<body>
278 437
279<note> 438<note>
280Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The 439Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
281default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS. 440default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
282</note> 441</note>
283 442
284<p> 443<p>
444Please note that this package now uses the LINGUAS variable to
445provide localization. The old LANGUAGE=ENUS|PORT system does <e>not</e> work
285The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to 446anymore. The default language for OpenOffice.org is set as "US English". If you
286change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the 447wish to change the default language for OpenOffice.org, check the ebuild for the
287default language code. 448default language code.
288</p> 449</p>
289 450
290<pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language"> 451<pre caption="Example: emerge openoffice for german environment">
452# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
453<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance, for the German language:)</comment>
454LINGUAS="de"
455
456<comment>(Now install openoffice)</comment>
291# <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i> 457# <i>emerge openoffice</i>
292<comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment>
293</pre> 458</pre>
294 459
295</body> 460</body>
296</section> 461</section>
297</chapter> 462</chapter>

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