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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.105 2011/08/12 18:45:20 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.121 2013/07/22 13:59:36 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract> 11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed. 14proceed.
15</abstract> 15</abstract>
16 16
17<version>12</version> 17<version>27</version>
18<date>2011-08-12</date> 18<date>2013-07-22</date>
19 19
20<section> 20<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
98</p> 98</p>
99 99
100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
102</pre> 102</pre>
103 103
104<p> 104<p>
105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
120<p> 120<p>
121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p> 122</p>
123 123
124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
128 128
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130
131proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
132shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
133</pre> 130</pre>
134 131
135<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"> 132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
136<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
137/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
138/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
139 136
140/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141
142proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
144</pre> 138</pre>
145 139
146<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
147/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1 141/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
148/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
149/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2 143/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
150/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2 144/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
151/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2 145/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
152 146
153<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment> 147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
154openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
155 149
156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
157
158proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
159shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160</pre> 151</pre>
161 152
162<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or 153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
163func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"> 154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
164/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 155/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
165/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
166 157
167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168
169proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
170shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
171</pre> 159</pre>
172 160
173<p> 161<p>
174<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 162<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
175removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 163removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
242nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
243</pre> 231</pre>
244 232
245<note> 233<note>
246For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples 234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
247provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge 235provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
236can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
248<c>openresolv</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup. 237to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
249</note> 238</note>
250 239
251</body> 240</body>
252</subsection> 241</subsection>
253<subsection> 242<subsection>
270<p> 259<p>
271All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 260All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
272a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 261a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
273networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 262networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
274commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 263commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
275<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 264<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
276</p> 265</p>
277 266
278<p> 267<p>
279DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP 268DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
280client. This is described later in <uri 269client. This is described later in <uri
298</p> 287</p>
299 288
300<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
301# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
302# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
303# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 292# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
304# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 293# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
305</pre> 294</pre>
306 295
307<p> 296<p>
308To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
309to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
310</p> 299</p>
300
301<note>
302This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
303very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
304the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
305the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
306<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
307</note>
311 308
312<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 309<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
313config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" 310config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
314routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1" 311routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
315</pre> 312</pre>
321<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 318<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
322config_eth0="dhcp" 319config_eth0="dhcp"
323</pre> 320</pre>
324 321
325<p> 322<p>
326Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 323Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
327options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if you need to set 324list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
328specific DHCP options. 325you need to set specific DHCP options.
329</p> 326</p>
330 327
331<p> 328<p>
332If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 329If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
333<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 330<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
354# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 351# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
355</pre> 352</pre>
356 353
357<p> 354<p>
358If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 355If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
359<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with 356<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
360<path>net.eth0</path>. 357</p>
358
361</p> 359<p>
360If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
361currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
362</p>
363
364<ol>
365<li>
366update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
367instead of eth0),
368</li>
369<li>
370create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
371</li>
372<li>
373remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
374</li>
375<li>
376add the new one to the default runlevel, and
377</li>
378<li>
379remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
380</li>
381</ol>
362 382
363</body> 383</body>
364</subsection> 384</subsection>
365<subsection> 385<subsection>
366<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 386<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
435<subsection> 455<subsection>
436<title>System Information</title> 456<title>System Information</title>
437<body> 457<body>
438 458
439<p> 459<p>
440Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 460Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
441Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 461and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
462the comments in the file.
442</p> 463</p>
443 464
444<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 465<pre caption="Configuring services">
445# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 466# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
446</pre> 467</pre>
447 468
448<p> 469<p>
449When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 470When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
450</p>
451
452<p>
453As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
454configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
455define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
456</p> 471</p>
457 472
458<p> 473<p>
459Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 474Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
460Edit it to configure your keyboard. 475Edit it to configure your keyboard.
486<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock"> 501<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
487# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i> 502# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
488</pre> 503</pre>
489 504
490<p> 505<p>
491If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 506If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
492to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 507to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
493</p> 508</p>
494 509
495<p> 510<p>
496You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
497<path>/etc/localtime</path> so that further upgrades of the
498<c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update <path>/etc/localtime</path>
499automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT timezone, you would add
500<c>TIMEZONE="GMT"</c>
501</p>
502
503<p>
504When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 511When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
505exit. 512exit.
513</p>
514
515</body>
516</subsection>
517
518<subsection>
519<title>Configure locales</title>
520<body>
521
522<p>
523You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
524specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
525</p>
526
527<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
528# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
529</pre>
530
531<p>
532The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
533German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
534</p>
535
536<pre caption="Specify your locales">
537en_US ISO-8859-1
538en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
539de_DE ISO-8859-1
540de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
541</pre>
542
543<note>
544You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
545</note>
546
547<warn>
548We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
549applications may require it.
550</warn>
551
552<p>
553The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
554have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
555</p>
556
557<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
558# <i>locale-gen</i>
559</pre>
560
561<p>
562Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
563in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
564</p>
565
566<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
567LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
568LC_COLLATE="C"
569</pre>
570
571<p>
572And reload your environment:
573</p>
574
575<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
576# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
577</pre>
578
579<p>
580We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
581Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read our detailed
582<uri link="../utf-8.xml#doc_chap2">UTF-8 Guide</uri> for very specific
583informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
506</p> 584</p>
507 585
508<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 586<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
509Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 587Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
510Tools</uri>. 588Tools</uri>.

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