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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.6 2004/08/21 04:43:14 vapier Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.35 2006/12/06 19:59:09 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>7.1</version>
12<date>2006-12-06</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Timezone</title> 15<title>Timezone</title>
12<body> 16<body>
13 17
14<p> 18<p>
15You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is 19You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
16located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a 20located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
17symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>: 21it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
18</p> 24</p>
19 25
20<pre caption="Setting the timezone information"> 26<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
21# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i> 27# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
22<comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment> 28<comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
23# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i> 29# <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
24</pre> 30</pre>
25 31
26</body> 32</body>
27</section> 33</section>
28<section> 34<section>
38available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel 44available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
39Guide</uri>. 45Guide</uri>.
40</p> 46</p>
41 47
42<p> 48<p>
43For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default kernel 49For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default 2.6 kernel source).
44source as developed by the linux-kernel developers), <c>alpha-sources</c>
45(kernel source optimized for alpha users) and <c>compaq-sources</c> (kernel
46source as used by RedHat for Alpha, maintained by Compaq).
47</p> 50</p>
48 51
49<p> 52<p>
50Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>. 53Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
51</p> 54</p>
52 55
53<p> 56<p>
54In the next example we install the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. 57In the next example we install the <c>vanilla-sources</c>.
55Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example: 58Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example.
59The <c>USE="-doc"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 or other
60dependencies at this point. <c>USE="symlink"</c> is not necessary for a new
61+install, but ensures proper creation of the <path>/usr/src/linux</path>
62+symlink.
56</p> 63</p>
57 64
58<pre caption="Installing a kernel source"> 65<pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
59# <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i> 66# <i>USE="-doc symlink" emerge vanilla-sources</i>
60</pre> 67</pre>
61 68
62<p> 69<p>
63When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called 70When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
64<path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source: 71<path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
72kernel source points to <c>vanilla-sources-2.6.16.19</c>. Your version may be
73different, so keep this in mind.
65</p> 74</p>
66 75
67<pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink"> 76<pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
68# <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i> 77# <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
69lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.4.24 78lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.16.19
70</pre>
71
72<p>
73If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
74change the symlink before you continue:
75</p>
76
77<pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
78# <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
79# <i>cd /usr/src</i>
80# <i>ln -s linux-2.4.24 linux</i>
81</pre> 79</pre>
82 80
83<p> 81<p>
84Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You 82Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
85can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used 83can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
86by the LiveCD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is 84by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
87the best way to optimize your environment. 85the best way to optimize your environment.
88</p> 86</p>
89 87
90<p> 88<p>
91If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri 89If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
102<subsection> 100<subsection>
103<title>Introduction</title> 101<title>Introduction</title>
104<body> 102<body>
105 103
106<p> 104<p>
107Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult course every 105Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
108Linux users ever has to go through. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a 106Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
109couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;) 107couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
110</p> 108</p>
111 109
112<p> 110<p>
113However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start 111However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
114configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the 112configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
115contents of <path>/proc/pci</path> (or by using <c>lspci</c> if available). You 113pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
114be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
115ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
116/sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
117<c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
116can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the LiveCD uses (it might 118You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
117provide you with a nice hint on what to enable). 119uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118</p> 120</p>
119 121
120<p> 122<p>
121Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This 123Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
122will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu. 124will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
142<p> 144<p>
143First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers. 145First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
144You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up: 146You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
145</p> 147</p>
146 148
147<pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers"> 149<pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
148Code maturity level options ---&gt; 150Code maturity level options ---&gt;
149 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers 151 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
152General setup ---&gt;
153 [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
150</pre> 154</pre>
151 155
152<p> 156<p>
153Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use. 157Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
154<e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be 158<e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
155able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c>, <c>/proc 159able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
156file system</c>, <c>/dev file system</c> + <c>Automatically mount at boot</c>: 160file system</c>. If you are using a 2.4 kernel, you should also select the
161<c>/dev file system</c> and <c>Automatically mount at boot</c> options, and
162you should make sure to <c>emerge devfsd</c>.
157</p> 163</p>
158 164
159<pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems"> 165<pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
160<comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment> 166<comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
161File systems ---&gt; 167File systems ---&gt;
167 173
168<comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment> 174<comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
169File systems ---&gt; 175File systems ---&gt;
170 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt; 176 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
171 [*] /proc file system support 177 [*] /proc file system support
172 [*] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
173 [*] Automatically mount at boot
174 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs) 178 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
175 179
176<comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment> 180<comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
177 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support 181 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
178 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support 182 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
211If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your 215If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
212ethernet card. 216ethernet card.
213</p> 217</p>
214 218
215<p> 219<p>
216The following Alpha-specific options are recommended as well: 220The following options are recommended as well:
217</p> 221</p>
218 222
219<pre caption="Alpha-specific options"> 223<pre caption="Recommended Alpha options">
220General setup ---&gt; 224General setup ---&gt;
221 &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs 225 &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
222 &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl 226 &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
223 227
224Plug and Play configuration ---&gt; 228Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
281<title>Compiling and Installing</title> 285<title>Compiling and Installing</title>
282<body> 286<body>
283 287
284<p> 288<p>
285Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit 289Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
286the configuration and run <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules 290the configuration and start the compilation process:
287modules_install</c>:
288</p> 291</p>
289 292
290<pre caption="Compiling the kernel"> 293<pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
291<comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment> 294<comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
292# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i> 295# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
297<comment>(For all kernels)</comment> 300<comment>(For all kernels)</comment>
298# <i>make boot</i> 301# <i>make boot</i>
299</pre> 302</pre>
300 303
301<p> 304<p>
302When the kernel is done compiling, copy over the kernel image to 305When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
303<path>/boot</path>. In the next example we assume you have configured and 306<path>/boot</path>. Recent kernels might create <path>vmlinux</path> instead of
304compiled <c>vanilla-sources-2.4.24</c>: 307<path>vmlinux.gz</path>. Keep this in mind when you copy your kernel image.
