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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.51 2012/09/11 22:49:20 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>15</version>
12 <date>2013-03-16</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
22 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
23 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
24 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
25 Guide</uri>.
26 </p>
27
28 <p>
29 For alpha-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c> (the default 2.6 kernel
30 source).
31 </p>
32
33 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
34 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
35 </pre>
36
37 <p>
38 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
39 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
40 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
41 Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
42 </p>
43
44 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
45 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
46 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
47 </pre>
48
49 <p>
50 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
51 <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
52 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
53 the best way to optimize your environment.
54 </p>
55
56 <p>
57 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
58 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
59 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
60 genkernel</uri> instead.
61 </p>
62
63 </body>
64 </subsection>
65 </section>
66 <section id="manual">
67 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
68 <subsection>
69 <title>Introduction</title>
70 <body>
71
72 <p>
73 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
74 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
75 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
76 </p>
77
78 <p>
79 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
80 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
81 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
82 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
83 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
84 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
85 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
86 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
87 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
88 </p>
89
90 <p>
91 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
92 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
93 </p>
94
95 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
96 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
97 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
98 </pre>
99
100 <p>
101 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
102 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
103 properly without additional tweaks).
104 </p>
105
106 </body>
107 </subsection>
108 <subsection>
109 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
110 <body>
111
112 <p>
113 First go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
114 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
115 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
116 file system</c>.
117 </p>
118
119 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
120 File systems ---&gt;
121 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
122 [*] /proc file system support
123 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
124
125 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
126 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
127 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
128 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
129 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
130 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
131 </pre>
132
133 <p>
134 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
135 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
136 </p>
137
138 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
139 Device Drivers ---&gt;
140 Network device support ---&gt;
141 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
142 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
143 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
144 </pre>
145
146 <p>
147 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
148 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
149 when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
150 </p>
151
152 <p>
153 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
154 ethernet card.
155 </p>
156
157 <p>
158 The following options are recommended as well:
159 </p>
160
161 <pre caption="Recommended Alpha options">
162 General setup ---&gt;
163 &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
164 &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
165
166 Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
167 &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
168 &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
169
170 SCSI support ---&gt;
171 SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
172 &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
173 &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
174
175 Network device support ---&gt;
176 Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
177 &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
178 &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
179 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
180 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
181 Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
182 &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
183 [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
184 &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
185 [*] FDDI driver support
186 &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
187 &lt;*&gt; PPP support
188 &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
189
190 Character devices ---&gt;
191 [*] Support for console on serial port
192 [*] Direct Rendering Manager
193
194 File systems ---&gt;
195 &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
196 Network File Systems ---&gt;
197 &lt;*&gt; NFS
198 [*] NFSv3 client
199 &lt;*&gt; NFS server
200 [*] NFSv3 server
201 Partition Types ---&gt;
202 [*] Advanced partition selection
203 [*] Alpha OSF partition support
204 Native Language Support
205 &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
206
207 Sound ---&gt;
208 &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
209 &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
210 [*] Verbose initialisation
211 [*] Persistent DMA buffers
212 &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
213 </pre>
214
215 <p>
216 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
217 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
218 </p>
219
220 </body>
221 </subsection>
222 <subsection id="compiling">
223 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
224 <body>
225
226 <p>
227 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
228 the configuration and start the compilation process:
229 </p>
230
231 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
232 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
233 # <i>make boot</i>
234 </pre>
235
236 <p>
237 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
238 <path>/boot</path>. Recent kernels might create <path>vmlinux</path> instead of
239 <path>vmlinux.gz</path>. Keep this in mind when you copy your kernel image.
240 </p>
241
242 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
243 # <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i>
244 </pre>
245
246 </body>
247 </subsection>
248 <subsection>
249 <include href="hb-install-initramfs.xml"/>
250 </subsection>
251
252 </section>
253 <section id="genkernel">
254 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
255 <body>
256
257 <p>
258 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
259 script to configure your kernel for you.
260 </p>
261
262 <p>
263 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
264 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
265 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
266 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
267 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
268 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
269 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
270 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
271 kernels.
272 </p>
273
274 <p>
275 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
276 </p>
277
278 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
279 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
280 </pre>
281
282 <p>
283 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
284 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
285 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
286 </p>
287
288 <p>
289 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
290 need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
291 and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
292 module).
293 </p>
294
295 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
296 # <i>genkernel all</i>
297 </pre>
298
299 <p>
300 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and <e>initial
301 ram disk</e> (initramfs) will be created. We will use the kernel and initrd when
302 configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write down the names of the
303 kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing the bootloader configuration
304 file. The initrd will be started immediately after booting to perform hardware
305 autodetection (just like on the Installation CD) before your "real" system
306 starts up.
307 </p>
308
309 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
310 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs-*</i>
311 </pre>
312
313 </body>
314 </section>
315 <section id="kernel_modules">
316 <title>Kernel Modules</title>
317
318 <subsection>
319 <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
320 </subsection>
321
322 </section>
323 </sections>

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