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3 3
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.98 2008/04/17 21:11:30 nightmorph Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.117 2013/01/02 19:16:07 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract> 11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed. 14proceed.
15</abstract> 15</abstract>
16 16
17<version>9.1</version> 17<version>23</version>
18<date>2008-04-17</date> 18<date>2013-01-03</date>
19 19
20<section> 20<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
92</p> 92</p>
93 93
94<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
97<path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
98filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99</p> 94<p>
100
101<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
102In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
103usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
104filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
105</p> 98</p>
106 99
107<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
108<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
109</pre> 102</pre>
110 103
111<p> 104<p>
112Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
113automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
116</p> 109</p>
117 110
118</body> 111</body>
119<body> 112<body>
120 113
121<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')"> 114<p>
122Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
123your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
124for those too. 117for those too.
125</p> 118</p>
126 119
127<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
128Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
129<path>/proc/openprom</path>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
130you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
131</p>
132
133<p> 120<p>
134Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
135</p> 122</p>
136 123
137<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
138<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
139/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
140/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
141
142/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
143</pre>
144
145<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
146<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
147/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
148/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
149 128
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre> 130</pre>
152 131
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'"> 132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
154<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
155/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
156/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
157 136
158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
159</pre> 138</pre>
163/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
164/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2 143/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
165/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2 144/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
166/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2 145/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
167 146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
168openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
169 149
170/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
171</pre> 151</pre>
172 152
173<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
174There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
175adapt the following example to your system.
176</note>
177
178<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"> 153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
179/dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
180/dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
181
182/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
183</pre>
184
185<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
186/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 155/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
187/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
188 157
189/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
190</pre> 159</pre>
223</p> 192</p>
224 193
225<pre caption="Setting the host name"> 194<pre caption="Setting the host name">
226# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
227 196
228<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 197<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
229HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 198hostname="<i>tux</i>"
230</pre> 199</pre>
231 200
232<p> 201<p>
233Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. 202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
234You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you 203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
261nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
262</pre> 231</pre>
263 232
264<note> 233<note>
265For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples 234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
266provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge 235provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
236can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
267<c>openresolv</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup. 237to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
268</note> 238</note>
269 239
270</body> 240</body>
271</subsection> 241</subsection>
272<subsection> 242<subsection>
289<p> 259<p>
290All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 260All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
291a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 261a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
292networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 262networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
293commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 263commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
294<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 264<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
295</p> 265</p>
296 266
297<p> 267<p>
298DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP 268DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
299client. This is described later in <uri 269client. This is described later in <uri
317</p> 287</p>
318 288
319<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
320# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
321# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
322# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 292# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
323# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 293# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
324</pre> 294</pre>
325 295
326<p> 296<p>
327To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
328to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
329</p> 299</p>
330 300
331<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 301<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
332config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 302config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
333routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.0.1" ) 303routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
334</pre> 304</pre>
335 305
336<p> 306<p>
337To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 307To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
338<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
339</p> 308</p>
340 309
341<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 310<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
342config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 311config_eth0="dhcp"
343dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
344</pre> 312</pre>
345 313
346<p> 314<p>
347Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 315Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
348options. 316list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
317you need to set specific DHCP options.
349</p> 318</p>
350 319
351<p> 320<p>
352If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 321If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
353<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 322<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
367To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 336To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
368default runlevel. 337default runlevel.
369</p> 338</p>
370 339
371<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 340<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
341# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
342# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
372# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 343# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
373</pre> 344</pre>
374 345
375<p> 346<p>
376If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 347If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
377<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 348<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with
378use <c>ln</c> to do this: 349<path>net.eth0</path>.
379</p>
380
381<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
382# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
383# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
384# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
385</pre> 350</p>
386 351
387</body> 352</body>
388</subsection> 353</subsection>
389<subsection> 354<subsection>
390<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 355<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
459<subsection> 424<subsection>
460<title>System Information</title> 425<title>System Information</title>
461<body> 426<body>
462 427
463<p> 428<p>
464Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 429Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
465Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 430and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
431the comments in the file.
466</p> 432</p>
467 433
468<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 434<pre caption="Configuring services">
469# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 435# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
470</pre> 436</pre>
471 437
472<p> 438<p>
473When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 439When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
474</p>
475
476<p>
477As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
478configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
479define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
480</p> 440</p>
481 441
482<p> 442<p>
483Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 443Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
484Edit it to configure your keyboard. 444Edit it to configure your keyboard.
487<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 447<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
488# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 448# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
489</pre> 449</pre>
490 450
491<p> 451<p>
492Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 452Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
493<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 453<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
494</p> 454</p>
495 455
496<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 456<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
497PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 457PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
498keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
499set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
500</note> 458</note>
501 459
502<p> 460<p>
503When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 461When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
504exit. 462exit.
505</p> 463</p>
506 464
507<p> 465<p>
508Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 466Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
509according to your needs. 467according to your needs.
510</p> 468</p>
511 469
512<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 470<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
513# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 471# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
514</pre> 472</pre>
515 473
516<p> 474<p>
517If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 475If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
518to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 476to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
519</p> 477</p>
520 478
521<p> 479<p>
522You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
523<path>/etc/localtime</path> so that further upgrades of the
524<c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update <path>/etc/localtime</path>
525automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT timezone, you would add
526<c>TIMEZONE="GMT"</c>
527</p>
528
529<p>
530When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 480When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
531exit. 481exit.
482</p>
483
484</body>
485</subsection>
486
487<subsection>
488<title>Configure locales</title>
489<body>
490
491<p>
492You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
493specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
494</p>
495
496<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
497# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
498</pre>
499
500<p>
501The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
502German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
503</p>
504
505<pre caption="Specify your locales">
506en_US ISO-8859-1
507en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
508de_DE ISO-8859-1
509de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
510</pre>
511
512<note>
513You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
514</note>
515
516<warn>
517We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
518applications may require it.
519</warn>
520
521<p>
522The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
523have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
524</p>
525
526<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
527# <i>locale-gen</i>
528</pre>
529
530<p>
531Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
532in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
533</p>
534
535<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
536LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
537LC_COLLATE="C"
538</pre>
539
540<p>
541And reload your environment:
542</p>
543
544<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
545# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
546</pre>
547
548<p>
549We made a full <uri link="../guide-localization.xml#doc_chap3">Localization
550Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read our detailed
551<uri link="../utf-8.xml#doc_chap2">UTF-8 Guide</uri> for very specific
552informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
532</p> 553</p>
533 554
534<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 555<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
535Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 556Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
536Tools</uri>. 557Tools</uri>.

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