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Revision 1.35 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Sat Jul 3 10:05:28 2004 UTC (10 years, 9 months ago) by swift
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Changes since 1.34: +11 -5 lines
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Remove noauto for /boot and tell the users a bit more about this phenomenon :p

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.34 2004/06/03 20:58:34 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>What is fstab?</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20 (special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
21 etc.).
22 </p>
23
24 </body>
25 </subsection>
26 <subsection>
27 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
28 <body>
29
30 <p>
31 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
32 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
33 its own meaning:
34 </p>
35
36 <ul>
37 <li>
38 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39 file)
40 </li>
41 <li>
42 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
43 mounted
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47 </li>
48 <li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63 </li>
64 </ul>
65
66 <p>
67 So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69 </p>
70
71 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73 </pre>
74
75 <p>
76 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
78 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
79 </p>
80
81 <p>
82 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
84 It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85 </p>
86
87 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
88 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
89 </pre>
90
91 <p>
92 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
93 automatically. Those people should substitute <c>defaults</c> with
94 <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to manually mount this partition
95 every time you want to use it.
96 </p>
97
98 <p>
99 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
100 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
101 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
102 </p>
103
104 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
105 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
106 </pre>
107
108 <p>
109 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
110 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
111 </p>
112
113 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
114 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
115 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
116 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
117 </pre>
118
119 <p>
120 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
121 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
122 partitions or drives, for those too):
123 </p>
124
125 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
126 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
127 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
128 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
129
130 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
131 none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
132
133 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
134 </pre>
135
136 <p>
137 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
138 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
139 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
140 </p>
141
142 <p>
143 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
144 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
145 <path>/etc/fstab</path>
146 too:
147 </p>
148
149 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
150 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
151 </pre>
152
153 <p>
154 If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
155 </p>
156
157 <pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158 none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
159 </pre>
160
161 <p>
162 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
163 </p>
164
165 </body>
166 </subsection>
167 </section>
168 <section>
169 <title>Networking Information</title>
170 <subsection>
171 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
172 <body>
173
174 <p>
175 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
176 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
177 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
178 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
179 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
180 </p>
181
182 <p>
183 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
184 </p>
185
186 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
187 # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
188 </pre>
189
190 <p>
191 Second we set the domainname:
192 </p>
193
194 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195 # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
196 </pre>
197
198 <p>
199 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
200 one), you need to define that one too:
201 </p>
202
203 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
204 # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
205 </pre>
206
207 <p>
208 Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
209 </p>
210
211 <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
212 # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
213 </pre>
214
215 </body>
216 </subsection>
217 <subsection>
218 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
219 <body>
220
221 <p>
222 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
223 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
224 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
225 your Gentoo system permanently.
226 </p>
227
228 <p>
229 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
230 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
231 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
232 </p>
233
234 <p>
235 First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
236 is used in this example):
237 </p>
238
239 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
240 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
241 </pre>
242
243 <p>
244 The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
245 syntax:
246 </p>
247
248 <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
249 iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
250 </pre>
251
252 <p>
253 If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
254 to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
255 If you need to setup your network manually and you're
256 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
257 link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
258 Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
259 </p>
260
261 <p>
262 So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
263 IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
264 gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
265 rp-pppoe usage:
266 </p>
267
268 <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
269 <comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
270 iface_eth0="dhcp"
271
272 <comment>(For static IP)</comment>
273 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
274 gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
275
276 <comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
277 iface_eth0="up"
278 </pre>
279
280 <p>
281 If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
282 like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
283 shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
284 </p>
285
286 <p>
287 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
288 </p>
289
290 </body>
291 </subsection>
292 <subsection>
293 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
294 <body>
295
296 <p>
297 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
298 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
299 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
300 </p>
301
302 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
303 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
304 </pre>
305
306 <p>
307 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
308 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
309 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
310 </p>
311
312 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
313 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
314 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
315 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
316 </pre>
317
318 </body>
319 </subsection>
320 <subsection>
321 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
322 <body>
323
324 <p>
325 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
326 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
327 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
328 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
329 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
330 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
331 </p>
332
333 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
334 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
335 </pre>
336
337 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
338 127.0.0.1 localhost
339 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
340 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
341 192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
342 </pre>
343
344 <p>
345 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
346 resolution) a single line is sufficient:
347 </p>
348
349 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
350 127.0.0.1 localhost
351 </pre>
352
353 <p>
354 Save and exit the editor to continue.
355 </p>
356
357 <p>
358 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
359 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
360 following topic on PCMCIA.
361 </p>
362
363 </body>
364 </subsection>
365 <subsection>
366 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
367 <body>
368
369 <note>
370 pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
371 </note>
372
373 <p>
374 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The
375 <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing XFree86 at this moment:
376 </p>
377
378 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
379 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
380 </pre>
381
382 <p>
383 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
384 runlevel:
385 </p>
386
387 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
388 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
389 </pre>
390
391 </body>
392 </subsection>
393 </section>
394 <section>
395 <title>System Information</title>
396 <body>
397
398 <p>
399 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
400 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
401 </p>
402
403 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
404 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
405 </pre>
406
407 <p>
408 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
409 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
410 you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
411 your keyboard.
412 </p>
413
414 <note>
415 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
416 select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
417 </note>
418
419 <p>
420 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
421 ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
422 to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
423 </p>
424
425 <p>
426 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
427 continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
428 </p>
429
430 </body>
431 </section>
432 </sections>

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