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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.105 2011/08/12 18:45:20 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.129 2013/12/19 10:48:20 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract> 11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed. 14proceed.
15</abstract> 15</abstract>
16 16
17<version>12</version> 17<version>35</version>
18<date>2011-08-12</date> 18<date>2013-12-19</date>
19 19
20<section> 20<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
80 80
81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83</pre> 83</pre>
84 84
85<p>
86In the remainder of the text, we use the default <path>/dev/sd*</path> block
87device files as partition. You can also opt to use the symbolic links in the
88<path>/dev/disk/byid</path> or <path>/dev/disk/by-uuid</path>. These names are
89not likely to change, whereas the default block device files naming depends on
90a number of factors (such as how and in what order the disks are attached to
91your system). However, if you do not intend to fiddle with the disk ordering,
92you can continue with the default block device files safely.
93</p>
94
85</body> 95</body>
86<body test="func:keyval('/boot')"> 96<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87 97
88<p> 98<p>
89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 99Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 106usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 107filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
98</p> 108</p>
99 109
100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 110<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 111<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
102</pre> 112</pre>
103 113
104<p> 114<p>
105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 115Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 116automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
119 129
120<p> 130<p>
121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 131Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p> 132</p>
123 133
124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 134<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 135<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 136/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 137/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
128 138
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130
131proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
132shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
133</pre> 140</pre>
134 141
135<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"> 142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
136<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
137/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 144/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
138/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 145/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
139 146
140/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 147/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141
142proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
144</pre> 148</pre>
145 149
146<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 150<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
147/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1 151/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
148/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 152/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
149/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2 153/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
150/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2 154/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
151/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2 155/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
152 156
153<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment> 157<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
154openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 158openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
155 159
156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 160/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
157
158proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
159shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160</pre> 161</pre>
161 162
162<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or 163<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
163func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"> 164func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
164/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 165/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
165/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 166/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
166 167
167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 168/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168
169proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
170shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
171</pre> 169</pre>
172 170
173<p> 171<p>
174<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 172<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
175removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 173removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
177</p> 175</p>
178 176
179<p> 177<p>
180To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 178To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
181mount option, which results in a faster system since access times 179mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
182aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). 180aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). This is also
181recommended for solid state drive (SSD) users, who should also enable
182the <c>discard</c> mount option (ext4 and btrfs only for now) which
183makes the TRIM command work.
183</p> 184</p>
184 185
185<p> 186<p>
186Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 187Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
187</p> 188</p>
215You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you 216You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
216have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or 217have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
217domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP. 218domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
218</p> 219</p>
219 220
221<note>
222The <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file does not exist by default, so you might
223need to create it.
224</note>
225
220<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 226<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
221# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
222 228
223<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment> 229<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
224dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>" 230dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
242nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 248nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
243</pre> 249</pre>
244 250
245<note> 251<note>
246For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples 252For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
247provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge 253provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
254can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
248<c>openresolv</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup. 255to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
249</note> 256</note>
250 257
251</body> 258</body>
252</subsection> 259</subsection>
253<subsection> 260<subsection>
270<p> 277<p>
271All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 278All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
272a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 279a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
273networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 280networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
274commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 281commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
275<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 282<path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
276</p> 283</p>
277 284
278<p> 285<p>
279DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP 286DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
280client. This is described later in <uri 287client. This is described later in <uri
292<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 299<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
293# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 300# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
294</pre> 301</pre>
295 302
296<p> 303<p>
297You will see the following file:
298</p>
299
300<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
301# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
302# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
303# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
304# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
305</pre>
306
307<p>
308To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 304To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
309to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 305to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
310</p> 306</p>
307
308<note>
309This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
310very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
311the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
312the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
313<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
314</note>
311 315
312<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 316<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
313config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" 317config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
314routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1" 318routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
315</pre> 319</pre>
321<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 325<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
322config_eth0="dhcp" 326config_eth0="dhcp"
323</pre> 327</pre>
324 328
325<p> 329<p>
326Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 330Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
327options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if you need to set 331list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
328specific DHCP options. 332you need to set specific DHCP options.
329</p> 333</p>
330 334
331<p> 335<p>
332If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 336If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
333<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 337<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
354# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 358# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
355</pre> 359</pre>
356 360
357<p> 361<p>
358If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 362If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
359<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with 363<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
360<path>net.eth0</path>. 364</p>
365
361</p> 366<p>
367If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
368currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
369</p>
370
371<ol>
372<li>
373update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
374instead of eth0),
375</li>
376<li>
377create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
378</li>
379<li>
380remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
381</li>
382<li>
383add the new one to the default runlevel, and
384</li>
385<li>
386remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
387</li>
388</ol>
362 389
363</body> 390</body>
364</subsection> 391</subsection>
365<subsection> 392<subsection>
366<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 393<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
435<subsection> 462<subsection>
436<title>System Information</title> 463<title>System Information</title>
437<body> 464<body>
438 465
439<p> 466<p>
440Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 467Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
441Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 468and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
469the comments in the file.
442</p> 470</p>
443 471
444<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 472<pre caption="Configuring services">
445# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 473# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
446</pre> 474</pre>
447 475
448<p> 476<p>
449When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 477When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
450</p>
451
452<p>
453As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
454configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
455define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
456</p> 478</p>
457 479
458<p> 480<p>
459Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 481Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
460Edit it to configure your keyboard. 482Edit it to configure your keyboard.
486<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock"> 508<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
487# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i> 509# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
488</pre> 510</pre>
489 511
490<p> 512<p>
491If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 513If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
492to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 514to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
493</p> 515</p>
494 516
495<p> 517<p>
496You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
497<path>/etc/localtime</path> so that further upgrades of the
498<c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update <path>/etc/localtime</path>
499automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT timezone, you would add
500<c>TIMEZONE="GMT"</c>
501</p>
502
503<p>
504When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 518When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
505exit. 519exit.
506</p> 520</p>
507 521
508<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
509Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
510Tools</uri>.
511</p>
512
513</body> 522</body>
514</subsection> 523</subsection>
524
515<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"> 525<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
516<title>Configuring the Console</title> 526<title>Configuring the Console</title>
517<body> 527<body>
518 528
519<p> 529<p>

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