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3 3
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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.105 2011/08/12 18:45:20 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.125 2013/12/17 10:01:35 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract> 11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed. 14proceed.
15</abstract> 15</abstract>
16 16
17<version>12</version> 17<version>31</version>
18<date>2011-08-12</date> 18<date>2013-12-17</date>
19 19
20<section> 20<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
80 80
81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83</pre> 83</pre>
84 84
85<p>
86In the remainder of the text, we use the default <path>/dev/sd*</path> block
87device files as partition. You can also opt to use the symbolic links in the
88<path>/dev/disk/byid</path> or <path>/dev/disk/by-uuid</path>. These names are
89not likely to change, whereas the default block device files naming depends on
90a number of factors (such as how and in what order the disks are attached to
91your system). However, if you do not intend to fiddle with the disk ordering,
92you can continue with the default block device files safely.
93</p>
94
85</body> 95</body>
86<body test="func:keyval('/boot')"> 96<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87 97
88<p> 98<p>
89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 99Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 106usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 107filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
98</p> 108</p>
99 109
100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 110<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 111<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
102</pre> 112</pre>
103 113
104<p> 114<p>
105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 115Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 116automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
120<p> 130<p>
121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 131Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p> 132</p>
123 133
124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 134<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 135<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 136/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 137/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
128 138
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130
131proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
132shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
133</pre> 140</pre>
134 141
135<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"> 142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
136<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
137/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 144/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
138/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 145/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
139 146
140/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 147/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141
142proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
144</pre> 148</pre>
145 149
146<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 150<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
147/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1 151/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
148/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 152/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
149/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2 153/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
150/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2 154/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
151/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2 155/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
152 156
153<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment> 157<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
154openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 158openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
155 159
156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 160/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
157
158proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
159shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160</pre> 161</pre>
161 162
162<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or 163<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
163func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"> 164func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
164/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 165/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
165/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 166/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
166 167
167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 168/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168
169proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
170shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
171</pre> 169</pre>
172 170
173<p> 171<p>
174<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 172<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
175removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 173removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
177</p> 175</p>
178 176
179<p> 177<p>
180To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 178To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
181mount option, which results in a faster system since access times 179mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
182aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). 180aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). This is also
181recommended for solid state drive (SSD) users, who should also enable
182the <c>discard</c> mount option (ext4 and btrfs only for now) which
183makes the TRIM command work.
183</p> 184</p>
184 185
185<p> 186<p>
186Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 187Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
187</p> 188</p>
242nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 243nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
243</pre> 244</pre>
244 245
245<note> 246<note>
246For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples 247For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
247provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge 248provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
249can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
248<c>openresolv</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup. 250to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
249</note> 251</note>
250 252
251</body> 253</body>
252</subsection> 254</subsection>
253<subsection> 255<subsection>
270<p> 272<p>
271All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 273All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
272a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 274a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
273networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 275networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
274commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 276commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
275<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 277<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
276</p> 278</p>
277 279
278<p> 280<p>
279DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP 281DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
280client. This is described later in <uri 282client. This is described later in <uri
298</p> 300</p>
299 301
300<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 302<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
301# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 303# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
302# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 304# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
303# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 305# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
304# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 306# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
305</pre> 307</pre>
306 308
307<p> 309<p>
308To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 310To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
309to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 311to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
310</p> 312</p>
313
314<note>
315This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
316very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
317the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
318the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
319<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
320</note>
311 321
312<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 322<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
313config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" 323config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
314routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1" 324routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
315</pre> 325</pre>
321<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 331<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
322config_eth0="dhcp" 332config_eth0="dhcp"
323</pre> 333</pre>
324 334
325<p> 335<p>
326Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 336Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
327options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if you need to set 337list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
328specific DHCP options. 338you need to set specific DHCP options.
329</p> 339</p>
330 340
331<p> 341<p>
332If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 342If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
333<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 343<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
354# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 364# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
355</pre> 365</pre>
356 366
357<p> 367<p>
358If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 368If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
359<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with 369<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
360<path>net.eth0</path>. 370</p>
371
361</p> 372<p>
373If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
374currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
375</p>
376
377<ol>
378<li>
379update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
380instead of eth0),
381</li>
382<li>
383create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
384</li>
385<li>
386remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
387</li>
388<li>
389add the new one to the default runlevel, and
390</li>
391<li>
392remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
393</li>
394</ol>
362 395
363</body> 396</body>
364</subsection> 397</subsection>
365<subsection> 398<subsection>
366<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 399<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
435<subsection> 468<subsection>
436<title>System Information</title> 469<title>System Information</title>
437<body> 470<body>
438 471
439<p> 472<p>
440Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 473Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
441Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 474and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
475the comments in the file.
442</p> 476</p>
443 477
444<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 478<pre caption="Configuring services">
445# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 479# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
446</pre> 480</pre>
447 481
448<p> 482<p>
449When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 483When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
450</p>
451
452<p>
453As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
454configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
455define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
456</p> 484</p>
457 485
458<p> 486<p>
459Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 487Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
460Edit it to configure your keyboard. 488Edit it to configure your keyboard.
486<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock"> 514<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
487# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i> 515# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
488</pre> 516</pre>
489 517
490<p> 518<p>
491If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 519If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
492to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 520to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
493</p> 521</p>
494 522
495<p> 523<p>
496You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
497<path>/etc/localtime</path> so that further upgrades of the
498<c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update <path>/etc/localtime</path>
499automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT timezone, you would add
500<c>TIMEZONE="GMT"</c>
501</p>
502
503<p>
504When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 524When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
505exit. 525exit.
526</p>
527
528</body>
529</subsection>
530
531<subsection>
532<title>Configure locales</title>
533<body>
534
535<p>
536You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
537specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
538</p>
539
540<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
541# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
542</pre>
543
544<p>
545The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
546German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
547</p>
548
549<pre caption="Specify your locales">
550en_US ISO-8859-1
551en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
552de_DE ISO-8859-1
553de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
554</pre>
555
556<note>
557You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
558</note>
559
560<warn>
561We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
562applications may require it.
563</warn>
564
565<p>
566The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
567have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
568</p>
569
570<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
571# <i>locale-gen</i>
572</pre>
573
574<p>
575You can verify that your selected locales are available by running <c>locale -a</c>.
576</p>
577
578<p>
579Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings.
580With <c>eselect locale list</c>, the available targets are displayed:
581</p>
582
583<pre caption="Displaying the available LANG settings">
584# <i>eselect locale list</i>
585Available targets for the LANG variable:
586 [1] C
587 [2] POSIX
588 [3] en_US
589 [4] en_US.iso88591
590 [5] en_US.utf8
591 [6] de_DE
592 [7] de_DE.iso88591
593 [8] de_DE.iso885915
594 [9] de_DE.utf8
595 [ ] (free form)
596</pre>
597
598<p>
599With <c>eselect locale set &lt;value&gt;</c> the correct locale can be set:
600</p>
601
602<pre caption="Setting the LANG variable">
603# <i>eselect locale set 9</i>
604</pre>
605
606<p>
607Manually, this can still be accomplished through the
608<path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
609</p>
610
611<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
612LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
613LC_COLLATE="C"
614</pre>
615
616<p>
617Don't forget to reload your environment:
618</p>
619
620<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
621# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
622</pre>
623
624<p>
625We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
626Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
627<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
628informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
506</p> 629</p>
507 630
508<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 631<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
509Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 632Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
510Tools</uri>. 633Tools</uri>.

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