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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.6 2004/08/21 04:43:14 vapier Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.37 2007/03/13 00:30:09 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>7.3</version>
12<date>2007-03-12</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Timezone</title> 15<title>Timezone</title>
12<body> 16<body>
13 17
14<p> 18<p>
15You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is 19You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
16located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a 20located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
17symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>: 21it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
18</p> 24</p>
19 25
20<pre caption="Setting the timezone information"> 26<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
21# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i> 27# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
22<comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment> 28<comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
23# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i> 29# <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
24</pre> 30</pre>
25 31
26</body> 32</body>
27</section> 33</section>
28<section> 34<section>
38available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel 44available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
39Guide</uri>. 45Guide</uri>.
40</p> 46</p>
41 47
42<p> 48<p>
43For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default kernel 49For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default 2.6 kernel source).
44source as developed by the linux-kernel developers), <c>alpha-sources</c>
45(kernel source optimized for alpha users) and <c>compaq-sources</c> (kernel
46source as used by RedHat for Alpha, maintained by Compaq).
47</p> 50</p>
48 51
49<p> 52<p>
50Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>. 53Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
51</p> 54</p>
52 55
53<p> 56<p>
54In the next example we install the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. 57In the next example we install <c>vanilla-sources</c>. Of course substitute with
55Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example: 58your choice of sources, this is merely an example.
56</p> 59</p>
57 60
58<pre caption="Installing a kernel source"> 61<pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
59# <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i> 62# <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
60</pre> 63</pre>
61 64
62<p> 65<p>
63When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called 66When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
64<path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source: 67<path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
68kernel source points to <c>vanilla-sources-2.6.16.19</c>. Your version may be
69different, so keep this in mind.
65</p> 70</p>
66 71
67<pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink"> 72<pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
68# <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i> 73# <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
69lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.4.24 74lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.16.19
70</pre>
71
72<p>
73If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
74change the symlink before you continue:
75</p>
76
77<pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
78# <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
79# <i>cd /usr/src</i>
80# <i>ln -s linux-2.4.24 linux</i>
81</pre> 75</pre>
82 76
83<p> 77<p>
84Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You 78Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
85can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used 79can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
86by the LiveCD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is 80by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
87the best way to optimize your environment. 81the best way to optimize your environment.
88</p> 82</p>
89 83
90<p> 84<p>
91If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri 85If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
102<subsection> 96<subsection>
103<title>Introduction</title> 97<title>Introduction</title>
104<body> 98<body>
105 99
106<p> 100<p>
107Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult course every 101Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
108Linux users ever has to go through. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a 102Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
109couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;) 103couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
110</p> 104</p>
111 105
112<p> 106<p>
113However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start 107However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
114configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the 108configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
115contents of <path>/proc/pci</path> (or by using <c>lspci</c> if available). You 109pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
110be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
111ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
112/sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
113<c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
116can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the LiveCD uses (it might 114You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
117provide you with a nice hint on what to enable). 115uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118</p> 116</p>
119 117
120<p> 118<p>
121Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This 119Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
122will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu. 120will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
142<p> 140<p>
143First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers. 141First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
144You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up: 142You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
145</p> 143</p>
146 144
147<pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers"> 145<pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
148Code maturity level options ---&gt; 146Code maturity level options ---&gt;
149 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers 147 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
148General setup ---&gt;
149 [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
150</pre> 150</pre>
151 151
152<p> 152<p>
153Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use. 153Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
154<e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be 154<e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
155able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c>, <c>/proc 155able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
156file system</c>, <c>/dev file system</c> + <c>Automatically mount at boot</c>: 156file system</c>. If you are using a 2.4 kernel, you should also select the
157<c>/dev file system</c> and <c>Automatically mount at boot</c> options, and
158you should make sure to <c>emerge devfsd</c>.
157</p> 159</p>
158 160
159<pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems"> 161<pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
160<comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment> 162<comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
161File systems ---&gt; 163File systems ---&gt;
167 169
168<comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment> 170<comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
169File systems ---&gt; 171File systems ---&gt;
170 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt; 172 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
171 [*] /proc file system support 173 [*] /proc file system support
172 [*] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
173 [*] Automatically mount at boot
174 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs) 174 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
175 175
176<comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment> 176<comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
177 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support 177 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
178 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support 178 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
211If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your 211If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
212ethernet card. 212ethernet card.
213</p> 213</p>
214 214
215<p> 215<p>
216The following Alpha-specific options are recommended as well: 216The following options are recommended as well:
217</p> 217</p>
218 218
219<pre caption="Alpha-specific options"> 219<pre caption="Recommended Alpha options">
220General setup ---&gt; 220General setup ---&gt;
221 &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs 221 &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
222 &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl 222 &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
223 223
224Plug and Play configuration ---&gt; 224Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
281<title>Compiling and Installing</title> 281<title>Compiling and Installing</title>
282<body> 282<body>
283 283
284<p> 284<p>
285Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit 285Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
286the configuration and run <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules 286the configuration and start the compilation process:
287modules_install</c>:
288</p> 287</p>
289 288
290<pre caption="Compiling the kernel"> 289<pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
291<comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment> 290<comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
292# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i> 291# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
297<comment>(For all kernels)</comment> 296<comment>(For all kernels)</comment>
298# <i>make boot</i> 297# <i>make boot</i>
299</pre> 298</pre>
300 299
301<p> 300<p>
302When the kernel is done compiling, copy over the kernel image to 301When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
303<path>/boot</path>. In the next example we assume you have configured and 302<path>/boot</path>. Recent kernels might create <path>vmlinux</path> instead of
304compiled <c>vanilla-sources-2.4.24</c>: 303<path>vmlinux.gz</path>. Keep this in mind when you copy your kernel image.
