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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-arm-disk.xml,v 1.6 2007/06/26 07:07:27 nightmorph Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-arm-disk.xml,v 1.12 2011/08/22 17:18:23 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<version>5.1</version> 11<version>6.1</version>
12<date>2007-06-26</date> 12<date>2008-05-02</date>
13 13
14<!-- TODO: Add section about MTD and such --> 14<!-- TODO: Add section about MTD and such -->
15 15
16<section> 16<section>
17<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 17<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
18<subsection>
19<title>Block Devices</title>
20<body>
21 18
22<p>
23We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
24and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
25Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
26you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
27for your Gentoo Linux installation.
28</p>
29
30<p>
31To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
32probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
33<path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI or SATA drives, then your
34first hard drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>.
35</p>
36
37<p>
38The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
39programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
40about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
41simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
42randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
43</p>
44
45</body>
46</subsection> 19<subsection>
20<include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
21</subsection>
22
47<subsection> 23<subsection>
48<title>Partitions</title> 24<title>Partitions</title>
49<body> 25<body>
50 26
51<p> 27<p>
61</p> 37</p>
62 38
63<p> 39<p>
64A <e>primary</e> partition is a partition which has its information stored in 40A <e>primary</e> partition is a partition which has its information stored in
65the MBR (master boot record). As an MBR is very small (512 bytes) only four 41the MBR (master boot record). As an MBR is very small (512 bytes) only four
66primary partitions can be defined (for instance, <path>/dev/hda1</path> to 42primary partitions can be defined (for instance, <path>/dev/sda1</path> to
67<path>/dev/hda4</path>). 43<path>/dev/sda4</path>).
68</p> 44</p>
69 45
70<p> 46<p>
71An <e>extended</e> partition is a special primary partition (meaning the 47An <e>extended</e> partition is a special primary partition (meaning the
72extended partition must be one of the four possible primary partitions) which 48extended partition must be one of the four possible primary partitions) which
89<subsection> 65<subsection>
90<title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title> 66<title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
91<body> 67<body>
92 68
93<warn> 69<warn>
94The NetWinder firmware, NeTTrom, can only read ext2 partitions realiably so you 70The NetWinder firmware, NeTTrom, can only read ext2 partitions reliably so you
95must have a separate ext2 boot partition. 71must have a separate ext2 boot partition.
96</warn> 72</warn>
97 73
98<p> 74<p>
99If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system, 75If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
106 <th>Filesystem</th> 82 <th>Filesystem</th>
107 <th>Size</th> 83 <th>Size</th>
108 <th>Description</th> 84 <th>Description</th>
109</tr> 85</tr>
110<tr> 86<tr>
111 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 87 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
112 <ti>ext2</ti> 88 <ti>ext2</ti>
113 <ti>32M</ti> 89 <ti>32M</ti>
114 <ti>Boot partition</ti> 90 <ti>Boot partition</ti>
115</tr> 91</tr>
116<tr> 92<tr>
117 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 93 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
118 <ti>(swap)</ti> 94 <ti>(swap)</ti>
119 <ti>512M</ti> 95 <ti>512M</ti>
120 <ti>Swap partition</ti> 96 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
121</tr> 97</tr>
122<tr> 98<tr>
123 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 99 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
124 <ti>ext3</ti> 100 <ti>ext3</ti>
125 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti> 101 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
126 <ti>Root partition</ti> 102 <ti>Root partition</ti>
127</tr> 103</tr>
128</table> 104</table>
191</p> 167</p>
192 168
193<pre caption="Filesystem usage example"> 169<pre caption="Filesystem usage example">
194$ <i>df -h</i> 170$ <i>df -h</i>
195Filesystem Type Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on 171Filesystem Type Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
196/dev/hda5 ext3 509M 132M 351M 28% / 172/dev/sda5 ext3 509M 132M 351M 28% /
197/dev/hda2 ext3 5.0G 3.0G 1.8G 63% /home 173/dev/sda2 ext3 5.0G 3.0G 1.8G 63% /home
198/dev/hda7 ext3 7.9G 6.2G 1.3G 83% /usr 174/dev/sda7 ext3 7.9G 6.2G 1.3G 83% /usr
199/dev/hda8 ext3 1011M 483M 477M 51% /opt 175/dev/sda8 ext3 1011M 483M 477M 51% /opt
200/dev/hda9 ext3 2.0G 607M 1.3G 32% /var 176/dev/sda9 ext3 2.0G 607M 1.3G 32% /var
201/dev/hda1 ext2 51M 17M 31M 36% /boot 177/dev/sda1 ext2 51M 17M 31M 36% /boot
202/dev/hda6 swap 516M 12M 504M 2% &lt;not mounted&gt; 178/dev/sda6 swap 516M 12M 504M 2% &lt;not mounted&gt;
203<comment>(Unpartitioned space for future usage: 2 GB)</comment> 179<comment>(Unpartitioned space for future usage: 2 GB)</comment>
204</pre> 180</pre>
205 181
206<p> 182<p>
207<path>/usr</path> is rather full (83% used) here, but once 183<path>/usr</path> is rather full (83% used) here, but once
231<tr> 207<tr>
232 <th>Partition</th> 208 <th>Partition</th>
233 <th>Description</th> 209 <th>Description</th>
234</tr> 210</tr>
235<tr> 211<tr>
236 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 212 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
237 <ti>Boot partition</ti> 213 <ti>Boot partition</ti>
238</tr> 214</tr>
239<tr> 215<tr>
240 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 216 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
241 <ti>Swap partition</ti> 217 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
242</tr> 218</tr>
243<tr> 219<tr>
244 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 220 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
245 <ti>Root partition</ti> 221 <ti>Root partition</ti>
246</tr> 222</tr>
247</table> 223</table>
248 224
249<p> 225<p>
257<body> 233<body>
258 234
259<p> 235<p>
260<c>fdisk</c> is a popular and powerful tool to split your disk into partitions. 236<c>fdisk</c> is a popular and powerful tool to split your disk into partitions.
