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Networkless handbook for 2006.0, "Chuck Norris can divide by zero" Initial Version

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/2006.0/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.4 2006/02/26 20:10:44 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>6.0</version>
12 <date>2006-02-27</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23 </p>
24
25 </body>
26 </subsection>
27 <subsection>
28 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 <body>
30
31 <table>
32 <tr>
33 <th>CPU</th>
34 <ti>
35 Please check with the <uri
36 link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
37 </ti>
38 </tr>
39 <tr>
40 <th>Memory</th>
41 <ti>64 MB</ti>
42 </tr>
43 <tr>
44 <th>Diskspace</th>
45 <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
46 </tr>
47 <tr>
48 <th>Swap space</th>
49 <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
50 </tr>
51 </table>
52
53 </body>
54 </subsection>
55 </section>
56 <!-- Copy/paste from the hb-install-x86-medium.xml file but no Universal
57 Installation CD.
58 Also s/x86/alpha -->
59 <!-- START -->
60 <section>
61 <title>The Gentoo Universal Installation CD</title>
62 <subsection>
63 <title>Introduction</title>
64 <body>
65
66 <p>
67 Gentoo Linux can be installed using a <e>stage3</e> tarball file.
68 Such a tarball is an archive that contains a minimal environment from
69 which you can succesfully install Gentoo Linux onto your system.
70 </p>
71
72 <p>
73 Installations using a stage1 or stage2 tarball file are not documented in the
74 Gentoo Handbook - please read the <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">Gentoo
75 FAQ</uri> on these matters.
76 </p>
77
78 </body>
79 </subsection>
80 <subsection>
81 <title>Gentoo Universal Installation CD</title>
82 <body>
83
84 <p>
85 An Installation CD is a bootable medium which contains a self-sustained Gentoo
86 environment. It allows you to boot Linux from the CD. During the boot process
87 your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers are loaded. The Gentoo
88 Installation CDs are maintained by Gentoo developers.
89 </p>
90
91 <p>
92 There currently are two Installation CDs available:
93 </p>
94
95 <ul>
96 <li>
97 The Universal Installation CD contains everything you need to install
98 Gentoo. It provides stage3 files for common architectures, source code
99 for the extra applications you need to choose from and, of course, the
100 installation instructions for your architecture.
101 </li>
102 <li>
103 The Minimal Installation CD contains only a minimal environment that allows
104 you to boot up and configure your network so you can connect to the
105 Internet. It does not contain any additional files and cannot be used
106 during the current installation approach.
107 </li>
108 </ul>
109
110 <p>
111 Gentoo also provides a Package CD. This is not an Installation CD but an
112 additional resource that you can exploit during the installation of your Gentoo
113 system. It contains prebuilt packages (also known as the GRP set) that allow
114 you to easily and quickly install additional applications (such as
115 OpenOffice.org, KDE, GNOME, ...) immediately after the Gentoo installation and
116 right before you update your Portage tree.
117 </p>
118
119 <p>
120 The use of the Package CD is covered later in this document.
121 </p>
122
123 </body>
124 </subsection>
125 </section>
126 <!-- STOP -->
127 <section>
128 <title>Download, Burn and Boot the Gentoo Universal Installation CD</title>
129 <subsection>
130 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CD</title>
131 <body>
132
133 <p>
134 You can download the Universal Installation CD (and, if you want to, the
135 Packages CD as well) from one of our <uri
136 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The Installation CD is located in
137 the <path>releases/alpha/2006.0/installcd</path> directory.
138 <!-- No packages for alpha
139 the Package CD is located in the <path>releases/alpha/2006.0/packagecd</path>
140 directory.
141 -->
142 </p>
143
144 <p>
145 Inside those directories you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which
146 you can write on a CD-R.
147 </p>
148
149 <p>
150 After downloading the file, you can verify its integrity to see if it is
151 corrupted or not:
152 </p>
153
154 <ul>
155 <li>
156 You can check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we
157 provide (for instance with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or
158 <uri link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows)
159 </li>
160 <li>
161 You can verify the cryptographic signature that we provide. You need to
162 obtain the public key we use (17072058) before you proceed though.
163 </li>
164 </ul>
165
166 <p>
167 To fetch our public key using the GnuPG application, run the following command:
168 </p>
169
170 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
171 $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
172 </pre>
173
174 <p>
175 Now verify the signature:
176 </p>
177
178 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
179 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
180 </pre>
181
182 <p>
183 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
184 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
185 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
186 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
187 </p>
188
189 <ul>
190 <li>
191 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
192 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device
193 path).