305</p> 308</p>
306 309
307<pre caption="Installing the kernel"> 310<pre caption="Installing the kernel">
308# <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i> 311# <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i>
309# <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.4.24</i>
310</pre>
311
312<p>
313It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
314<path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
315</p>
316
317<pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
318# <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.4.24</i>
319</pre> 312</pre>
320 313
321<p> 314<p>
322Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel 315Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
323Modules</uri>. 316Modules</uri>.
337 330
338<p> 331<p>
339Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your 332Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
340kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for 333kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
341you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the 334you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
342way our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use 335way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
343<c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all 336<c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
344your hardware at boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel 337your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because genkernel
345doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for 338doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
346those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels. 339those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
347</p> 340</p>
348 341
349<p> 342<p>
367module). 360module).
368</p> 361</p>
369 362
370<pre caption="Running genkernel"> 363<pre caption="Running genkernel">
371# <i>genkernel all</i> 364# <i>genkernel all</i>
372GenKernel v3.0.1_beta10 365* Gentoo Linux Genkernel; Version 3.4.0
373* ARCH: Alpha 366* Running with options: all
374* KERNEL VER: 2.4.24 367
375* kernel: configuring source 368* Linux Kernel 2.6.16.19 for alpha...
376* kernel: running mrproper 369* kernel: >> Running mrproper...
377<comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment> 370<comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
378* Kernel compiled successfully! 371* Kernel compiled successfully!
372*
379* Required Kernel Params: 373* Required Kernel Parameters:
380* : root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/$ROOT 374* real_root=/dev/$ROOT
375*
381* where $ROOT is the devicenode for your root partition as 376* Where $ROOT is the device node for your root partition as the
382* you should have specified in /etc/fstab 377* one specified in /etc/fstab
383* 378*
384* You MUST tell your bootloader to use the generated initrd 379* If you require Genkernel's hardware detection features; you MUST
385* 380* tell your bootloader to use the provided INITRAMFS file. Otherwise;
386* Recommended Kernel Params: 381* substitute the root argument for the real_root argument if you are
387* : vga=0x317 splash=verbose 382* not planning to use the initrd...
388* 383
389* Do NOT report kernel bugs (configs included) as genkernel bugs. 384* WARNING... WARNING... WARNING...
385* Additional kernel cmdline arguments that *may* be required to boot properly...
386* Do NOT report kernel bugs as genkernel bugs unless your bug
387* is about the default genkernel configuration...
388*
390* Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs 389* Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs.
391*
392* For more info see /usr/share/genkernel/README
393</pre> 390</pre>
394 391
395<p> 392<p>
396Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and 393Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
397<e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel 394<e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
398and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write 395and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
399down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing 396down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
400the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after 397the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
401booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before 398booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD) before
402your "real" system starts up. 399your "real" system starts up.
403</p> 400</p>
404 401
405<pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd"> 402<pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
406# <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i> 403# <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs-*</i>
407</pre> 404</pre>
408 405
409<p> 406<p>
410Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live 407Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the
411CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that 408Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects
412is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else. 409hardware that is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects
413To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following: 410everything else. To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
414</p> 411</p>
415 412
416<pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug"> 413<pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
417# <i>emerge hotplug</i> 414# <i>emerge coldplug</i>
418# <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i> 415# <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
419</pre> 416</pre>
417
418<note>
419You no longer need to emerge <c>coldplug</c> if you're using <c>udev</c> version
420103 and higher. If you receive a message that <c>udev</c> blocks <c>coldplug</c>
421from being installed, then you don't need to install <c>coldplug</c>.
422</note>
420 423
421</body> 424</body>
422</section> 425</section>
423<section id="kernel_modules"> 426<section id="kernel_modules">
424<title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title> 427<title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
439 <th>Ebuild</th> 442 <th>Ebuild</th>
440 <th>Purpose</th> 443 <th>Purpose</th>
441 <th>Command</th> 444 <th>Command</th>
442</tr> 445</tr>
443<tr> 446<tr>
444 <ti>xfree-drm</ti> 447 <ti>x11-drm</ti>
445 <ti> 448 <ti>
446 Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and 449 Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
447 other cards for XFree86. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable 450 other cards for xorg-x11. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
448 in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/xfree-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you 451 in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/x11-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
449 need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>. 452 need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
450 </ti> 453 </ti>
451 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti> 454 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge x11-drm</c></ti>
452</tr> 455</tr>
453</table> 456</table>
454 457
455<p> 458<p>
456Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify 459Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
457what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge 460what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
458--pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>xfree-drm</c> package: 461--pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>x11-drm</c> package:
459</p> 462</p>
460 463
461<pre caption="View full installation package listing"> 464<pre caption="View full installation package listing">
462# <i>emerge --pretend xfree-drm</i> 465# <i>emerge --pretend x11-drm</i>
463</pre> 466</pre>
464 467
465</body> 468</body>
466</subsection> 469</subsection>
467<subsection> 470<subsection>
498<pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6"> 501<pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
4993c59x 5023c59x
500</pre> 503</pre>
501 504
502<p> 505<p>
503Now run <c>modules-update</c> to commit your changes to the
504<path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file:
505</p>
506
507<pre caption="Running modules-update">
508# <i>modules-update</i>
509</pre>
510
511<p>
512Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring 506Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
513your System</uri>. 507your System</uri>.
514</p> 508</p>
515 509
516</body> 510</body>

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