261Fire up <c>fdisk</c> on your disk (in our example, we use 237Fire up <c>fdisk</c> on your disk (in our example, we use
262<path>/dev/hda</path>): 238<path>/dev/sda</path>):
263</p> 239</p>
264 240
265<pre caption="Starting fdisk"> 241<pre caption="Starting fdisk">
266# <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i> 242# <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
267</pre> 243</pre>
268 244
269<p> 245<p>
270Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this: 246Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
271</p> 247</p>
279</p> 255</p>
280 256
281<pre caption="An example partition configuration"> 257<pre caption="An example partition configuration">
282Command (m for help): <i>p</i> 258Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
283 259
284Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders 260Disk /dev/sda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
285Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes 261Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
286 262
287Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System 263Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
288/dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux 264/dev/sda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
289/dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap 265/dev/sda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
290/dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux 266/dev/sda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
291/dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended 267/dev/sda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
292/dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux 268/dev/sda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
293/dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux 269/dev/sda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
294/dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux 270/dev/sda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
295/dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux 271/dev/sda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
296/dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux 272/dev/sda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
297 273
298Command (m for help): 274Command (m for help):
299</pre> 275</pre>
300 276
301<p> 277<p>
310<title>Removing all Partitions</title> 286<title>Removing all Partitions</title>
311<body> 287<body>
312 288
313<p> 289<p>
314We will first remove all existing partitions from the disk. Type <c>d</c> to 290We will first remove all existing partitions from the disk. Type <c>d</c> to
315delete a partition. For instance, to delete an existing <path>/dev/hda1</path>: 291delete a partition. For instance, to delete an existing <path>/dev/sda1</path>:
316</p> 292</p>
317 293
318<pre caption="Deleting a partition"> 294<pre caption="Deleting a partition">
319Command (m for help): <i>d</i> 295Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
320Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i> 296Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
333<c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end 309<c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end
334up with a partition table with nothing in it: 310up with a partition table with nothing in it:
335</p> 311</p>
336 312
337<pre caption="An empty partition table"> 313<pre caption="An empty partition table">
338Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes 314Disk /dev/sda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
339240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders 315240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
340Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes 316Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
341 317
342Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System 318Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
343 319
382</p> 358</p>
383 359
384<pre caption="Created boot partition"> 360<pre caption="Created boot partition">
385Command (m for help): <i>p</i> 361Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
386 362
387Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes 363Disk /dev/sda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
388240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders 364240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
389Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes 365Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
390 366
391Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System 367Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
392/dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux 368/dev/sda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
393</pre> 369</pre>
394 370
395<p> 371<p>
396We need to make this partition bootable. Type <c>a</c> to toggle the bootable 372We need to make this partition bootable. Type <c>a</c> to toggle the bootable
397flag on a partition and select <c>1</c>. If you press <c>p</c> again, you will 373flag on a partition and select <c>1</c>. If you press <c>p</c> again, you will
405<body> 381<body>
406 382
407<p> 383<p>
408Let's now create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new 384Let's now create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new
409partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then 385partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
410type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <path>/dev/hda2</path> in 386type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <path>/dev/sda2</path> in
411our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for 387our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for
412the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After 388the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After
413you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select 389you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select
414the partition you just created and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition 390the partition you just created and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
415type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should 391type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should
417</p> 393</p>
418 394
419<pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition"> 395<pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
420Command (m for help): <i>p</i> 396Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
421 397
422Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes 398Disk /dev/sda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
423240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders 399240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
424Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes 400Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
425 401
426Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System 402Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
427/dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux 403/dev/sda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
428/dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap 404/dev/sda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
429</pre> 405</pre>
430 406
431</body> 407</body>
432</subsection> 408</subsection>
433<subsection> 409<subsection>
435<body> 411<body>
436 412
437<p> 413<p>
438Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a 414Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
439new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. 415new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition.
440Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition, <path>/dev/hda3</path> 416Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition, <path>/dev/sda3</path>
441in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for 417in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for
442the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes up the rest of the 418the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes up the rest of the
443remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> 419remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c>
444should display a partition table that looks similar to this: 420should display a partition table that looks similar to this:
445</p> 421</p>
446 422
447<pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition"> 423<pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
448Command (m for help): <i>p</i> 424Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
449 425
450Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes 426Disk /dev/sda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
451240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders 427240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
452Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes 428Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
453 429
454Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System 430Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
455/dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux 431/dev/sda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
456/dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap 432/dev/sda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
457/dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux 433/dev/sda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
458</pre> 434</pre>
459 435
460</body> 436</body>
461</subsection> 437</subsection>
462<subsection> 438<subsection>
470<pre caption="Save and exit fdisk"> 446<pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
471Command (m for help): <i>w</i> 447Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
472</pre> 448</pre>
473 449
474<p> 450<p>
475Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri 451Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
476link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>. 452link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
477</p> 453</p>
478 454
479</body> 455</body>
480</subsection> 456</subsection>
493Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems... 469Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
494</p> 470</p>
495 471
496</body> 472</body>
497</subsection> 473</subsection>
498<subsection>
499<title>Filesystems?</title>
500<body>
501 474
502<p>
503Several filesystems are available. Some of them are found stable on the amd64
504architecture, others aren't. The following filesystems are found to be stable:
505ext2 and ext3. jfs and reiserfs may work but need more testing. If you're
506really adventurous you can try the unsupported filesystems.
507</p>
508
509<p>
510<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
511journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
512be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
513journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
514thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
515filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
516happens to be in an inconsistent state.
517</p>
518
519<p>
520<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
521journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
522full data and ordered data journaling. It uses an HTree index that enables high
523performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is a very good and reliable
524filesystem.
525</p>
526
527<p>
528<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B+tree-based filesystem that has very good overall
529performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
530files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
531extremely well and has metadata journaling. ReiserFS is solid and usable as
532both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of
533large filesystems, very large files and directories containing tens of
534thousands of small files.
535</p>
536
537<p>
538<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
539feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
540filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
541an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
542in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
543when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
544deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
545</p>
546
547<p>
548<b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
549become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
550comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
551</p>
552
553</body>
554</subsection> 475<subsection>
476<include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
477</subsection>
478
555<subsection id="filesystems-apply"> 479<subsection id="filesystems-apply">
556<title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title> 480<title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
557<body> 481<body>
558 482
559<p> 483<p>
566 <th>Filesystem</th> 490 <th>Filesystem</th>
567 <th>Creation Command</th> 491 <th>Creation Command</th>
568</tr> 492</tr>
569<tr> 493<tr>
570 <ti>ext2</ti> 494 <ti>ext2</ti>
571 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti> 495 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
572</tr> 496</tr>
573<tr> 497<tr>
574 <ti>ext3</ti> 498 <ti>ext3</ti>
575 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti> 499 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
576</tr> 500</tr>
587 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti> 511 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
588</tr> 512</tr>
589</table> 513</table>
590 514
591<p> 515<p>
592For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our 516For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
593example) in ext2 and the root partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path> in our example) 517example) in ext2 and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda3</path> in our example)
594in ext3 (as in our example), you would use: 518in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
595</p> 519</p>
596 520
597<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition"> 521<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
598# <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i> 522# <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
599# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i> 523# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda3</i>
600</pre> 524</pre>
601 525
602<p> 526<p>
603Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical 527Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
604volumes). 528volumes).
613<p> 537<p>
614<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions: 538<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
615</p> 539</p>
616 540
617<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature"> 541<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
618# <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i> 542# <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
619</pre> 543</pre>
620 544
621<p> 545<p>
622To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>: 546To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
623</p> 547</p>
624 548
625<pre caption="Activating the swap partition"> 549<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
626# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i> 550# <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
627</pre> 551</pre>
628 552
629<p> 553<p>
630Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above. 554Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
631</p> 555</p>
643create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an 567create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
644example we mount the root and boot partition: 568example we mount the root and boot partition:
645</p> 569</p>
646 570
647<pre caption="Mounting partitions"> 571<pre caption="Mounting partitions">
648# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 572# <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
649# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i> 573# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
650# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i> 574# <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
651</pre> 575</pre>
652 576
653<note> 577<note>
654If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to 578If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
655change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This 579change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This

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