305</p> 304</p>
306 305
307<pre caption="Installing the kernel"> 306<pre caption="Installing the kernel">
308# <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i> 307# <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i>
309# <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.4.24</i>
310</pre>
311
312<p>
313It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
314<path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
315</p>
316
317<pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
318# <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.4.24</i>
319</pre> 308</pre>
320 309
321<p> 310<p>
322Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel 311Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
323Modules</uri>. 312Modules</uri>.
337 326
338<p> 327<p>
339Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your 328Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
340kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for 329kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
341you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the 330you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
342way our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use 331way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
343<c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all 332<c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
344your hardware at boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel 333your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because genkernel
345doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for 334doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
346those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels. 335those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
347</p> 336</p>
348 337
349<p> 338<p>
367module). 356module).
368</p> 357</p>
369 358
370<pre caption="Running genkernel"> 359<pre caption="Running genkernel">
371# <i>genkernel all</i> 360# <i>genkernel all</i>
372GenKernel v3.0.1_beta10 361* Gentoo Linux Genkernel; Version 3.4.0
373* ARCH: Alpha 362* Running with options: all
374* KERNEL VER: 2.4.24 363
375* kernel: configuring source 364* Linux Kernel 2.6.16.19 for alpha...
376* kernel: running mrproper 365* kernel: >> Running mrproper...
377<comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment> 366<comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
378* Kernel compiled successfully! 367* Kernel compiled successfully!
368*
379* Required Kernel Params: 369* Required Kernel Parameters:
380* : root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/$ROOT 370* real_root=/dev/$ROOT
371*
381* where $ROOT is the devicenode for your root partition as 372* Where $ROOT is the device node for your root partition as the
382* you should have specified in /etc/fstab 373* one specified in /etc/fstab
383* 374*
384* You MUST tell your bootloader to use the generated initrd 375* If you require Genkernel's hardware detection features; you MUST
385* 376* tell your bootloader to use the provided INITRAMFS file. Otherwise;
386* Recommended Kernel Params: 377* substitute the root argument for the real_root argument if you are
387* : vga=0x317 splash=verbose 378* not planning to use the initrd...
388* 379
389* Do NOT report kernel bugs (configs included) as genkernel bugs. 380* WARNING... WARNING... WARNING...
381* Additional kernel cmdline arguments that *may* be required to boot properly...
382* Do NOT report kernel bugs as genkernel bugs unless your bug
383* is about the default genkernel configuration...
384*
390* Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs 385* Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs.
391*
392* For more info see /usr/share/genkernel/README
393</pre> 386</pre>
394 387
395<p> 388<p>
396Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and 389Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
397<e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel 390<e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
398and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write 391and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
399down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing 392down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
400the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after 393the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
401booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before 394booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD) before
402your "real" system starts up. 395your "real" system starts up.
403</p> 396</p>
404 397
405<pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd"> 398<pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
406# <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i> 399# <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs-*</i>
407</pre>
408
409<p>
410Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
411CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
412is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
413To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
414</p>
415
416<pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
417# <i>emerge hotplug</i>
418# <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
419</pre> 400</pre>
420 401
421</body> 402</body>
422</section> 403</section>
423<section id="kernel_modules"> 404<section id="kernel_modules">
439 <th>Ebuild</th> 420 <th>Ebuild</th>
440 <th>Purpose</th> 421 <th>Purpose</th>
441 <th>Command</th> 422 <th>Command</th>
442</tr> 423</tr>
443<tr> 424<tr>
444 <ti>xfree-drm</ti> 425 <ti>x11-drm</ti>
445 <ti> 426 <ti>
446 Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and 427 Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
447 other cards for XFree86. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable 428 other cards for xorg-x11. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
448 in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/xfree-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you 429 in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/x11-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
449 need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>. 430 need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
450 </ti> 431 </ti>
451 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti> 432 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge x11-drm</c></ti>
452</tr> 433</tr>
453</table> 434</table>
454 435
455<p> 436<p>
456Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify 437Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
457what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge 438what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
458--pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>xfree-drm</c> package: 439--pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>x11-drm</c> package:
459</p> 440</p>
460 441
461<pre caption="View full installation package listing"> 442<pre caption="View full installation package listing">
462# <i>emerge --pretend xfree-drm</i> 443# <i>emerge --pretend x11-drm</i>
463</pre> 444</pre>
464 445
465</body> 446</body>
466</subsection> 447</subsection>
467<subsection> 448<subsection>
498<pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6"> 479<pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
4993c59x 4803c59x
500</pre> 481</pre>
501 482
502<p> 483<p>
503Now run <c>modules-update</c> to commit your changes to the
504<path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file:
505</p>
506
507<pre caption="Running modules-update">
508# <i>modules-update</i>
509</pre>
510
511<p>
512Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring 484Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
513your System</uri>. 485your System</uri>.
514</p> 486</p>
515 487
516</body> 488</body>

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