194 </li>
195 <li>
196 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
197 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
198 <c>Start</c>.
199 </li>
200 </ul>
201
202 </body>
203 </subsection>
204 <subsection>
205 <title>Booting the Universal Installation CD</title>
206 <body>
207
208 <p>
209 When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
210 firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
211 are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
212 Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
213 </p>
214
215 <p>
216 SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
217 operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARC
218 is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
219 an operating environment for Windows NT. You can find a
220 <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/SRM-HOWTO/">detailed guide</uri> on
221 using SRM over at the Alpha Linux website.
222 </p>
223
224 <p>
225 If your Alpha system supports both SRC and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
226 should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
227 instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
228 are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
229 will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
230 </p>
231
232 <p>
233 Now to boot an Alpha Installation CD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the system.
234 You can use SRM to boot the Installation CD. If you cannot do that, you will have to use
235 <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already, use one of the
236 precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
237 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
238 </p>
239
240 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
241 <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
242 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
243 dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
244 <comment>(...)</comment>
245 <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
246 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
247 <comment>To boot the 2.4 kernel instead of the default 2.6 kernel use:</comment>
248 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb -flags 1</i>
249 </pre>
250
251 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
252 <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
253 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo_2.6 initrd=/boot/gentoo_2_6.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i>
254 <comment>To boot the 2.4 kernel instead of the default 2.6 kernel use:</comment>
255 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo_2.4 initrd=/boot/gentoo_2_4.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i>
256 </pre>
257
258 <note>
259 The default Alpha profile uses nptl and requires a 2.6 kernel. If your system
260 cannot support nptl (or you do not want to use nptl), you should use the 2.4
261 kernel. Alternatively, if you prefer to compile your system without nptl, you
262 will be given the chance to select a stage built without nptl in <uri
263 link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing a Stage Tarball</uri>.
264 </note>
265
266 <p>
267 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
268 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
269 started on by pressing Alt-F1.
270 </p>
271
272 <p>
273 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
274 </p>
275
276 </body>
277 </subsection>
278 <subsection id="hardware">
279 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
280 <body>
281
282 <p>
283 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
284 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
285 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases (the
286 SPARC Installation CDs don't even do autodetection), it may not auto-load the kernel
287 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
288 hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
289 </p>
290
291 <p>
292 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
293 certain kinds of network interfaces):
294 </p>
295
296 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
297 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
298 </pre>
299
300 <p>
301 If you need PCMCIA support, you should start the <c>pcmcia</c> init script:
302 </p>
303
304 <pre caption="Starting the PCMCIA init script">
305 # <i>/etc/init.d/pcmcia start</i>
306 </pre>
307
308 </body>
309 </subsection>
310 <subsection>
311 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
312 <body>
313
314 <p>
315 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
316 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
317 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
318 more precise impression):
319 </p>
320
321 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
322 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
323 </pre>
324
325 <p>
326 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
327 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
328 disk):
329 </p>
330
331 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
332 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
333 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
334 </pre>
335
336 </body>
337 </subsection>
338 <subsection id="useraccounts">
339 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
340 <body>
341
342 <p>
343 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
344 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
345 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
346 the root password.
347 </p>
348
349 <p>
350 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
351 </p>
352
353 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
354 # <i>passwd</i>
355 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
356 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
357 </pre>
358
359 <p>
360 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
361 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
362 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
363 </p>
364
365 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
366 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
367 # <i>passwd john</i>
368 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
369 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
370 </pre>
371
372 <p>
373 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
374 <c>su</c>:
375 </p>
376
377 <pre caption="Changing user id">
378 # <i>su - john</i>
379 </pre>
380
381 </body>
382 </subsection>
383 <subsection>
384 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
385 <body>
386
387 <p>
388 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
389 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
390 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
391 go to a new terminal and log in.
392 </p>
393
394 <p>
395 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
396 <c>lynx</c> to read it:
397 </p>
398
399 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
400 # <i>lynx /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
401 </pre>
402
403 <p>
404 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
405 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>lynx</c>
406 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
407 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
408 document):
409 </p>
410
411 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
412 # <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-alpha.xml</i>
413 </pre>
414
415 <p>
416 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
417 </p>
418
419 </body>
420 </subsection>
421 <subsection>
422 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
423 <body>
424
425 <p>
426 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
427 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
428 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
429 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
430 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
431 </p>
432
433 <p>
434 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
435 </p>
436
437 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
438 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
439 </pre>
440
441 <p>
442 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
443 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
444 </p>
445
446 </body>
447 </subsection>
448 </section>
449 </sections>

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